Vol. 40, November, 2012.

1/40 ASSESSMENT OF SOLUBLE P-SELECTIN AMONG TYPE 2 DIABETICS WITH AND WITHOUT NEPHROPATHY

Mohamed Salah Shouman, Mohamed Hesham Mahfouz, Shereen Saead El-Shaer*

and Mona Kamal Abdel Aziz*

National Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology (NIDE), *Biochemistry department,

Faculty of pharmacy (girls) Al-Azhar University

A total of 74 subjects were enrolled in the current study. They were divided into 54 type 2 diabetic patients and 20 healthy subjects; matching the same age and socioeconomic status. The 54 diabetic patients were further divided according to the amount of albumin excreted in the urine of patients into 22 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria and 32 diabetic patients without nephropathy. Serum soluble P-selectin level was measured by ELISA.Serum soluble P-selectin level was significantly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes with microalbuminuria compared with the control (17.26 ± 0.81vs. 1.67± 0.27ng/ml, P<0.001) and also compared with patients with type 2 diabetes without nephropathy (17.262 ± 0.8078 vs. 12.915 ± 0.4519ng/ml, P<0.001). Moreover, the increase in soluble P-selectin level is positively correlated to the rise of FBG, HbA1c%, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, microalbuminuria, AST and ALT in patients with type 2 diabetes. Also, the increase in soluble P-selectin level is negatively correlated to the HDL-C level. Serum soluble P-selectin may be a marker for type 2 diabetic patients. Also, it has been implicated in the pathogenesis and severity of type 2 diabetic nephropathy.

 

 

2/40 PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CURCUMIN ON PARACETAMOL-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MICE

Mona M. El-Naa,Marwa M. Dawoud*, Lobna A. Abd El-Wahab, Nouran Y. Adly, Mahmoud H. Shaaban, Aliaa E. Mahmoud and Ramez S. Hassan

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, October University for Modern Sciences and Arts (MSA) University, Egypt.

* Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Menofyia University, Egypt.

Paracetamol is a commonly used over the counter drug known for its antipyretic and analgesic effects.When used in high doses, paracetamol causes hepatic necrosis. At present, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is the antidote of choice for paracetamol toxicity. Curcumin is a naturally occurring compound derived from turmeric plant. It has attracted interest because of its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible hepatoprotective effect of curcumin against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity and to investigate whether addition of curcumin to NAC could potentiate NAC hepatoprotective effect. Acute hepatic toxicity was induced by injecting mice with paracetamol (300 mg/Kg; ip). One hour after paracetamol injection, animals were treated with low (200mg/kg; ip) or high (800mg/kg; ip) dose of NAC, curcumin (200mg/kg; ip) or a combination of NAC and curcumin. At 24 hours after paracetamol injection, survival rate in each group was calculated. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were measured. Hepatic content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as the catalase activity were assessed. In addition, histopathological examination of liver and immunohistochemical staining of active caspase-3 in the liver were carried out. The results showed that the survival rate in mice received paracetamol was 66.7%, while no death reported in control group. Survival rate increased to 86.7% and 73.3% in mice received low NAC and curcumin respectively. Survival rate in high NAC and the combination of NAC and curcumin were 100%. Curcumin significantly improved the level of ALT, AST, MDA, GSH and catalase compared to mice received paracetamol alone. The combination of curcumin and NAC significantly improved the level of ALT, AST, MDA, GSH and catalase compared to mice received paracetamol alone or mice treated with NAC. Furthermore, the combination of NAC and curcumin resulted in improvement of the histopathological features of the liver with absence of active caspase-3 expression. In conclusion, curcumin protects liver from damage induced by high dose of paracetamol as well as potentiates the hepatoprotective effects of NAC.

 

 

3/40 BOTANICAL STUDY AND DNA FINGERPRINTING OF CYDONIA OBLONGA MILL. (QUINCE) (FAMILY ROSACEAE)

Seham S. El-hawary, Mona E. El-Tantawy*, Farid N. Kirollos, Azza R. Abdel-Monem and Walaa E. Hammam*.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

*Medical Plants Department, National Organization of Drug Control and Research.

The macro- and micromorphological characters of the leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds of Cydonia oblonga Mill. were presented and illustrated for their identification in both entire and powdered forms. A DNA sample of the plant was analyzed by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique using five oligonucleotide primers. The analysis of RAPD data achieves the use of AX6, C01, C05, D01 and E03 primers for selective discrimination of this plant.

