Vol. 38, March, 2012.

site pour acheter cialis 1/38 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF PHOSPHORUS SCHIFF BASE DERIVED FROM BIS(BENZALDEHYDE)-P-PHENYLENEDIAMINE AND ITS NICKEL COMPLEX

Ibrahim A. Sbbah, Rabie S. Farag and Usama M. Gomaa*

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

*Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, Jizan, KSA.

Phosphorus Schiff base, bis(benzaldehydediphenylphosphate)-p-phenylenedi| amine was prepared by reaction betweenbis(benzaldehyde)-p-phenylenediamine and diphenyl chlorophosphate. The behaviour of the prepared compounds as ligands capable of forming metal complex with the metal ion Ni2+ were studied. The stoichiometry of the prepared metal complex for ligand (II) were 2:1 metal to ligand molar ratio suggesting. The structure of the complex was investigated on the basis of physicochemical methods for structural elucidation, such as ultraviolet, infrared, 1H-N.M.R., mass spectra, conductometric titration ,spectrophotouietric studies, TGA and magnetic susceptibility. The prepared compounds were screened for the fungicidal activity and bacteriostatic action and some of them were found to be very active against Staphylococcus aurus, Salmonella Typhi and Aspersilus Fumsytu

difference entre vardenafil et tadalafil 2/38 EFFECT OF CADMIUM CHLORIDE ON THE LIVER OF ADULT ALBINO RATS AND THE POSSIBLE PROTECTIVE ROLE OF PARSLEY OIL

Eman Badawi El-Shall and *Gehan Moustafa Badr

Anatomy Department, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University

*Physiology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University

The heavy metal cadmium was a wide spread environmental pollutant that adversely affects the majority of organs and systems of the human body especially the liver. Herbal remedies were used world wide to alleviate symptoms, to treat illnesses, and to promote overall wellness. Parsley oil has been proposed as antioxidant because it helps reduce oxidative stress. For that, the aim of this work to study the possible histological and biochemical changes of liver associated with cadmium chloride administration and the possible protective role of parsley oil on cadmium chloride induced hepatotoxicity. The present study was carried on 40 adult male wister albino rats were divided into 4 main groups. Group I: Served as controls. Group II: Animals were given cadmium chloride intraperitoneal injection in a dose (3.5 mg/kg b.wt). group III treated with cadmium and protected by parsley oilthey were treated with 0.5 ml/kg b.w of parsley oil for 21 consecutive days. At day 7, the parsley oil-treated animals were injected intraperitoneally with 3.5 mg/kg b.wt. of cadmium for 15 days cialis effets secondaires . Group IV treated with parsley oil(0.5 ml/kg b.wt) by using gastric tube. Blood samples were obtained for assessment of some biochemical parameters. Other liver specimens were obtained and processed for light and electron microscopic study. The histological examination of the liver of the rats that treated by cadmium chloride revealed haemorrhage in between the hepatic tissue.Many hepatocytes were either degenerated or necrotic with pyknotic or karyorrhectic nuclei and vacuolated cytoplasm. Some of them were apoptotic. The ultrastructural study of hepatocytes showed; most of mitochondria were swollen and some of them were ruptured. Cadmium induced liver injury was assigned by a significant elevation of serum indices of hepatotoxicity (Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase), hepatic lipid peroxidation (measured as Malondialdehyde) Moreover the markers of hepatic antioxidant activity (Reduced glutathione, catalase,) were significantly decreased in rat liver tissue of Cadmium -treated group. The results also showed that the group III that treated with cadmium and protected by parsley oil showed improved both the biochemical parameters and the histological changes and decrease the areas of haemorrhge in between the hepatocytes. In group IV treated with parsley oil, the levels of all biochemical parameters and the histological sections were nearly similar to that of the control group. It could be concluded that the parsley oil demonstrated a significant hepatoprotective effect againstcadmium chloride toxicity by significant antioxidant activity.

