Vol. March, 2013.41,

1/41 Formulation, preparation and In-vitro evaluation of amikacin sulfate liposomes

Mohamed S. El-Ridy, Abd-Elhameed A. El-Shamy*, Amira M. Mohsen and

Asmaa B. Darwish

Pharmaceutical Technology Department, Pharmaceutical and Drug Industries Research Division, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo 12311, Egypt.

*PharmaceuticsDepartment, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain shams University, Cairo, Egypt

Amikacin Sulfate is a semi-synthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic derived from kanamycin. It is most often used for treating severe hospital-acquired infections with multidrug resistant gram negative bacteria since 1970s. The objective of this research is to develop an amikacin sulfate liposomal formulation with enhanced activity and limited side effects. Liposomes, are colloidal particles composed from self assembled lipid molecules encapsulating part of the aqueous phase in which they are dispersed. Amikacin sulfate liposomes were prepared by the vortex dispersion method using dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC), cholesterol (Chol) and charge inducing agent (CIA) in molar ratios DPPC: Chol :CIA (7:2:1, 7:4:1and 7:7:1). Dicetyl phosphate (DCP) and Stearyl amine (SA) were added as the negative and positive charge inducing agents, respectively. Characterization of the prepared Amikacin Sulfate liposomes was performed via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). These liposomal formulations will be investigated for their increased activity and safety compared to free drug.


Dina M. Abd Alaziz, Omaima A. Sammour*, Abd Elhameed A. Elshamy* and Demiana I. Nesseem.

Department of Pharmaceutics, National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR), Giza, Egypt.

*Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

The therapeutic efficacy of the dosage forms intended to be orally administered mainly depends on its absorption process through the gastrointestinal tract. However, for a drug to be absorbed, it should have an acceptable solubility at the absorption site. Many drugs that were recently introduced by chemosynthesis, suffer from poor aqueous solubility. In return, numerous technologies have been experimented as an attempt to optimize the solubility and dissolution rate of the hydrophobic drugs and consequently improve their bioavailability. This study aimed to enhance the aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drug (Domperidone) by preparing multicomponent inclusion complexes (ICs) using β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), citric acid and tartaric acid in different weight ratios by kneading method. Dissolution studies showed enhanced dissolution rate of all prepared systems. Ternary systems containing drug/β-CD/organic hydroxy acid in (1:9:3) weight ratio, respectively, showed the highest dissolution rate. Therefore, they were physicochemically characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction that indicated the inclusion of the drug into cyclodextrin cavity but this inclusion was incomplete, which might be responsible for the dissolution patterns of the prepared systems. The release pattern was found to follow Higuchi diffusion model for all formulations.


Emad G. Khidr, Tarek M. Salman, Shawkey S. Ali, Gamil M. Abdalla

and Ashraf I. Amin*

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

*Clinical Pathology and Laboratory Department, National Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology (NIDE), Cairo, Egypt

Nesfatin-1 has been recently identified as a novel anorexigenic polypeptide derived from its precursor protein, non-esterified fatty acid/Nucleobindin2 (NUCB2) in hypothalamus and also in peripheral tissues. Nesfatin-1 has been shown to decrease food intake and body weight in rodents after intracerebroventricular (I.C.V) injection. However, the biochemical link between nesfatin-1, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has not been elucidated; and nesfatin-1 circulating levels in obese and T2DM human patients have not been adequately studied. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate whether its level was altered in Egyptian obese and T2DM patients and to find the correlation of nesfatin-1 with leptin and other biochemical parameters. The levels of nesfatin-1, leptin and C-peptide were measured in healthy obese, obese T2DM and nonobese T2DM patients together with matched healthy nonobese nondiabetic control subjects. Nesfatin-1, leptin and C-peptide levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Nesfatin-1 level was found to be significantly reduced in obese (6.30 ± 0.41) ng/ml, obese T2DM patients (4.73 ± 0.42) ng/ml and nonobese T2DM (6.15 ± 0.52) ng/ml compared with control subjects (8.32 ± 0.49) ng/ml at P < 0.05. As well as, it was significantly lower in obese T2DM (4.73 ± 0.42) ng/ml when compared to obese (6.30 ± 0.41) ng/ml and nonobese T2DM (6.15 ± 0.52) ng/ml groups. From the previous findings, we can conclude that nesfatin-1 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of T2DM and obesity.


Samir A.M. Zaahkouk, Ahmed S. Abdoon*, Omaima M. Kandil*, Osama M. Azmey** and Ahmed M. Al Atrash

Department of Zoology, Fac. Science, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

*Department of Animal Reproduction and Artificial Insemination, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Centre,

**Department of Reproductive Health, Medical Research Division, National Research Center.

Camels are the principal animals living in arid and semi-arid areas because of their ability to survive under severe drought conditions. Embryo development was strongly influenced by events occurring during oocytes maturation; In vitro oocytes metabolism varies according to culture conditions and differs from in vivo metabolism. In this study two experiments were done to study the events of in vitro maturation of camel oocytes. In Experiment 1: Cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) were recovered from dromedary camels ovaries by aspiration of antral follicles 2–8 mm in diameter, oocytes were collected under stereomicroscope and classified into four categories based on their cumulus investment and homogeneity of cytoplasm. In Experiment 2: oocytes were in vitro matured at 38.5 °C under 5% CO2 in humidified air for 40 h in TCM-199 medium supplemented with 10 % fetal calf serum (FCS) + 10 μg/ml follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) + 10 IU/ml equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) + 10 IU/ml human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) + 50 μg/ml gentamycin.The obtained results revealed that the yield of COCs was 7 oocytes/ovary; COCs quality revealed that excellent quality was 45%, good quality 23%, Fair quality 18% and denuded oocytes were 15%. After in vitro maturation the results of cumulus cells expansion revealed that Grade 3 (Full expansion) was 63%, Grade 2 was 16%, Grade 1 was 9% and Grade 0 (No expansion) was 12%. The result of nuclear maturation showed that immature oocytes were 35%, mature oocytes (MII stage) were 37% and degenerated oocyte were 28%.In conclusion, After in vitro maturation of camel oocytes about 37% of oocytes reached to MII stage to be mature oocytes that may use it in assisted reproductive technology applications such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

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