Vol. 36, July, 2011.

1/36 ELECTROPHERETIC STUDY OF OVARIAN PROTEIN AND AMINO ACID IN THE MOSQUITO CULEX PIPIENS L. (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) AS INFLUENCED BY SOME HEAVY METAL IONS

Mostafa I. Hassan, Mohamad A. Fouda, Tarek M.Y. El-Sheikh,Abd-Elhamed A. Abd-Elghaphar and Ahmed I. Hasaballah

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science (boys), Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

The present biochemical study was carried out in adult females of C. pipiens after treatment of the 2nd instar larvae with the LC50s (0.11, 5.1, 45.4 and 0.44 ppm) of each of the heavy metal salts: cadmium chloride (cd), copper sulphate (Cu), lead nitrate (Pb) and mercuric nitrate (Hg). Results revealed a significant decrease in the total protein content of female ovaries induced by Cd, while Cu induced a significant increase in the total protein content. The number of ovarian protein bands was variable among untreated and heavy metal-treated females, where it varied between 18 to 24 bands for treated females compared to 23 bands for control. The lowest number of protein bands (18) was recorded in ovaries of Cu-treated females. The number of protein bands of high molecular weights (which can be suggested to be vitellogenin) was 9 in ovaries of untreated females and 8, 7, 11 and 6 in ovaries of Cd, Cu-, Pb- and Hg-treated females. The results obtained recorded 17 and 16 different amino acids in Cu- and Pb-treated ovaries; respectively, while this number was reduced to 15 different amino acids in Cd- and Hg-treated females (compared to 16 in the control). Arginine was found as the highest concentration followed by aspartic acid or glycine in all experimental groups except in Hg-treated group. On the other hand, the free amino acids: proline, isoleucine, therionine, lysine and tyrosine appeared in lower concentrations in all experimental groups.

2/36 REPRODUCTIVE AND REPELLENT EFFECTS OF LEAF AND STEM EXTRACTS FROM CUPRESSUS SEMPREVIRENS (CUPRESSACEAE) ON THE MOSQUITO CULEX PIPIENS L. (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE)

Mostafa I. Hassan, Mouneer S. Amer, Tarek M. Y. EL-Sheikh,Walaa A. Moselhy* and Ahmed Z. Shehata

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science (Boys and Girls*), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Ethanolic, acetone and petroleum ether extracts of leaves and stems from the Egyptian plant Cupressus sempervirens (Cupressaceae) were tested against the mosquito Culex pipiens L. under laboratory conditions.All extracts exhibited remarkable effects on the fecundity of adult females but only the acetone leaf-extract affected the early stage in the life cycle of C. pipiens since the percentage of hatching was reduced. The growth index also decreased significantly. The repellent action of the present plant extracts varied depending on the plant parts, solvent and the dose. The most effective plant extract (100 % repellency or biting deterrency) was the petroleum ether leave-extract at a dose of 1.5 mg/cm2 (as compared with the ethanol and acetone extractions) but exerted the same repellency percent compared with commercial formulation, N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide (DEET) at the lower dose. These extracts acted as ovicidal, repellent and antifeedant materials against the mosquito vector, C. pipiens. Therefore, these extracts, especially the petroleum ether extract, would be used as mosquito repellents for an effective personal protection measure.

3/36 STUDY OF DRUG-POLYMER COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS AND CERTAIN WATER-SOLUBLE ANTI-ANAEMIC DRUGS

Mohamed Aly Kassem, Mona Ibrahim Abedel-Tawab El Assal* and

Aly Al-Saeed Al-Badrawy**

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

*Military Medical Academy, Cairo, Egypt.

**Pharmacist in Army Medical Services

Sustained release (SR) drug delivery system significantly improve therapeutic efficacy of a drug. Drug release retarding polymers are the key performer in such systems. Much of the development in SR drug delivery systems is focusing on the preparation technique and the use of polymers with specificity designed macroscopic and microscopic structural and chemical features. Number of natural, semi synthetic and synthetic polymeric materials are used in the controlled delivery of drugs. Recent trend towards the use of vegetable and nontoxic products demands the replacement of synthetic additives with natural one. The natural materials have been extensively used in the field of drug delivery for their easy availability, cost effectiveness, potentially degradable and compatible due to natural origin. The objectives of this study are to investigate possible interactions between certain water soluble drugs (ferrous sulphate, ferrous fumarate) and certain biodegradable polymers (sodium alginate, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose) to examine the effect of drug-polymer interactions on the in-vitro release behavior. Drug-polymer blend films were prepared by solvent casting method and examined by DSC and FTIR to characterize the nature of possible drug-polymer interactions then the drug release from the blend films was studied at 37 ˚C under agitation. This preliminary study shows that there are low possibility of interactions between drugs and polymers. Release study shows also that the amount of drug released was about 92-97 % for both drugs from polymer films which indicates that the drugs are released from polymers films without changing in the drug chemical nature.