qui à essayé levitra 3/38 DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF ORODISPERSIBLE TABLETS (ODTs) OF REPAGLINIDE

Amal A. Ammar

   Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy (girls), Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Orodispersible tablets of repaglinide, a member of the meglitinide class of blood glucose lowering drugs, was developed to improve its dissolution and absorption through the buccal mucosa for better management of type II diabetes. Three approaches were tried to develop the orodispersible tablets of repaglinide, by direct compression using pharmaburst®500 as super disintegrant alone or in combination with an effervescent mixture, finally by developing a porous martix using camphor as a sublimable agent. The proposed formulations were evaluated for the precompression parameters of the powder blends of the drug and the selected excipients. The prepared tablets were then evaluated for drug content, weight uniformity, hardness, wetting time, achat viagra pas chere in vivo disintegration time, taste, mouth feel, and quelles sont les effets du viagra in vitro dissolution studies. "F6" having camphor in a concentration of 5 %, showed the fastest prix du cialis 10mg en pharmacie france in vitro drug release of 99.46% after 15min., prix kamagra oral jelly thailande in vivo disintegration time of 6±0.25 sec. and the wetting time was 12 ± 0.23sec. F6 was orally administered to rabbits and blood samples were then used to determine the therapeutic efficacy. Comparison with the commercial product (Novonorm 2 mg) was performed. It was found that the percentage reduction in blood glucose level (D%) of repaglinide ODT (F6) was significantly higher (52.12%) than that of the commercial product (34.09%).

sites fiables pour cialis 4/38 CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICLE DIARRHEA IN ADULTS ADMITTED IN DIFFERENT INTENSIVE CARE UNITS

Magda R. Abd-Elwadoud and Manal Darwish

Microbiology and Immunology Department Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University

vardenafil durée daction Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) is the major hospital-acquired gastrointestinal infection in the United States. In the hospital environment, patients suffer from bacterial colonization, including Clostridium difficile, which is one of the frequent causes of nosocomial gastrointestinal infection.The objective of this studywere to document the incidence and compare surgical with medical and explore changes over time of CDAD and colitis in a defined cardiac surgical patients and medical ICU patients ,also this study aimed to explore risk factors for postoperative CDAD (Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea) which impact on postoperative morbidity and length of stay Material and Methods One thousand four hundred patients from medical and surgical ICUs at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo Egypt were studied and followed for the occurrence of diarrhea. Two hundred and twenty patients (220) out of one thousand four hundred ICUs patients complained of diarrhea were further tested for the presence of C. difficile in the period from January to December 2011, location (medical ICU or surgical ICU including neurosurgery, cardio surgery and the burn unit), A total of 220 stool specimens were collected from patients with diarrhea with or without other symptoms suspecting C. difficile infection. The immunocard C. difficile was usedfor Detection of Glutamate dehydrogenase enzyme, The positive cases for glutamate dehydrogenase enzyme of C. difficile were subjected to be tested by a rapid enzyme immunoassay for the detection of C. difficile toxins A and B, by using immunocard toxins A & B . The study reported that two hundred and twenty patients (220) out of one thousand four hundred ICUs patients complained of diarrhea (15.7%). Fifty two cases (52) out of 220 patients presented with diarrhea were positive for glutamate dehydrogenase enzyme (GDH) detection of C. difficile (23.6%). And consequently these cases were further tested for C. difficile toxin production. Thirty eight patients (38) out of these 52 cases (73.1%) were C. difficile toxins producers. the distribution of patients, The majority of patients were from surgical and geriatric ICU (21%) followed by cardiosurgical ICU (20%) then burn ICU (18.5%) finally medical ICU was (16.7 %.). The risk factors for occurrence of C. difficile diarrhea ,antibiotic and proton pump inhibitors intake were the most significant factors associated with its occurrence (86.8%, 63.2%) respectively As well as 42% of those patients were on enteral feeding As regards chronic diseases, diabetes was the highest risk factor (44.7%) associated with the occurrence of C. difficile diarrhea. Thus we conclude that CDAD is a serious infection in ICUs patients’. The management of these infections remains challenging .Almost 87% of our patients received antibiotics. Antibiotics are used in an indiscriminate way in ICU. This observation is particularly important as prior reports suggest that unnecessary antibiotic use makes treatment of CDAD more difficult and potentially less efficacious.

