Vol. 35, March, 2011.


Hanan H. Beherei, *A. El-Magharby, M.S. Abdel-Aal

Physics Department, Science Faculty, Taif University, Taif State, KSA.

* Chemistry Department, Faculty Science, Taif University, Taif State, KSA.

Hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic has been used in tissue engineering and orthopedics for its good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. However, its clinical applications are usually limited by the low strength and brittleness. The objective of this research was to develop a new kind of HA – polymer composites in which multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were introduced to the HA ceramic – alginate polymer matrix to improve the mechanical properties of the resulting composites. In this study, we prepared nano-hydroxyapatite and nano-ZnO with multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)   as filler powders and their loading onto alginate polymeric matrix for improving their mechanical properties; bioactivities as well as their effect onto microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus bacteria were studied. Nano-composite of nano-hydroxyapatite, multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nano- zinc oxide will be prepared with polymer (Alginate). Microstructure characterization and morphology analysis on the nano-structured composites will be conducted using scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), pore analysis and fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) before and after in- Vitro test. The bone-bonding ability (bioactivity test in vitro) of nano-composites will be evaluated by examining the ability of apatite to form on its surface in a simulated body fluid (SBF) with ion concentrations nearly equal to those of human blood plasma. However, the validity of this method for evaluating bone-bonding ability will be assessed systematically. It was concluded that examination of apatite formation on a material in SBF is useful for predicting the in vivo bone bioactivity of a material. The results showed that nano- filler powders/alginate composites containing MWCNT with ZnO had high ability effect onto Staphylococcus aureus compared to other composites. The in-vitro study confirmed the formation of apatite layer onto the surface of alginate polymeric matrix and its composites with MWCNT proving the vital role of alginate to precipitate the ions of calcium and phosphate onto the composite and surface. The conclusions show that MWCNT /alginate composite had ability to induce the bone-like apatite layer anti-bacterial properties especially those containing zinc oxide and they have high mechanical properties due to MWCNT. Therefore, these bio-composites are promising to be used as bone grafting, in tissue engineering as scaffolds and antibacterial applications.




Hanan H. Beherei, Nagy M. Khalil* and Mohamd Ramadan**

Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif State, KSA.

*, ** Chemistry Dept., Faculty of Science, Sebha University, Sebha, Libya.

Hydroxyapatite closely resemble in chemical composition, bones. Therefore it used as bon graft. those found in vivo in human Hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic powder was prepared via wet chemical precipitation method through stepwise addition of 0.1N calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO3)2.4H2O) to 0.06N of dihydrogen ammonium phosphate (NH4H2PO4) and Ca /P ratio is 1.67 at pH over 11, with digestion at different times ; 18, 20, 22, 28 and 36 hours, and firing for 90 minutes at 1050 °C. The obtained powder was investigated using FT-IR, and XRD. 20 hrs of digestion time was considered as the optimum condition for preparation of relatively higher content of pure hydroxyapatite ceramic powder.



Nermien Z. Ahmed

Dept. of Molecular Drug Evaluation; National Organization for Drug Control & Research "NODCAR";

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different flavonoids such as: Quercetin, Rutin, Catechin, Gallic acid, Silymarin, Naringenin, Flavone, and Hisperetin by three concentrations "25, 50, and 100 μM/L" on the four markers lysosomal enzymatic activities in rat liver in-vitro. These enzymes are: Acid phosphatase "ACP"; β-galactosidase "β-GAL"; β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase "β-NAG", and β-GLU. Liver lysosomes were isolated by ultra cooling centrifugation at different speeds. The total activities and the release of the lysosomal enzymes were performed. The results revealed that the enzyme release of the four lysosomal enzymes appeared to significantly decrease (P<0.05) as compared to control under the effect of the three concentrations of each compound by different percentage values of inhibition. The protective effect of each flavonoid under investigation varied according to the concentration and the type of enzyme. It was observed that the low dose of each antioxidant compound exerted a highly percentage inhibition on the release of each lysosomal enzyme, while the high dose revealed a less inhibitory effect on the membrane permeability. This stabilizing effect was dose dependent. The medium concentration appeared to be moderate inhibitory effect. Also, the enzyme activity varied according to test-compared; Quercetin and Rutin which appeared to be more potent on the activities of β-GLU, β-GAL then β-NAG and ACP, while Catechin and Gallic acid were more potent on the activity of β-NAG and less potent on ACP activity. It was concluded that the most potent inhibitory effect was observed for Quercetin then Rutin and Silymarin and Naringenin, while the lowest inhibitory effect was observed for flavones and Hisperetin. As well as, this inhibitory effect on the lysosomal enzymes was dose and type-dependent.