4/36 INTERFERON LAMBDA; A RISK FACTOR IN ASTHMATIC CHILDREN

Fatma A El-Nokaly, Hala M T El-Mougy and Sonia K Ahmed*

Departments of Medical Biochemistry and Pediatrics*, Faculty of Medicine (Girls), Al-Azhar University

Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood. The major asthma morbidity and mortality, is a result of acute exacerbations. The majority of acute asthma exacerbations are associated with respiratory viral infections approximately 60% are human rhinoviruses. The first line of defense against viral infections is mediated by interferons e.g. type III interferon Lambda (IFN-λ or IL-28/29) which has a potent antiviral role in cases of asthma and asthma exacerbations. The aim of this study wasto evaluate the levels of interferon lambda and immunoglobulin-E in the serum during asthmatic exacerbation and in between the attacks compared to control and to correlate between their levels. The study was conducted on 50 asthmatic boys their age ranged from 3-11 years old, and on 30 healthy children as controls. Samples were taken from   patients during acute attack of asthma, and after receiving treatment for almost 2 months during completely free period of symptoms (stable asthma). All groups were investigated for serum interferon Lambda level and serum total IgE level. It was found that serum IFN-λ significantly increased in asthmatic relative to normal subjects and decreased in stable asthmatics in relation to control subjects. As regard serum IgE level, it was significantly increased in acute attack and in stable asthma compared to control, and the level of serum IgE in acute attack was found to be higher than that in stable asthma.It was concluded thatINF-λ could have an immunoprotective role in the lower airways, and its administration may be an approach in treatment or prevention of asthmatic exacerbations.

5/36 PRENATAL EFFECT OF ADMINISTRATION OF MAXIPIME DRUG ON THE DEVELOPING TESTIS AND KIDNEY OF RAT EMBRYOS

Badria Fathy Abd-El-Majid, Eman Badawy Abd-El-Fattah*and

Fatmah Ayash Jabber

Girls College of Science in Jeddah-King Abdul-Aziz University

*Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine for Girls Al-Azhar University

The most common cause of death in world is infectious diseases that kill more than 10 million persons each year. For that, the aim of this work was done to study the effect of cefepime (Maxipime) one of the fourth generation of the cephalosporin antibiotics which are currently among the most widely prescribed in hospitals. Maxipime was injected intraperitoneal for 7 repeated doses in 2ndweek of gestation each dose is 0.07/mg/rat. To get an idea about the extent of the teratogenic effects of this drug on the developing testis and kidney. The drug inducesmalformation changes, retardation of growth and delayed development in both organs at the 20th day of gestation. There are decrease in the density of the testicular follicles and renal corpuscles. The supporting and gonocyte cells are few in number and degenerated. In the kidney, there is shrinkage and atrophy of the renal glomeruli with detachment of the outer layer of Bowman's capsule.

6/36 SERUM CYSTATIN C IN DIABETIC CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

Nabil G. Mohammed, Sawsan M. El-Bana, Sahar M. Abo El Euoon*

and Doaa M. Fawy

Department of Pediatrics and Microbiology and Immunology*, Faculty of Medicine, El-Mania University, Egypt.

