Vol. 45, November, 2014.

1/45 WHEAT GERM OIL INHIBITS CTGF AND TIMP-1 EXPRESSION INDUCED BY CYCLOSPORIN A IN RAT KIDNEY VIA INHIBITION OF TGF-/SMAD SIGNALING PATHWAY

El-Sayed Akool

Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

Cyclosporin A (CsA) is one of the most efficient immunosuppressive agents that are widely used in organ transplantation. However its clinical use is strongly limited by acute and chronic nephrotoxicity which is mainly characterized by glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Transforming growth factor- (TGF- and downstream Smad signaling pathways have been found to be the most important pathways involved in renal fibrosis via induction of the profibrotic genes connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metallproteinases-1 (TIMP-1). In cultured mesangial cells, CsA has been found to activate TGF-/Smad signaling pathway in ROS dependent manner. The present work was designed to test first, whether CsA-induced TGF-/Smad signaling pathway observed in cultured mesangial cells would also occur in vivo. Second, the potential protective effect of wheat germ oil (WGO) as antioxidant on CsA-induced TGF-/Smad signaling and subsequent CTGF and TIMP-1 expression in rat kidney. The present work demonstrates that treatment of animals with CsA causes a rapid activation of TGF-/Smad signalingpathway in rat kidneys as demonstrated by an increase in plasma TGF level, Smad-2/3 phosphorylation and Smad 4 translocation into the nucleus. Activation of TGF-/Smad signalingcascade is accompanied by an increase in Smad-dependent expression of CTGF and TIMP-1. Interestingly, concomitant administration of WGO along with CsA markedly inhibits TGF-/Smad signaling pathway and subsequent CTGF and TIMP-1 expression. Furthermore, the immunosuppressive effect of CsA was not affected by WGO. Finally, these data may emphasize the concept of using antioxidant therapy as valuable approach for the prevention of CsA-induced renal fibrosis.

2/45 STUDY EFFECT OF STEATOSIS AND METABOLICSYNDROME ON THE RESPONSE TO THERAPY IN CHRONIC HEPATITIS C PATIENTS

Fatma A. Mourad, Hend M. Tawfeek, Abeer A. Ali, Marwa Abd Elmonem and Magda E. Elmahdy

Internal Medicine Department, *Clinical Pathology Department,Faculty of Medicine for girls, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

The prevalence of steatosis in chronic hepatitis C patients, depending on the alcohol drinking, excess weight, diabetes and other risk factor. A number of concomitant factors such as, viral load, age, obesity, insulin resistance, are considered to have an impact on disease progression and response to antiviral treatment, the current study was conducted toassess the effect of BMI, insulin resistance and steatosis on the response to HCV therapy.This study was conducted on 80 Patients with chronic hepatitis C who underwent the course of the antiviral combination therapy ,patients were classified into two groups: Group I: responder group who achieved sustained viral response defined as negative HCVPCR 6 months after end of the treatment. Group II: non responder group who failed to achieve viral response .All subjects were subjected to full medical history, complete clinical examination including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hepatitis marker, HCV RNA by PCR ,fasting blood sugar, lipid profile. serum insulin level was measured using a radioimmunoassay kit and calculation of HOMA IR for every patient.Ultrasonographic guided liver biopsy for assessment degree of steatosis .There was highly significant increase in BMI, fasting serum insulin and ,HOMAIR, in non- responder (group II) compared to responder (group I).Overall prevalence of hepatic steatosis in our study was 57.5%, , There was significant increase in the mean±SD of steatosis in(group II) compared to (group I) .There were highly significant positive correlations between steatosis and HOMAIR(R=0.831, P<0.01) FSI (R=0.862, P<0.01) FBS(R=0.515, P<0.01) in (groupI) as well as HOMAIR(R=0.769, P<0.01) FSI(R=0.733, P<0.01) while FBS(R=0.314, P<0.05) show only significant correlation in group II .So hepatic steatosis, obesity, and insulin-resistance all appeared to negatively influence response to antiviral therapy, so these factors can predicte response to treatment that help in patients selection and outcomes.Further Studies are recommended, to be seen whether interventions will increase the response to therapy.