Soluiman Araf, Manal Darwish*, Magda AbdElwadoud* and Manal Mokhtar*

Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo and *Ain Shams University, Egypt.

Objective: Corneal transplantation has become a very successful procedure due to advance in eye banking, corneal surgery and postoperative treatment. Corneal grafts are prone to complications which may appear trivial but may lead to corneal graft failure. Graft rejection is caused by an immune reaction directed against the forgein endothelial cells of the transplanted cornea. The second common cause of graft failure is suppurative keratitis. Patients with corneal grafts are at increased risk of corneal infection because they have reduced corneal sensation and are often on long term topical steroids. Methods: Seven hundred sixty eight (768) eyes were enrolled in the study, 429 males and 339 females in the duration between April 2008 and March 2009 in Magrabi hospital because of keratoconus, Alphakic bullous keratoplasty, post trauma, corneal opacity, adherent leucoma, corneal dystrophies, regraft and post lasik .All patients underwent complete preoperative evaluation. The entire donor corneas were free of stromal scarring or epithelial defect. Corneal scraping from the donor corneal remnants and recipients corneal buttons from patients showing corneal transplant rejection were taken for microbiological examination and parts of the material were preserved in a clot tube at -80oC for polymerase chain reaction for herpes simplex virus diagnosis. Antibiotic sensitivity was done for each isolated organism. Results: Out of 768 eyes underwent corneal graft transplantation, fourteen cases (1.8%), developed post penetrating microbial keratitis. Most of the infection occurred in extreme of ages. Microbial keratitis was restricted in eleven patients (78.57%) at the suture site, two patients progress to severe infection (14.28%) ended by endopthalmitis and one eye (7.14%) developed irreversible rejection episode. The most frequent isolated organism was coagulase negative Staphylococcus. It was isolated from five out of fourteen cases 35.7%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus were 21.4% then Streptococcus pneumonia and Pseudomonas aerugunosia were isolated each from one case 7.14% and Fungi were isolated from two cases 14.28% one Candida albicans 7.14% and one Aspergillus fumigates 7.14%. Herpes simplex virus was the cause of infection in the two cases 14.28%.As regards the antibiotic sensitivity, we reported one case of Oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA), two cases of oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (ORSE). Conclusion: Corneal graft infection is considered an important risk factor to determine the outcome of optical penetrating keratoplasty.and the nature of the microorganism isolated from the graft is important for the clinicians to treat .The microbiologist has to be fully awarded by the different types of graft infection bacterial, viral and fungal and their incidence of occurrence in the corneal graft. As well as close observation is mandatory to all patients with corneal graft infection to preserve the graft.


Abd-Elhaleem I. El-Assassy, Boushra M. El-Houssieny*, Randa T. Abd-Elreheem, Hayam M. Hamouda** and Amina S. Abd-Elsamiaa*.

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University.

*Department of Pharmaceutics, **Department of Microbiology, National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR)., Giza, Egypt.