Diabetic nephropathy is one of the long- term complications of diabetes mellitus and the   second most common cause of end stage renal disease (after glomerulonephritis). Diabetic   nephropathy is also associated with premature death, generally due to associated macro vascular disease.Cystatin C, a low molecular weight protein, freely filtered through the glomerulus and almost completely reabsorbed and catabolized by tubular cells, has been proposed as a new and very sensitive serum marker of change in glomerular filtration rate (GFR).Cystatin C could be a replacement to serum creatinine for diagnosing and monitoring of kidney function in children. Patients and methods: The present study was carried upon 130 diabetic patients and 50 apparently healthy children. All the groups were subjected to history taking, clinical examination and laboratory investigations in the form of random blood sugar, GFR, Serum cystatin C, renal function tests and albumin to creatinine ratio. Results: There were statistical significant differences between the two studied groups as regard serum cystatin C level. Through the comparison between the two groups we found that there were significant statistical differences between the two groups which support that serum cystatin C level is a good endogenous marker for GFR. By studying the sensitivity of serum cystatin C level and serum creatinine level we found that cystatin C is more sensitive marker than serum creatinine for early changes in GFR. Moreover we found that there were no significant statistical correlations between the serum cystatin C level and the albumin to creatinine ratio in the studied groups.

7/36 EFFECT OF FORMULATION VARIABLES ON TENOXICAM ENCAPSULATION AND RELEASE FROM NIOSOMES

Omaima A. Sammour, Maha A. Marzouk*, Afaf A. Ramadan* and

Seham M. Shawky*

Department of Drug Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain-Shams University,

*Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy (Girls), Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

Tenoxicam, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug was formulated into Tenoxicam-entrapped niosomes. Niosomes were prepared with a series of sorbitan monoesters (Span 20, Span 40, Span 60, and Span 80) and a sorbitan tri-oleate (Span 85) with or without cholesterol (Chol) and charged lipids like stearylamine (SA) or dicetyl phosphate (DCP). The prepared niosomes were evaluated and the effect of variables like type of surfactant, cholesterol content, hydration time, incorporation of charge inducing agents, total lipid concentration, drug concentration and incorporation of co-surfactants on the entrapment efficiency and drug release were investigated. Niosomes prepared from Span 40 and cholesterol in molar ratio (50:50) showed the best results dealing with the highest entrapment efficiency and the slowest release rate compared with other types of Spans. Niosomes prepared from Span 40, Tween 40 (co-surfactant) and cholesterol in molar ratio (25:25:50) exhibited the highest entrapment efficiency and the slowest release rate compared with other types of Tweens. Hence, these formulations were used for further studiesas topical gels which could be used as an alternative to oral route.

8/36 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SERUM LEPTIN LEVELS, MALNUTRITION AND HAEMODIALYSIS IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASES

NohaFawzy, Saneya Abd- El Halim, SoheirMaklad*, AhmedMora** and MohamedGamal***

Pediatric and *Microbiology Departments, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University, **Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciense for Boys, Al-Azhar University and ***Pediatric Department, Ain Shams University.

This study evaluated the possible relationship between serum leptin levels, malnutrition and haemodialysis (HD) in children with chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Two groups of patients with chronic renal failure for 1-14 years, and aged 2-18 years were included: Group I; 20 patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) on regular haemodialysis therapy for more than one year and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <15 ml/min/1.73 m2. Group II included 20 patients with CKD (Stage 1-4), on conservative therapy, their GFR were >15 ml/min/1.73 m2 . The study also comprised 20 age and sex matched healthy children; Group III. Serum leptin level measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was correlated with anthropometric and biochemical parameters of malnutrition as well as HD. All children with CKD showed insignificant differences in all parameters of malnutrition (weight, height, body mass index and serum leptin levels) except mid-arm circumference and triceps skin fold thickness, total protein and albumin which were significantly lower in patient groups than controls. In addition, insignificant differences were detected in serum leptin levels between females and males or pre and postdialysis. The current study does not find any correlation between leptin and other parameters andsupports the previous studies that suggested serum leptin does not have relationship with malnutrition and dialysis in children with chronic renal failure.

9/36 CARDIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF THYMOQUINONE AGAINST ISOPRENALINE-INDUCED MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN RATS

Amira M. Badr, Amany E. Khalifa, Ebtehal El-Demerdash, Aasser I. Ghoneim and Zeinab M. El-Maadawi*