 

 

4/40 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MUCOADHESIVE ORAL TABLETS OF CIPROFLOXACINHCl

Ghada E. Yassin and Dina A. Osman

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al Azhar University,

Cairo, Egypt

Drugs that have a narrow absorption window in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) will have poor absorption. For these drugs, extending the residence time of a dosage form at a particular site and controlling the release of drug from the dosageform are useful especially for achieving controlled plasma level of the drug as well as improving bioavailability. Theobjective of this study was to extend the gastric residence time after oral administration and control the release of ciprofloxacin usingmucoadhesive tablets. Direct compression method was employed usingmucoadhesive polymers namely Carbopol 934, HPMC K4M, HPMC K15M and Tragacanth to prepare several formulations. Moreover, these formulations were subjected to different evaluation studies including content uniformity, surface pH, hardness, friability, tablet dimension, swelling index, mucoadhesive force measurement and in vitro drug release. The release mechanism of Ciprofloxacin HCl from the matrix tablets indicated super case-II transportmechanism and followedthe Higuchi kinetic model. The studies performed on stability showed that there was no change.

 

5/40 ASSESSMENT OF SOME NEUROTROPHINS AND NEUROPEPTIDES CONCENTRATIONS IN BLOOD OF DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY

Ekram Abdel-Salam*, Iman Ehsan Abdel-Meguid*, Doaa Abdel Latif**, Soheir Korraa*** Eman Hosny

Department of Pediatrics, Genetic Unit, Faculty of Medicine - Cairo University

**Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences – Al Azhar University

***Department of Radiation Health, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology

It is reported that cognitive impairment in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD),is variable in degree, possibly due to the different dystrophingene mutations. The Aβ42 marker was, however, significantly associated with changes in memory and cognitive functions; the aim of the present study is to investigate if Aβ42 is elevated in DMD patients. Also, it has been shown that different subtypes of neural stem/progenitor cells respond differently to traumatic brain injury, which induces their activation reflecting the induction of innate repair and plasticity mechanisms by the injured brain. Accordingly, this present study investigated levels of CD 34 and nestin in an attempt to investigate markers of regeneration in blood of DMD patients. Results represents mean±SD showed that plasma creatinine kinase was significantly higher among DMD patients compared to controls (2250.55 ± 1056.1 vs. 79 ± 8.7), indicating that patients in the present study represent typical DMD cases. Aß 42 (24.9 ± 6.7 vs. 12.13 ± 4.5) was significantly increased among DMD patients compared to controls. Mononuclear cells expressing nestin (18.9 ± 6 vs. 9 ± 4) and CD 34 (75 ± 6.2 vs. 60 ± 4.8) were significantly increased among DMD patients compared to controls. This study reveals that Aβ42 is implicated in DMD observed cognitive functions and that an efficient neural mechanism is being initiated in DMD, which fails to compensate the associated damage due to dystrophin mutation.

 

 

6/40 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTI-HYPERGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF MYRTUS COMMUNIS L. LEAVES

Atef A. El-Hela, Abd Elsalam E. Mohammed, Fasal M. Elkhadrawy and Mohammed F. Hamed

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

From the leaves of Myrtus communis seven compounds were isolated and identified as ursolic acid [1], gallic acid [2], gallocatechin [3], myricetin [4], quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside [5], myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, myricitrin [6] and vanillin [7]. The structure of the isolated compounds were unambiguously used UV, 1H and 13 C NMR and ESt/MS spectra. Compounds [3and 7] were isolated for the first time from Myrtus communis. Ether extract and ethyl acetate fractions were found to posses significant anti- hyperglycemic activity.

 


7/40 ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF ULMUS PUMILA L. BARK GROWING IN EGYPT

Said K. Isamil and Moselhy S. Mansy*

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

*Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Antimicrobial activities of Ulmus pumila L. bark (ulmaceae) were tested using disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were observed in hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, methanol and water extracts. Hexane extract showed promising antibacterial and antifungal activities. A naphtoquinone mansonone E (ME) and mansonone F (MF) isolated for the first time from this plant species growing in Egypt was identified using the spectral data UV, IR, MS and 1H-NMR. Mansonone E showed a significant antifungal activity.

 

 

8/40 ANABOLIC AND ANDROGENIC EFFECTS OF CERTAIN ATRIPLEX SPECIES GROWN IN EGYPT

Fatma S. El-Sakhawy, Dina R. Abou-Hussein, *Dina M. El-Kersh

and **Amany A. Sleem

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

*Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, Cairo, Egypt.