Different oils with penetration enhancing properties and antibacterial activity namely: Isopropyl Myristate (IPM), Jojoba oil, Eucalyptus oil, Triacetin and Vulgaris orginium oil, as well as different surfactants namely: Tween 80, Brij 96, 30, 92 and Pluronic L64 were assessed in different concentrations for the development of pharmaceutically acceptable, stable, non irritant topical microemulsion (ME) benefiting from the inherent characteristics of these systems such as low consistency, transparency, thermodynamic stability and the potential to increase the release as well as the antibacterial activity of the drug (Levofloxacin) . Drug solubility, pH, droplet size, rheological behavior and the apparent viscosity values as well as in- vitro drug release in phosphate buffer pH 5.8: Ethanol (1:1) were performed. The antibacterial activity of the best three formulae (F5, F11 and F12) was tested against gram +ve and gram-ve bacteria compared with standard of levofloxacin. Long term stability study on the best released systems was achieved after storage for 12 months on shelf at ambient temperature as well as accelerated stability by centrifugation. Results of the in-vitro drug study showed that the highest values from systems were as follows: (F5) Eucalyptus oil: Tween 80: Ethanol (5:40: 5) and 50 % water. (F11) Eucalyptus oil: Tween 80: Ethanol (10:20:20) and 50% water. (F12) Eucalyptus oil: Tween 80: Ethanol (5:22.5:22.5) and 50% water. The rheological behavior of all of the prepared systems showed Newtonian flow behavior. Also, the antibacterial activity of the new preparations of levofloxacin, especially formula (12) exhibited a superior effect against the four tested bacteria followed by formula (11) then formula (5). Moreover the stability study revealed no significant difference between the flow behavior before and after storage for the best three formulae. Therefore, the microemulsion proved to be excellent vehicle for topical delivery of Levofloxacin and formula (F12) proved to be   the best of all.




Layla A. H. Al-Shareef

Faculty of Science for Girls, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is widely distributed all over the world and causes great damage to many crops. It spreads in Saudi Arabia especially in greenhouses. Thus, in this study the population dynamic of the whitefly on six varieties of vegetable plants (cantaloupe, cucumbers, zucchini, eggplant, tomatoes and sweet pepper) was studied in greenhouse, by using yellow sticky traps to collect the adult B. tabaci during one year including four seasons (autumn, winter, spring and summer) to determine outbreak time of B. tabaci and the host plant that prefers. The results showed that the highest mean number of adult whitefly is on cantaloupe, whereas sweet pepper had the lowest population of this insect. Presence of B. tabaci is more significant in autumn than other seasons. Furthermore, the highest population density of B. tabaci is present on north traps in greenhouse.




Amira M. Mohamed, Abd El-Gawad H. Abd El-Gawad, Thanaa Borg and

Mohamed H. El-Shaboury

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Mansoura University.

The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize co-ground mixtures of water insoluble non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin (IMC), with different types of hydrophilic polymers such as chitosan, polyvinylpyrrolidone k25 (PVP-k25) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) as a trial for enhancing the dissolution rate of the drug. The co-ground mixtures were prepared using ball mill and vibrational mill at 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 drug to polymer ratios in comparison with those prepared by kneading technique or physical mixtures. Powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) andFourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to evaluate the physical state of the drug in these mixtures. Furthermore, the solubility and the dissolution rate of the drug in different systems were carried out at three different pHs 1.2, 5 and 6.8. The obtained results of the PXRD showed that, the crystalline state in all co-ground mixtures of IMC with the polymers compeletly disappeared especially in case of higher ratio (1:5) of the utilized polymers.The DSC thermograms showed the significant change in melting peak of the IMC when prepared as co-ground mixtures, suggesting the change in crystallinity of IMC. The dissolution rate of IMC at pHs 1.2, 5 and 6.8 was markedly increased when the drug was co-grind with these polymers than that of physical mixtures (PMs) or the drug alone. Moreover, the solubility and dissolution rate of IMC was increased as the ratio of the polymer increased .Chitosan co-ground mixtures showed the highest rate of drug release. On the other hand, HPMC co-ground mixtures showed the lowest rate of drug release.The bioavailability of IMC from its binary mixture with chitosan (1:5) and the ternary mixture with PVP-HPMC (1:5), in comparison with the drug alone, were tested on healthy male volunteers. The relative bioavilabilty of IMC from chitosan and from PVP-HPMC co-ground mixtures was increased by about 177.71% and 70.22%, respectively. The Cmax of IMC from these co-ground mixtures was also increased by about 1.99 fold and 1.24 fold, respectively.