5/38 ASSOCIATION OF RAGE GENE POLYMORPHISM AND esRAGE WITHDIABETIC RETINOPATHY IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS

Wafaa A Emam and *Bahaa El Din Hassan

Medical Biochemistry Department and *Ophthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University.  

The binding of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) to their receptor (RAGE) may play an important role in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Recently, endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) has been identified as an alternative splicing form of RAGE able to capture AGEs, and exerts protection against AGEs-induced endothelial cell injury. A Gly82Ser polymorphismin exon 3 of RAGE gene was identified and thought to have aneffect on the functions of its protein. This study was planned to investigate the frequency of the Gly82Ser polymorphism in RAGE gene and the role of esRAGE as a biological marker for DR in type 2 diabetes and its association with the severity of DR. Thirty-five patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited into the study. They were subclassified into 15 patients with no clinically apparent retinopathy (No DR), 12 patients with nonproliferative DR (NPDR), and 8 patients with proliferative DR (PDR). Twenty, age matched, healthy subjects were included as controls. Serum esRAGE level was measuredby enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Genotype frequencies of Gly82Ser polymorphism were studied by polymerase chain reaction amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using AluI enzyme. The results showed no significant difference between serum esRAGE levels in both controls and diabetic patients with No DR (P = 0.15). Among the diabetic subjects, there was a significant decrease of serum esRAGE levels between patients with No DR and patients with NPDR (P = 0.008) and a more significant decrease between diabetic patients with No DR and patients with PDR (P = 0.001). The low serum esRAGE diabetic patients had higher risk to develop DR than those with high serum esRAGE level (odds ratio = 4.7, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-20.65, P = 0.02). There were no significant differences in genotyping frequencies or allele frequencies between controls and diabetic patients with No DR, or patient with DR (P<0.05). In conclusion, serum esRAGE level showed a significant association with the severity of DR and, hence, it could be used as a prognostic tool to predict the development and progression of DR. esRAGE could be a novel and potential protectivefactor for DR. Gly82Ser polymorphisms in RAGE gene are not associated with the susceptibility of type 2 diabetes, or with   the development of DR in type 2 diabetic subjects.

6/38 COMPLICATION OF TOTAL PARENTRAL NUTRITION

3. RATS’ LIVER AND KIDENY HISTOPATHOLOGICAL RESPONSES

Ali I.S. Ahmed, Hala A. Thabet, Mona H. Ahmed and Amal Abd-Elbaky

Special food and nutrition dept. Food Technology Research Institute, ARC. , Cairo.