**Pharmacology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

20-Hydroxyecdysone (20-HE) was detected by TLC in the ethyl acetate fraction of two Atriplex species grown in Egypt: A. lindleyi subsp. inflata and A. leucoclada. EIA quantification of 20-HE proved its presence in a concentration of 9.15 and 7.3 μg/g dried aerial parts in each of the two species, respectively. Significant anabolic and androgenic activities were demonstrated for 20-HE comparing to testosterone; the study also revealed that the total alcohol extract and the ethyl acetate fraction of A. lindleyi subsp. inflata exhibited greater activities than their analogues in A. leucoclada. Column chromatographic fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction of the most active species A. lindleyi subsp. inflata resulted in the isolation of 20-HE (I) in addition to three flavonol glycosides: Isorhamnetin 3-O- galactoside (II), Isoquercitin (III) and Rutin (IV) identified via spectral analysis. DNA were amplified using seven decamer primers as a contribution to the characterization and discrimination between the two Atriplex species indicating only one polymorphic band between the two species and displaying a similarity coefficient of 88.88%.

 

9/40 PESTICIDES EFFECTS ON LIVER ENZYMES AMONG YEMENI QAT FARMERS IN BANI AL HARITH,BANI HUSHAISH AND HAMDAN AREAS IN SANA'A GOVERNERATE

Nabil H. Al-Hamadi and Esraa A.Al-Ani*

Forensic Medicine & Toxicology Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana'a University.

*Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Sana'a University

The target of this study is to detect the residues of pesticides by analyzing the urine and blood of Qat farmers. This study was carried out in three different areas in Yemen, in Sana'a governorate: Bani Al-Hareth, Bani Hushaish and Hamdan. 198 males were involved in this study of which 99 males are Qat farmers exposed to pesticides during their work in Qat farms and 99 healthy males as a control. Three insecticides (Dimethoate, Acetamiprid and Abamectin and one fungicide (Penconazol) were extracted from the urine and plasma of the studied subjects by using HPLC. Liver enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, LDH and GGT) and other biochemical markers including total bilirubin (TB), TG and blood cholesterol (TC) were analyzed. The results revealed the presence of pesticides residues in urine and blood samples with a prominent relationship of the concentration of such pesticides and liver enzymes derangement through the estimation of biochemical markers. Also the results of this study revealed an important relationship between such pesticides residues in blood and urine and liver enzymes activity, the probable calculated values of which were 0.001 >P** by using SPSS and with the other biochemical markers as well including TB, TG and TC in blood, the probable calculated values were significant as well, 0.05> P* or 0.001>P*. There is an important proportional significant relationship between the period of exposure to pesticides, liver enzymes and some of their biochemical markers, like changes in lipids, cholesterol and bilirubin; this means that such markers can be used as indicators for reflecting the hazardous side effects of pesticides on farmers health.

 

 

10/40 STUDY OF AURKA GENE EXPRESSION AS A MOLECULAR MARKER IN COLORECTAL CANCER

Eman M.I. Youssef, Naglaa F. Abdel Halim* and Badea M.M. Younies**

Departments of Medical Biochemistry, *Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine (Girls), Al-Azhar University, **Department of Biochemistry, National Center of Radiation Research Technology (NCRRT), Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA)

The centrosome-associated kinase aurora A (AURKA) is involved in genetic instability and is over-expressed in several human carcinomas including colorectal cancer (CRC). It plays a critical role in cancer cell development, proliferation, motility and survival. It is suggested that the Aurora kinase A expression in colorectal cancer significantly increase, which may play an important role in development of colorectal cancer. Aim of the work: The analysis of AURKA gene expression in colon biopsy is a potential tumor marker through its kinase activity. The present study aimed to report the development of a quantitative assay for the measurement of AURKA gene expression in colonic tissue specimens of colorectal cancer based on real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). In this study, the expression of AURKA gene was analyzed in 10 malignant and 10 potentially malignant lesions and 10 control biopsies. AURKA gene expression was analyzed using PCR (qRT-PCR)to examine the copy number gains and mRNA level of AURKA in CRC. The results showed that the AURKA gene expression was highly expressed in (30%, 3 of 10 CRC studied specimens) with (mean 20.4, P value=0.005) indicated highly significant difference between control, potentially malignant and malignant groups. Conclusively, it could be suggested that AURKA gene expression in colorectal cancer specimens was highly expressed which could highlight on the importance of this gene expression. Also the results showed that this procedure was able to discriminate between healthy subjects and colorectal cancer specimens and strongly support the idea that a valuable diagnostic test for cancer might be developed using this genetic marker in tissue.