Dalia A.M. El-Taher, Ebtehal El-Demerdash*, Azza A. Ali**,Farid M.A. Hamada**

Hospitals of Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

*Pharmacology & Toxicology Dept., Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

**Pharmacology & Toxicology Dept., Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

Anthracyclines are broad spectrum anticancer drugs with dose dependent cardiotoxicity. Malnutrition involving protein deficiency, which commonly occurs in cancer patients receiving anthracyclines treatment, is considered to be a risk factor for the development of cardiotoxicity. Since protein malnutrition (PMN) has been shown to impair drug metabolism, PMN may induce an alteration in anthracyclines pharmacokinetics and disposition and so their cardiotoxicity risk.The present study was designed to assess the modulatory effect of PMN on the pharmacokinetics and drug disposition properties of a single dose of Doxorubicin (Dox) and Epirubicin (Epi) and how these possible changes will affect the degree of cardiotoxicity of these drugs. A single interperitoneal dose of 15mg/kg of either Dox or Epi was injected to rats fed with either normal protein diet or low protein diet. The plasma concentration-time profile of Dox and Epi and their concentration in different tissues were determined. Serum creatine kinase (CK) level was determined at different time intervals and histopathological examination of heart tissue was done. PMN significantly altered pharmacokinetics of Dox and Epi with a significant decrease in their elimination and prolonged the exposure of the heart to these drugs. Histopathological examination and serum creatine kinase measurements supported the role of PMN in enhancement of anthracyclines cardiotoxicity. If similar alteration in anthracyclines pharmacokinetics occurs in malnourished cancer patients, anthracyclines dose adjustment is required in nutritionally deprived patients.




Mohsen I. Afouna

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

In the current study the effect of different concentrations of Terpinen-4-ol on solubility and delivery of Timolol maleate (TM) across hairless mice skin has been evaluated. Method. Excess of R-, S-, or racemate- TM were added to phosphate buffer and ethanol (3:2) using different concentrations of Terpinen-4-ol. The samples were agitated, centrifuged and filtered diluted, and analyzed by HPLC at UV 294nm. Preparations containing 0.5% solutions of S-TM, R-TM, and racemate with various concentrations of Terpinen-4-ol were used for transdermal study. Results. Terpinen-4-ol significantly enhances the solubility of all forms of TM in a concentration dependent manner. In the permeation studies, presence of Terpinen-4-ol significantly and preferentially enhances the flux values of individual enantiomers and racemate. Conclusion. The solubilities of the TM in test formulations were found to be a function of the added Terpinen-4-ol concentration. Moreover, addition of Terpinen-4-ol has enhanced the transport of S-, R-TM enantiomers and that of racemate. For the test formulations, the overall permeability parameters of the S-TM were superior to those of the R-TM either as enantiomer or racemate.




Hatem S. Abbass, Saaid I. Kotb, Abd El-Salam I. Mohammed and Ehab A. Ragab

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University,

Cairo, Egypt

Five flavonoids; kaempferol [1], 7-methoxy kaempferol (Rhamnocitrin) [2], 7,3′-dimethoxy quercetin (Rhamnazin) [3], kaempferol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyran-osyl-(1→6)-β-D-galactopyranoside (kaempferol-3-O-rhamninoside) [4] and 7-methoxy kaempferol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-galactopyran-oside (Rhamnocitrin-3-O-rhamninoside or Cathrticin) [5], have been isolated and purified for the first time from the leaves of Ficus spragueana. All these constituents were identified by mass spectrometry, UV and NMR spectroscopy. The identification of the flavonoid glycosides was further confirmed through detection of their aglycones following hydrolysis of the samples. The anti-eczematic activity of the alcoholic extract, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were tested in management of the induced eczema in mice. All fractions under investigation showed good anti-eczematic activity. The ethyl acetate fraction appeared to be the most active one. Therefore, the anti-eczematic activity of the ethyl acetate fraction was tested in human volunteers.



Faten K. Abd El-Hady1, Seham El Hawary*, Kamel H. Shaker**, Nesma M. Salah1

Department of Chemistry of Natural Products, National Research Center, Egypt.

*Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo Univercity.

**Department of Chemistry of Natural compounds, National Research Center, Egypt.

In a search for the antioxidant principles from Egyptian propolis, four flavonoids were isolated; chrysin in a pure form and as major in a mixture with three other minor compounds (Acacetin, Kaempferol-3-methylether and Quercetin-3,3'-dimethylether ) and as minor in another mixture with acacetin as a major compound. Their structures were confirmed from HRESIMS and NMR measurements. Chrysin and the other two inseparable mixture exhibited significant antioxidant activity.




Soheir M. El Zalabani, Hesham El-Askary, Ola M. Mousa and Marwa Y. Moustafa

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Egypt.