It has been formally found that total parentral nutrition (TPN) is associated with   recognizable loss of body weight (BW) when diuretic drug (TPND) was used to minimize water retention. There was an almost double amount of urine secretion when parsley (P) was used with TPN solution (TPNP) and water retention has been maximally resolved when green tea (T) was added (TPNPT). In organ weight, most of them had 20% reduction in their masses and this was around to be 40% under the effect of TPND. Spleen had similar trend, but lung went to another way. Concurrently, TPN causes heart enlargement of about 50% and was forced to be less than 77% of the normal heart size upon the addition of T or D. It seems that all TPN additive used had a powerful stress against organs enlargement. It may be concluded that TPN application cannot be improved using lasix, but blood cells, liver and kidney complication can be avoided using special mixture of the natural preparation of parsley and green tea since, tea + parsley extracts was an excellent dietary therapy recorded here, meanwhile, the artificial drug used had a great reverse effect. Further biological evaluation for TPN complication has been recorded using related organ histopathology. A negative role for TPN administrations on liver histopathology included local monocular inflammatory and vaculations for application of TPN alone in addition to dissociation hemolysed RBCs, deposition of golden brown hemosidrine pigment, necrosis of hepatocytes with psychosis of the nuclei and necrosis of sporadic were recorded. The kidney complications caused by TPN were hypertrophy of glomerular tufts, necrosis of epithelial lining renal tubules, and complete lysis of the nuclei as well as necrosis of some renal tubular further caused by TPND. These hepatic and kidneys’ cells were partially or even totally recovered upon the intervention with TPNPT. TPNPT was also relatively stronger in controlling blood sugar and blood cholesterol that was affected by TPN administration. The Fe in serum, liver enzymes, WBCs as well as RBC and kidney function was formally examined to being sustained in normal level by TPNPT. In fact, this internal metabolic homeostatic role powered by PT mixture of extract is an added bioingredient value in the area of nutritional biochemistry and dietary therapy. Although a better result was recorded for TPNP, TPNPT was the best over all including the control. Seemingly, T and P phenolic compounds may be considered the main factor in this positive health role. In essence, the highly mutual biological intervention appeared for P and T mixture, although P is of important medical role, the presence of T has magnified its curing effect.

7/38 SERUM AMYLOID-A AND INTERLUKIN-6 AS A BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS DURING EARLY AND LATE RECOVERY FROM ACUTE EXACERBATION OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASES IN EGYPTIAN PATIENTS. EFFECTS OF CORTICOSTEROIDS

Gamal, A. Omran and Ibrahim, M. Draz*

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

*Chest Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

Acute exacerbation chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is associated with increased lung and systemic inflammation. Such inflammatory reactions opened the possibility of finding systemic biomarkers induced by inflammatory mediators could be used in diagnosis and monitoring of AECOPD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the alteration of some biomarkers during recovery from AECOPD. This study was conduced on 60 subjects classified into 4 groups: group 1 included 15 patients with AECOPD treated by ordinary therapy plus corticosteroids, group 2 included 15 patients with AECOPD treated by ordinary therapy only, group 3 included 15 cases with stable COPD. Finally group 4 included 15 healthy subjects free from any diseases taken as control group. The AECOPD groups (groups 1 and 2) were evaluated at admission (day 0), at day 3 (early recovery) and day 10 (late recovery), while groups 3 and 4 were evaluated only at admission. The results revealed that spirometeric pulmonary function tests (SPFTs) and arterial blood gases (ABGs) were improved by treatment with better improvement when corticosteroids involved in the treatment protocol. In addition, the biochemical markers revealed a significant improvement of serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) after treatment with clinical significance of corticosteroids than ordinary therapy alone. Regarding to oxidative stress in AECOPD the results demonstrate a significant increase in oxidative stress marker, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) and decreased antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in AECOPD which corrected by treatment, especially if corticosteroids is involved in the treatment protocol. In conclusion, SAA, CRP and IL-6 are useful biochemical markers in assessment of AECOPD. In addition, corticosteroids are partially effective, together with ordinary therapy, in management of AECOPD as they reduce systemic biomarkers and improve both SPFTs and ABGs efficiently than ordinary therapy alone.  

8/38 EFFECTS OF CHORISIA CRISPIFLORA HEXANE EXTRACT ON NF-ΚB LEVEL IN HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELLS IN VITRO

Samar S. Azab, Abeer M. Ashmawy* and Omayma A. Eldahshan**

Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain shams University, Cairo, Egypt

*Cancer Biology Department, Biochemistry Unit, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt.

**Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain shams University, Cairo, Egypt

Compelling evidence from epidemiological studies suggest beneficial roles of dietary. phytochemicals in protecting against chronic disorders such as cancer and inflammatory diseases. In this study we hypothesized that Chorisia crispiflora extract reduces the proliferation of breast cancer cells via modulating several molecular signaling pathways. The current study thus, targets two main aims;   1st aim is the phytochemical investigation of the extract. 2nd aim is the evaluation of the in-vitro cytotoxic activity of n-hexane extract of Chorisia crispiflora leaves then examination of the molecular mechanisms underlying this cytotoxic effect. In this regards, three main compounds were isolated; β-sitosterol 1, β-sitosterol 3-glucoside 2 and stigmasterol 3-glucoside 3. The extract exhibited IC50 values of 7 and 4.2 μg/ml following 48 and 72 hrs of treatment; indicating its significant in-vitro cytotoxic activity. This cytotoxic activity was proven to be mediated through down regulation of NF-κB. Our results suggest that n-hexane extract has potent cytotoxic effect on MCF7 cells through down regulation of NF-κB. These findings consequently merit further exploration of the extract in subsequent in-vivo studies and later in controlled clinical trials.

9/38 OPTIMIZATION OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL STABILITY OF RANITIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE FLOATING TABLETS

Sanaa A. El-Gizawy, Esmat E. Zein El-Deen, Mahmoud M. Sakr* and

Rasha S.E. Elbatanony**

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Tanta,

*National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

**Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Future University, Egypt.

The main aim of the present work was to study the effect of different formulation and processing variables on physical and chemical stability of ranitidine hydrochloride (RHCl) floating tablets. The effect of three independent variables including the use of Aerosil, the use of effervescent agents and the method of preparation on the tablet stability was studied by applying 23 factorial design. The formulated tablets were stored under the stability testing conditions of new drug substances and products stated by the ICH at Normal, Intermediate and Accelerated conditions. At the specified time intervals, the tablets were evaluated for their physical & chemical stabilities. All the tablets were chemically stable in all testing conditions. Concerning physical stability, the tested tablets showed insignificant changes (P>0.05) in thickness, friability and floating characteristics and significant changes (P<0.05) in hardness and drug release characteristics. Linear regression of the factorial design revealed that the use of wet granulation significantly increases the tablet hardness whereas the use of direct compression significantly decreases the tablet hardness upon storage in different testing conditions. The highest stability concerning hardness was achieved in formulations prepared by wet granulation without the use of effervescent agents or Aerosil. The use of effervescent agents in tablets prepared by wet granulation has the highest enhanced effect on the stability of drug release. The designed RHCl tablets prepared by wet granulation showed the optimum physical stability concerning the drug release and tablet hardness.

10/38 EVALUATION OF VIABILITY OF BCG VACCINE USING A CONVENTIONAL VIABLE COUNT METHOD AND A TETRAZOLIUM SALT RAPID ASSAY METHOD

Ali M. Asawy, Hamdallah H. Zedan, Ali M. Ahmedy

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

The potency of the live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine is dependent on its content of viable cell. The viability of the organism is essential for the stimulation of a protective immune response, hence monitoring of the viable count is an integral part of quality control of BCG vaccine. The method, which is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and European Pharmacopoeia (EP) for control of potency of BCG vaccine, is the conventional viable count. It is performed by culturing on solid medium. The disadvantages of this method are that, it is very time consuming, poor reproducibility and gives variable results. In this paper two tetrazolium salts {3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)} and {2, 3-bis- (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphenyl)-(2H)-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT)} have been used to determine the potency of BCG vaccine. They are MTT assay and XTT assay. In these methods tetrazolium salts are metabolically reduced to highly coloured products called formazans, the quantity of formazan produced is directly propotional to the viable cell count. Statistical analysis was calculated for data of these three methods using two waysAnalysis of Variances (ANOVA). No significant difference was observed between the three methods regarding the calculated viable count. MTT and XTT assays gave more rapid and reproducible results as compared to the conventional viable count assay. XTT showed greater sensitivity than MTT, also XTT can be performed in 48 h while MTT needs 96 h.

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