3/45 THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BODY EXTRACTS FROM SOME MAGGOTS CAUSING MYIASIS

Mohammed A. Fouda, Mostafa I. Hassan, *Moselhy S. Mansy and **Ahmed M. Salem

Zoology Dept. Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Boys), Cairo

*Microbiolog & Immunology Dept. Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University (Boys), Cairo

**Tumor Marker Oncology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy Al- Azhar University

The present study was carried out to investigate the efficacy of different crude extracts from the whole body of the myiasis larvae namely, Sarcophaga carnaira, Chrysomya albiceps and Lucilia sericata against different pathogenic strains of bacteria and fungi.Petroleum ether extract of the whole body of the 3rd instar larvae of S. carnaria showed antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains tested. The highest antibacterial activity was caused by petroleum ether extract against the Gram-negative bacteria, Eschrichia coli. Also, petroleum ether extract of 3rd instar larvae of S. carnaria caused antifungal activity against the two fungal strains tested; Aspergillus fumigates and Candida albicans. Chloroform extract of the whole body of the 3rd instar larvae of C. albicans caused the highest antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus. Also, chloroform extract caused the highest antifungal activity against A. fumigatus and C. albicans. Lucilia sericata larval extracts showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested. The highest antibacterial activity was caused by chloroform extract against the two Gram-positive bacteria, S. aureus and S. epidermidis. While, the highest antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative bacteria, E.coli was caused by both chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts. The highest antifungal activity was caused by chloroform extract against C. albicans. In general the result showed that the different whole body extracts of the 3rd instar larvae of L. sereicata caused the highest antibacterial and antifungal activity against both pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains tested.

4/45 ADRENOMEDULLIN IS COMPARABLE TO MICROALBUMINURIA AS AN EARLY MARKER FOR DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY

Nahla E. El-Ashmawy, Enas A. El-Zamarany*, Naglaa F. Khedr, Doaa M. Abd El-Lateef** and Nahla E. Azzam**

Departement of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University.

*Departement of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University.

**Departement of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy (Girls), Al-Azhar University.

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of sickness and death in people with diabetes. It can lead to the need for dialysis or a kidney transplant. Adrenomedullin (ADM) is a potent vasodilator peptide, and it is known to be elevated in different clinical situations such as diabetes mellitus. So the present study was aimed to estimate and evaluate ADM as a marker of DN.The study included sixty patients with type 2 diabetes who were subdivided into thirty with nephropathy (having microalbuminuria 30-300 mg/dL) and thirty without nephropathy (having microalbuminuria <30 mg/dL). Twenty healthy subjects, age- and sex- matched were included as control group. Patients and controls were assessed for fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), microalbuminuria and plasma ADM.Mean plasma ADM levels were significantly increased in all patients with type 2 diabetes with or without nephropathy compared to the control groupwith higher levels in those with nephropathy. Plasma ADM levels were positively correlated with microalbuminuria, serum creatinine and BUN, the most independent risk factors for occurrence of microvascular complications may reflect the role of ADM as a predictor and prognostic marker of DN among patients with type 2 diabetes.

5/45 EFFECT OF RESTRICTED FEED-DIET INTAKE ON BODY WEIGHT, BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND ANTIOXIDANT STATUS IN TWO BREEDS OF GOATS

El- Gendy, A.M., Askar, A.R.*, Abou El-Ezz, S.S.* and Gewily, D.I.

Zoology Department, Faculty of science, Al-Azhar University

*Animal and Poultry Production Division, Desert Research Center

Twenty-four adult non-pregnant non-lactating females (12 Baladi goats and 12 Shami goats) were used in 3-month experiment and one month for recovery period. The animals were kept individually after acclimatization period (one month).The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that Baladi and Shami goats can tolerate feed shortage under semi-arid conditions and if there is a difference between Baladi and Shami goats. Animals in each species were fed individually and divided into two groups according to feeding level (100 and 50% of maintenance energy requirements). Changes in live body weight, blood biochemical parameters and antioxidant levels characters were examined. Restricted feeding level negatively affected final live body weight and this reduction in weight was significant in comparison with the initial weight restricted group Baladi and Shami gaots. Baladi gaots fed restricted groups had a significant decrease (P<0.05) in plasma total protein, but it recorded a significant increase (P<0.05) in Shami gaots. Globulin showed significant decreases (P<0.05) in both species. Albumin showed insignificant decrease in Baladi gaots and significant increase in Shami gaots. Albumin/ globulin ratio had highly significant increase in both breeds. Plasma glucose showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in Shami gaots and a non-significant increase in Baladi goats under feed restriction. Baladi and Shami gaots fed restricted groups had a significant decrease (P<0.05) in reduced glutathione (GSH), non significant decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and a significant decrease (P<0.05)   in SOD after the third month only compared to the control diet. On the other hand, a highly significant increase of lipid peroxides (LPO) where detected in both Baladi and Shami gaots in poor nutritional condition.In conclusion, restricted feed intake effect on both Baladi and Shami gaots were deleterious, but Baladi goats seemed to be more adapted to the feed shortage condition than Shami goats under semi-arid condition.