A genetic and botanical study was carried out to assess the efficacy of the locally cultivated Swietenia mahogani (L.) Jacq. and Swietenia macrophylla King., as a source of potential medicines, in order to increase their propagation and aiming to establish the criteria required for discrimination and identification of the two species.




Sawsan A. Abdel Razeq, Fouad MM,   Yehya Nand Ashour A*

Analytical Chemistry Dept, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar and Misr-International* Universities, Cairo, Egypt.

Four simple and sensitive ­spectrophotometric methods for the determination of sparfloxacin were described. The first involved chelation of intact drug with iron (II) or nickel (II) to form yellow chelate picked at 411 or 385 nm, respectively. The second method measured the pH absorbance difference (DA) of the drug solution between 0.1M HCl and 0.1 M NaOH at 287 nm. The third one was based on the reaction of sparfloxacin with naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate in presence of K2HPO4 to give a reddish brown product measured at 490 nm. Finally, the forth method included coupling between the drug and dichloroquinone chlorimide to yield a red product exhibiting lmax 515 nm. A linear correlation was established between absorbance and concentration of the studied drug in the range of 25-150 or 25-100 mg mL–1 for chelation with the two metal ions, respectively, 4-50 mg mL–1 for DA method, 10-100 and 20-150 mg mL–1 for naphthoquinone and dichloroquinone chlorimide methods, respectively. The chelation and DA were found to be selective to determine the intact drug in presence of its decarboxylated degradate for up to 40- 50%, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of sparfloxacin in commercial tablets with mean recoveries of 98.21-101.17 + 0.79-1.42%. In addition, the methods were validated according to ICH guidelines.


14/35 Primary Metabolites of Astragalus trigonus var. leucacanthus

Seham S. El-Hawary, Inas A. Tolba*, Miriam F. Yousif and Rehab A. Lotfy *

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

*Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Department, Desert Research Center, Egypt.

Preliminary phytochemical screening of Astragalus trigonus var. leucacanthus revealed the presence of carbohydrates and / or glycosides, flavonoids, sterols and / or triterpenes, proteins and amino acids. The title plant was analyzed for its lipoidal, carbohydrate, and protein contents. GLC analysis of the saponifiable fraction of the n-hexane extract revealed that palmitoleic (22.64%), and oleic acids (17.85%) were the major unsaturated fatty acids; while stearic (19.72%) and palmitic (10. 07%) acids were the major saturated ones. In addition, β-sitosterol (22.06%) and stigmasterol (9.58%), as well as, a series of hydrocarbons were identified in the unsaponifiable fraction. Dodecane (16.50%) was the major hydrocarbon component in the unsaponifiable fraction. Investigation of the free sugar content and the polysaccharide hydrolysate was carried out by HPLC analysis. Eight free sugars were detected and identified, the major are: glucose, rhamnose, and sucrose. The polysaccharide hydrolysate afforded eight sugars. The major free and combined sugar was glucose (19.4%). Total amino acids amounted to (99.98 %), among which (55.22 %)were essential amino acids. Histidine (26.78%) was the major free amino acid and serine (15.4%), the major protein amino acid. It is noteworthy to mention that this is the first report referring to the constituents of Astragalus trigonus v. leucacanthus



Maha M Elmoghazy, Hamdallah Zedan* and Amal E. Ali*

Egyptian Company for Production of Vaccines, Sera and Drugs (Vacsera)