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

*Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Mortality associated with acute myocardial infarction (MI) is still a leading cause of death in both developing and developed countries. Increasing evidences demonstrate that oxidative stress plays an important role in experimental models of MI. Thymoquinone, the main volatile oil constituent of Nigella sativa seed, is reported to possess strong antioxidant properties. The protective effect of thymoquinone on myocardium was investigated during isoprenaline (ISO)-induced MI in an animal model. Firstly, the effect of a single dose of thymoquinone (10 mg/kg, I.P.) on ISO (250 mg/kg, s.c.) - induced MI was investigated. Image analysis was carried out and levels of diagnostic marker enzymes in plasma, cardiac glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxides were measured. Injection of ISO caused significant animal mortality (46%), 60% infarction size, GSH, and increased levels of diagnostic marker enzymes in plasma and lipid peroxidation in heart tissue. Administration of thymoquinone significantly prevented ISO-induced adverse effects, reduced mortality to 15% and maintained myocardial antioxidant status at near normal status. Secondly, the effect of daily administration of thymoquinone (1mg/kg p.o.) for 2 weeks started 24 hours following ISO injection (250 mg/kg s.c.) was investigated. Tissue pathology, heart weight, collagen content, and serum TNF-α were assessed. ISO induced focal area of fibrosis, increased heart weight, increased collagen content, but didn’t affect TNF-α level. Thymoquinone didn’t show any significant difference from ISO group. Thus, the study results demonstrate the cardioprotective potential of thymoquinone against ISO-induced myocardial infarction during acute stage, with no observable effects of thymoquinone on post-infarction remodeling.

10/36 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BUFLOMEDIL FAST SOLUBLE TABLETS

Hatem A. Barakat, *Mahmoud Abdelghany, *Hanaa Elghamry and

** Mohammed Elnabrawi

Research and Development Sector, El Kahira Pharma for Chemical and Pharmaceutical Industries, Cairo, Egypt

* Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University

** Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University

Buflomedil hydrochloride is a vasodilating agent; it seems to improve nutritional blood flow in ischemic tissue of patients with peripheral and/or cerebral vascular disease. The purpose of this research was to develop oral fast soluble tablets of buflomedil. Tablet containing different fillers (lactose fast flow, lactose monohydrate, and mannitol), two types of disintegrants used for fast disintegration at different two concentrations (croscarmellose, sodium starch glycolate, pregelatinized starch, and Avecil PH101), different binders at different two concentrations (PVP K25, PVP K30, PVP K90), talc powder as lubricant, and buflomedil hydrochloride (150 mg / tablet) were used in this study. Three different methods were selected for preparing buflomedil hydrochloride fast soluble tablets; these methods are direct compression method (DCM), blister tablet method (BTM), and freeze drying method (FDM). Quality control tests were done for all tablet formulae (assay, weight variation, disintegration time in 3 mL simulated saliva fluid (SSF), friability, and hardness), in-vitro study was done in SSF (pH= 6.8). The DSC, FT-IR scanning, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and accelerated stability study were done for selected formulae. The in-vivo study was done for F# 7 and F# 20 in comparison to loftyl® tablet as standard. The results of this study, all quality control tests complies with BP 2009 requirements, DSC and FT-IR showing no interaction between buflomedil hydrochloride and all excipients, SEM showing that F# 20 having high porous surface. The accelerated stability study shows that F# 20 is the most stable formula. The in-vivo study shows that F# 20 having Cpmax = 0.9910 µg / mL, Tmax= 1.33 hours, t1/2= 3.04 ± 0.276 hours and AUC (0-)= 5.84 µg.hr / mL. The most preferred formula is F# 20 prepared by FDM.


11/36 THE CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF SERUM SOLUBLE FAS AND P53 IN BREAST CANCER PATIENTS: COMPARISON WITH SERUM CA 15-3.

Taha Ismail Hewala, Nadia Ahmad Abd El-Moneim*, Medhat M. Anwar** and Samia Abd El-Moneim Ebied***

Departments of Radiation Sciences, *Cancer Management and Research,**Experimental and Clinical Surgeryand ***Applied Medical Chemistry,

Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Egypt

Serum sFas and p53 protein have been observed in breast cancer patients, but their clinical usefulness for diagnosis and therapy monitoring has not been clarified. This study was carried out to compare the clinical utility of serum sFas and p53 protein with that of serum CA 15-3 as the most commonly used breast cancer tumor marker. In this study, serum samples were taken from 35 normal healthy controls and 35 breast cancer patients before surgery, after two weeks of surgery and after six cycles of FAC chemotherapy. Serum sFas and p53 protein levels were measured using ELISA kits. Serum CA 15-3 levels were determined using IRMA kit. The results of our study demonstrated that the meanserum levels of sFas and CA 15-3 were significantly elevated while p53 protein was significantly declined in breast caner patients than controls. Serum p53 protein showed the greatest significant area under the ROC curve (84.3%) followed by sFas (80.5%), then CA 15-3 (78%). The sensitivity, specificity and cut-off value for diagnosing breast cancer patients were 84.2%, 82.6% and 2.88 U/ml for p53 protein, 83.3%, 68.2% and 497.3 pg/ml for sFas and 45.8%, 100% and 23 U/ml for CA15-3. Surgical removal of breast resulted in a significant decline in serum sFas level with no effect on serum p53 protein and CA 15-3 levels. Six cycles of chemotherapy resulted in a significant elevation in serum sFas level with no effect on serum p53 protein and CA 15-3 levels. sFas was significantly correlated with tumor grade. It could be concluded that although serum p53 protein is superior to sFas and CA15-3 for diagnosis of breast cancer patients, only sFas is useful for monitoring the response of breast cancer patients to surgery and chemotherapy if the effect of systemic inflammatory reactions is excluded.

12/36 ROLE OF INTERLEUKIN-18 IN OBESITY, INSULIN RESISTANCE, AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE AMONG TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS

Ola Sayed Ali,Mohamed Shouman*,Ibrahim Emara* and Doha Ellakwa

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (Girls), Al-Azhar University.

*Internal medicine and 3Biochemistry Departments, National Institute for

Diabetes and Endocrinology

The present study aims to investigate the role of Interleukin-18 (IL-18), obesity, insulin resistance in CVD for patients with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM). The analysis was performed on forty type 2 diabetic patients (18 patients with cardiovascular complication and 22 patients without cardiovascular complication). Sixteen apparently healthy subjects matching the same age and socioeconomic status were taken as a control group. Clinical measure and biochemical parameters were studied to assess the association of Interleukin-18 with in type 2 DM. The mean serum of IL-18 was significantly higher in the diabetic group with CVD than in the control group. Also, when compared with the mean serum of IL-18 in the diabetic group without CVD. A significant positive correlation between IL-18 and each of fasting blood glucose (FBG), cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), body mass index (BMI) and C-reactive protein (CRP), insulin and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) in both diabetic patients groups. While there was a significant negative correlation between IL-18 and high density lipoprotein (HDL- Cholesterol) in both diabetic patients groups.

13/36 CYTOGENETIC AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF CLEOME DROSERIFOLIA PLANT EXTRACT FROM SINAI ON WHITE RATS

Nahed Mohamed Mansour Emam

Biological and Geological Department, Faculty of Education,

Suez Canal University, Ismailia Egypt.

Sinai regions are characterized by the presence of large number of medicinal plants that are highly used in folk treatments. Cleome droserifolia plant belonging to family Cleomacea or Capparaceae has long been traditionally used as a medicinal plant in Sinai for treatment of many diseases. However, very little data are available on the toxicity of the plant. The present study aims to elucidate the effects of Cleome droserifolia plant on the cytogenetic and some biochemical changes in rats treated orally with the plant extract for three different periods. Various types of chromosomal aberrations and slight changes of mitotic indices were noted in bone marrow cells after plant treatment. Administration of the extract also resulted in reduction in the DNA content of the liver and brain tissues in addition to reduction in serum total proteins. Also the blood serum proteins in electropheratic pattern revealed some significant or highly significant changes in the concentration of most regions of separated proteins especially with 30 and 45 days of treatments. Such changes in the present study may be due to the toxic effect or accumulation of one or more of the active pharmacological compounds of the plant in the blood or tissues of the treated rats. Meanwhile, the lack of scientific evidence about its efficacy as a total plant initiated the need of more studies, in order to justify its usage or to enlighten the users about its toxic effects. It is recommended that future studies and chemical analytical techniques are required to separate and purify the main components from the plant responsible for safety and quality assurances for good practices of the plant.