 

11/40 DEVELOPMENT OF TRAMADOL- LOADED EUDRAGIT® FILMS FOR TRANSDERMAL RAPID DRUG DELIVERY TO TREAT ACUTE PAIN

Iman I. Soliman, *Mona Hassan Aboul-Einien, **Nadia Abd-El Kader Soliman and **Sarah Hamed Abd-El Rahim

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

*Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University.

**Department of Pharmaceutics, National Organization For Drug Control and Research (NODCAR).

The aim of this work was to formulate tramadol hydrochloride (TRH) as transdermal films with dual benefits. The first benefit is that the transdermal delivery of the drug by passes its first pass metabolism leading to avoidance of its opioid effect and consequently its abuse liability. The second benefit is that, the used polymers were chosen to allow rapid drug delivery so the prepared films can be used for acute conditions. The transdermal films were prepared using three different types of ionizable polymethacrylates polymers (Eudragit®L100-55, Eudragit® L100, and Eudragit® S100) and four types of plasticizers (polyethylene glycol 4000, propylene glycol, di-n-butylphthalate and Triacetin) each at three different concentrations (20%, 30%, and 40% w/w of polymer weight). Pre-formulation studies were performed on TRH concerning its compatibility with the used polymers using differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy examination, equilibrium solubility, partition coefficient and in- vitro permeation. TRH transdermal films were prepared by solvent casting technique and were characterized for their uniformity, moisture behavior, physicochemical and mechanical properties. In addition, the rate and pattern of drug release from the prepared films were investigated. According to the results of the aforementioned tests, three formulae were chosen to investigate TRH permeation from them as well as their stability on three-month storage at different conditions. The best two formulae were in- vivo evaluated for TRH antinociceptive effect using the hot plate test. The chosen formulae were those prepared using Eudragit® L100 polymer with 30% polyethylene glycol 4000 as a plasticizer and Eudragit® S100 polymer with 40% Triacetin as a plasticizer. Main pharmacodynamic parameters, namely, the maximum antinociceptive effect (E max), time for maximum antinociceptive effect (t max), and total antinociceptive effect (AUC 0-24) were compared for the investigated formulae and orally administered commercially available TRH capsules (Tramadol ® 50 mg) on male albino rats. The results of the in- vivo study showed statistically significant lower values of E max for the transdermal films with non- significant difference in t max compared to those obtained from oral Tramadol®. In addition, the transdermal films showed 2.1 and 1.5- fold increase in the total antinociceptive effect of TRH (for the two investigated formulae, respectively) compared to the oral capsules. In conclusion that, the prepared TRH- loaded Eudragit® L100 transdermal film with 30% polyethylene glycol 4000 as a plasticizer films not only avoided the risk of drug abuse due to first pass metabolism but also allowed for rapid release of the drug to relief acute pain.

 

 

12/40 STUDYING THE LEVEL OF GROWTH HORMONE AND INTERLEUKINS IN OBESE POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

Tarek Salman, Mostafa El-Shafaey, Gamil Abdullah and Hesham Gad

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

Obesity is defined as a condition characterized by excessive accumulation and storage of fat in adipose tissues associated with altered adipokines secretion. This study was carried out to demonstrate the effect of obesity on sex hormones in postmenopausal obese women, and to study the possible relation between serum interleukins-2, growth hormone (GH) and various degrees of obesity. This study was performed on 80 apparently healthy postmenopausal women their mean of age was (54.94 ± 0.42) years, and classified according to their BMI into three groups.15 normal (BMI < 25), 15 overweight (BMI = 25 – 29.9), 50 obese (BMI ≥ 30), then obese group classified into three sub groups.14 class Ι obese group (BMI = 30 – 34.9), 17 class ΙΙ obese group (BMI = 35 – 39.9), 19 class ΙΙΙ obese group (BMI ≥ 40). Serum interleukin-2, progesterone, growth hormone and estradiol were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lipid profile was assayed using colorimetric methods. Serum interleukin-2 in obese postmenopausal women was significantly higher in class ΙΙΙ obese group (morbidly obese) while GH significantly decreased when compared to class Ι or class ΙΙ obese group. In conclusion: serum interleukin-2 and GH are affected by morbid obesity and elevation of serum IL-2 may reflect the pro-inflammatory condition associated with morbid obesity (class III).

 

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