*Department of Microbiology and Immunology. Faculty of Pharmacy,

Cairo University

The quality of a pharmaceutical water purification system (WPS) at Egyptian Company for Production of Vaccines, Sera and Drugs (Vacsera), was evaluated through sampling, isolation and identification of microorganisms at different sampling points. Isolated microorganisms were Burkholderia cepacia (47.78 %), Pseudomonas fluroescens (23.89%), Ochrobacterum anthropi (8.84%), Campylobacter jeujeni (8.84%) and Ralstonia pickettii (10.61 %). Sampling points showing the highest bacterial recovery percentage were after softened point followed by after carbon bed filtration point.Six chemical agents (sodium hypochorite 0.5%, ethyl alcohol 70%, minncare 1% (association of peracetic acid 0.45% plus hydrogen peroxide 2.2%), hydrogen peroxide 2%, sodium hydroxide 0.4% and hydrochloric acid 0.5%) were assessed against both reference strains and pure and mixed isolates recovered from different sampling points with respect to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum biocidal concentration (MBC) and decimal reduction time (D value). The most efficient disinfectant against pure and mixed isolates was minncare 1% followed by hydrogen peroxide 2%, then sodium hydroxide 0.4%. Sodium hypochorite 0.5% and ethyl alcohol 70% showed moderate efficacy, whereas hydrochloric acid 0.5% showed the least efficacy. Minncare 1% exhibited D value of 5 min, 3 min, 1min, 0.66 min and 0.33 min for Campylobacter jeujeni, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Ochrobacterum anthropi, Ralstonia pickettii and Burkholderia cepacia respectively compared to D value of 7 min, 4 min and 3 min for Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and respectively.The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum biocidal concentration results of different disinfectants showed that Burkholderia cepacia was the most sensitive organism compared to the other isolates and reference microorganisms; while the most resistant one was Pseudomonas fluroescens.These results suggest the use of minncare 1% or hydrogen peroxide 2% in the disinfection process of industrial WPS.


Ayman S. Mohamed, Sherif K. Abu-Elyazid, Ahmed M. Samy and Alaa A. Kasem

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

Glafenine is one of the widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Its use is associated with frequent gastrointestinal disorders when taken orally. Hence the administration through other routes would be a beneficial alternative. The drug is practically insoluble in water and not available in the market in a topical formulation. So, the aim of this work was first to enhance the Glafenine aqueous solubility, then incorporating the drug in different topical formulations to avoid the adverse effects of oral administration. The effects of different carriers or carriers used with Glafenine as coprecipitates or as physical mixture on the aqueous solubility and the release of Glafenine were investigated. Seven carriers were used to prepare coprecipitaes, PVP K90 and PVP K30 in drug: carrier ratio of 1: 4 gave the highest drug solubility and release among the tested carriers at different drug: carrier ratios. These coprecipitate were incorporated into different ointment and gel bases in 1-10% concentration range. The preparations containing 1% drug concentration produced the best in-vitro release. Also the gel bases yield better release than ointment bases. Different kinetics orders were noted regarding the drug release. In studying rheological properties of the prepared topical Glafenine formulations, ointment bases exhibited plastic flow, whereas, the gel bases were pseudoplastic in nature. All of the ointment and gel bases showed thixotropic behavior. Concerning analysis of the obtained data, it was concluded that 1% Glafenine as PVP K90 coprecipitate in methyl cellulose gel showed characteristics and be subjected to further studies.  




Enas I. Shaarawy, Ahmed M. Megahed, Amal E. Ali* and Magdy A. Amin*

National Organization for Drug Control and Research

*Department of Microbiology and Immunology. Faculty of Pharmacy,

Cairo University

Among 82 clinical isolates of Enterococcus spp. recovered from different specimens collected from El-Demerdash public hospital, Cairo. Egypt, 30 were identified as vancomycin resistant enterococci, with MICs ranged from 8 to > 256 µg/ml. Ten isolates showed high- level vancomycin resistance (HLVR), of which seven were identified as Enterococcus faecium and three as Enterococcus faecalis. They were also multidrug- resistant and hence, presenting severe therapeutic challenge due to limited antibiotic choices. We tested the effectiveness of 5 antibiotic combinations by thefractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) method derived fromthe MICs of the agents in combination. The combinations of amikacin-meropenem, amikacin-teicoplanin, and rifampicin-tetracycline, showed synergy against the HLVR isolates. Bactericidal activity of these 3 antibiotic combinations was confirmed by the time- kill assay. In vivo efficacy of one of the most effective in vitro antibiotic combination(amikacin- meropenem) was demonstrated against one of the most HLVR isolate. These results recommend the use of one of these antibiotic combinations for treatment of infections caused by multi- drug HLVR enterococci.


Mona Ibrahim Abedel- Tawab El Assal

Military Medical Academy, Cairo, Egypt.