14/36 PHYTOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF POLYGONUM EQUISETIFORME SIBTH. & SM. GROWING IN EGYPT

Mohamed Ashour, El-Sayed El-Ghaly, Atef El-Helah

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

Phytochemical investigation of Polygonum equisetiforme Sibth & Sm herb cultivated in Egypt led to isolation of Myricetin (1), Quercetin (2), Luteolin (3), myricetin-3-α-L-arabinofuranoside (4), myricetin-3-α-L-(5''-O-acetyl)arabinofuranoside (5), and quercetin-3-α-L-(5''-O-acetyl)arabinofuranoside (6). The structures of all isolated flavonoid compounds were identified by chromatographic (TLC, PC) and spectroscopic analyses (MS, 1HNMR and 13CNMR). All compounds were isolated for the first time from Polygonum equisetiforme while compound (5) myricetin-3-α-L-(5''-O-acetyl) arabinofuranoside was isolated for the first time from nature. Quantitative estimation of total phenolic and flavonoid contents (100 ± 0.5, 221 ± 1.05 and 29 ± 0.3, 55 ± 0.64 µg/g fresh weight) of the methanolic extract of P. equisetiformeherb (both wild and cultivated) were performed using Folin-Ciocalteu, aluminium chloride reagents respectively, whereas the antioxidant effect of the methanolic extract was estimated by the stable free radical 1, 1-diphenyl -2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The tested extract showed significant relation between the free radical scavenging potency and the total phenolic, and flavonoid contents.

 

15/36 ROLE OF VASPIN AND CHEMERIN IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS AND THEIR RELATION TO OBESITY OF THOSE PATIENTS

Hanan Abdelmawgood, Shereen El-Shaer and Fawkia Eissa*

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (girls), and Internal Medicine                 Department, Faculty of Medicine (girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Recently, vaspin and chemerin have been identified as interesting novel adipokines having insulin-sensitizing effects. However, the relationship between them has not been elucidated; and their circulating levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have not been adequately studied. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate whether their levels are altered in Egyptian T2DM patients and to study the correlation of these novel adipokines with each other and with insulin resistance, body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile.After an overnight fasting, a single blood sample was obtained. The levels of vaspin, chemerin, and insulin were measured in non obese and obese T2DM patients together with matched healthy non diabetic control subjects by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), whereas glucose and lipid profile were measured using colorimetric enzymatic methods. Obesity was measured using BMI and insulin resistance was measured using Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR).Vaspin and chemerin levels were found to be significantly elevated in non obese (1.0± 0.50 and 116.5 ± 5.6 ng/ml, respectively) and obese T2DM patients (2.70 ± 0.50 and 174.11 ± 8.60 ng/ml, respectively) compared with control subjects (0.3 ± 0.1 and 78.2 ± 9.4 ng/ml, respectively) at P < 0.01. In addition, vaspin and chemerin levels were found to be significantly correlated with each other and with BMI, insulin resistance, and lipid profile. In conclusion, both vaspin and chemerin might play an important role in the pathogenesis of T2DM. In addition, those adipokines (vaspin and chemerin) are significantly interrelated with each other.  

16/36 MOLECULAR AND PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANT K. PNEUMONIAE ISOLATES IN A MEDICAL HEALTH INSTITUTE IN CAIRO, EGYPT

Noha G. Khalaf

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Modern Science and Arts University, Egypt

Infection with multidrug resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae is a serious problem in hospitalized patients. The aim of this study is to characterize K.pneumoniae isolates obtained from a medical institute in Cairo, Egypt using phenotypic and genotypic methods. In this study, 5 non-consecutive K. pneumoniae isolates designated (KP5, KP10, KP13, KP23 and KP26) were obtained from sputum and urine samples, and endotracheal aspirates during April-May 2005. Identification of the strains and susceptibility testing were done using Microscan Walkaway (CA, USA). Three isolates were obtained from inpatients, and isolates KP5 and KP26 were from outpatients. Plasmid profiles of the 5 isolates were determined using QIAGEN plasmid miniprep kits. Genotyping was carried out using RAPD PCR assay with separate primers ERIC1R and ERIC2. All isolates obtained from hospitalized patients were resistant to expanded spectrum cephalosporins, gentamicin and fluoroquinolones, but sensitive to carbapenems. KP5 showed the same resistance profile as the inpatient isolates, but was susceptible to gentamicin. KP26 was susceptible to tested antibiotics. Each of the tested isolates possessed a unique plasmid profile, and different genotypes were revealed using RAPD PCR assay. The positive MDR profile detected among the tested K. pneumoniae isolates is not caused by plasmid dissemination. Different RAPD patterns shown among the tested isolates confirm the spread of multiple K. pneumoniae MDR strains in the institute. Carbapenems are the only effective antibiotics against these MDR strains.

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