This study assessed the pharmacokinetics of Oseltamivir (an antiviral drug) in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis (HD) after administration of 30 mg oral suspension compared with drug pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers after administration of 75 mg oral capsules. Eighteen noninfected subjects enrolled in the study divided into tow groups, group 1, nine normal subjects {mean ± standard deviation age, 49.532 ±7.513 year; weight, 76.890 ± 6.850 kg} and group 2, nine patients with ESRD receiving long term thrice- weakly haemodialysis {mean ± standard deviation age, 54.541 ± 7.421 year; weight, 74.780 ± 4.270 kg} after the administration of a single oral dose. For haemodialysis patients the study was done inter-dialysis i.e. day off dialysis and intra-dialysis i.e. during dialysis in order to determine the degree of dializability of oseltamivir. Specific high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and standard pharmacokinetic calculations were used to calculate oseltamivir pharmacokinetic parameters. For healthy volunteers the peak plasma level Cmax averaged 115.996 ± 6.931 μg/ml and was obtained at 3.889 ± 0.782 hr; the absorption rate constant kab was 0.455 ± 0.263 h-1, the absorption half – life t½ab was 1.63 ± 0.621 hr. The elimination rate constant kel was 0.09 ± 0.027 h-1, the terminal half – life t ½el was 8.226 ± 2.179 hr. Area under the curve AUC 0-14 was 1056.818 ± 58.234 μg.h/ml and AUC 0- ∞ was 1520.096 ± 243.706 μg.h/ml, total clearance rate (TCR) was 0.905 ± 0.134 ml/min. In haemodialysis patients Cmax averaged 445.703 ± 37.102 μg /ml and was obtained at 26.222 ± 3.801 hr; kab was 0.055 ± 0.0131 h-1, t½ab was 13.209 ± 3.209 hr. kel was 0.043 ± 0.022 h-1, t ½el was 17.349 ± 8.146 hr. AUC 0-72 was 16945.691 ± 5703.569 μg.h/ml,and AUC 0-∞ was 20361.785 ± 7040.601 μg.h/ml, respectively, TCR was 0.066 ± 0.034 ml/min Some pharmacokinetic parameters during dialysis were determined as K el , t½el and volume of distribution (Vd), also% Extraction Fraction (EF) was calculated. Statistical analysis revealed that renal failure significantly alters each of peak plasma level and time to peak level. In renal failure patients there was significant increase in both AUC 0-72 and AUC 0-∞ at p<0.0001. Significant decrease in Kel reflecting increase in t½el, also significant decrease in Vd and TCR both at p<0.0001. Oseltamivir is a dialyzable drug and dosage adjustment in renal failure patients is essential.                                    


Nehal A. Abou Naja, Fatma A. Eid and Khadija Abdul jalil Fadladdeen*

Zoology Department, Faculty of Science (Girls), Al – Azhar University.

*Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, King Abd El-Aziz University, KSA.

Women are at greatest risk of suffering from depression during the childbearing years and thus may either become pregnant while taking an antidepressant or may require prescription for one during pregnancy.The antidepressant fluoxetine (FX) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) which increases serotonin neurotransmission. Numerous studies showed that fluoxetine is teratogenic, but rare researches are dealing with the histological or histochemical changes in the fetal organs. This study aimed to investigate the possible histopathological and histochemical changes in oesophagus,stomach and ileum of fetuses maternally treated with Prozac with 3 different doses(0.72&1.44&2.88 mg/kg b.wt.).Mature male and virgin female albino rats of pure strain (Rattus norvegicus) ranging from 220-280 gm were used. Males were used only for mating. Pregnant rats were categorized into the following groups: Group (1): control group. Group (2): 10 pregnant rats treated daily with 0.72 mg/kg. b.wt. Prozac (T1) (treatment started one month before pregnancy and continued till day 19 of gestation).Group (3): 10 pregnant rats treated daily with 1.44 mg/kg. b.wt. (T2). Group (4): 10 pregnant rats treated daily with 2.88 mg/kg. b.wt. Prozac (T3). Pregnant mothers from all groups were sacrificed on day 19 of gestation and small pieces of fetal oesophagus,stomach and ileum were taken for the histological and histochemical studies. Many quantitative and qualitative changes were observed in fetal oesophagus,stomach and ileum of all the treated groups compared with control ones. The severity of these changes increased with increasing the doses.Conclusion: Maternally Prozac treatment caused dystrophic changes in the fetal oesophagus,stomach and ileum.The use of this drug during pregnancy should be under medical supervision due to the fetal complications observed in the present study.

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