6/45 KIDNEY INJURY MOLECULE-1 (KIM-1): A PREDICTIVE BIOMARKER FOR HUMAN RENAL PROXIMAL TUBULE INJURY IN TYPE II DIABETIC PATIENTS

Nahla E. El-Ashmawy, Enas A. El-Zamarany*, Naglaa F. Khedr, Abeer I. Abd Elfattah**, Shereen A. Eltoukhy**

Departement of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University.

*Departement of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University.

**Departement of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy (Girls), Al-Azhar University.

Renal damage is aserious major micro-vascular diabetic complication implicated in the death of diabetic patients, which would necessitate the need for new biomarkers to detect early stage of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1), a type I transmembrane protein is undetectable in normal kidneys but markedly induced in proximal tubules after ischemic and toxic injury. So, the present study was conducted to estimate and evaluate kim-1 as a biomarker for DN. The study was carried out on sixty type II diabetic patients who were subdivided into thirty with nephropathy (having microalbuminuria 30-300 mg/dL) and thirty without nephropathy (having microalbuminuria <30 mg/dL). Twenty matched apparently healthy subjects were included as control group. Patients and controls were assessed for fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum and urine creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), microalbuminuria and urinary Kim-1. Mean urinary kim-1 levels were elevated 10 folds in type II diabetic patients with nephropathy compared to the control group. Urinary kim-1 levels were positively correlated with microalbuminuria, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Regarding the ROC-area under curve, Kim-1 was comparable to microalbuminuria suggesting its valuable role in early detection of DN.


7/45 FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF IBUPROFEN NIOSOMES

Mohamed S. El-Ridy, Hatem R. Ismail*, Mohamed I. Fetouh**, Mohamed A. Abdelmaksoud**

Pharmaceutical technology Dept., National Research Center

* Pharmaceutics Dept., Faculty of Pharmacy (Boys), Al-Azhar University.

** Pharmaceutics Dept., Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University.

Niosomes are unique drug delivery system obtained by hydration of synthetic non-ionic surfactants, with or without incorporation of cholesterol or other lipids. They are vesicular systems that can be used as carriers of hydrophilic or hydrophobic drugs and improves their therapeutic index by restricting their action to target cells. Ibuprofen is a Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that work by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX), which converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2). PGH2, in turn, is converted by other enzymes to several other prostaglandins (which are mediators of pain, inflammation, and fever) and to thromboxane A2 (which stimulates platelet aggregation, leading to the formation of blood clots. The main objective of this study was to design suitable niosome-encapsulated drug delivery for anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen and evaluate the vesicle size,zeta potential, shape and DSC and entrapment efficiency. Different formulations of ibuprofen niosomes were prepared using span 60 & cholesterol in two molar ratios 1:1 and 4:2 with or without addition of charge inducing agents. The niosomes were prepared by thin film hydration method. The higher entrapment efficiency was observed with niosome (F4) prepared from span 60, cholesterol and dicetylphosphate in molar ratio 4:2:1.

8/45 SYNTHESIS OF SOME NOVEL BENZOFURAN, PYRAZOLE, PYRIMIDINE, PYRIDINE, PYRIDOPYRIMIDINDITHIONE, BENZOPYRONE AND THIOPHENE DERIVATIVES OF ANTIOXIDENT ACTIVITY

Sadiaa A. Hessein and Hany A. Soror*

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science(Girls), Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

*Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agric. Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

A number of styryl ketones (3a-f) were prepared. The chalcone 3c reacted with hydrazine hydrate, phenyl hydrazine, thiourea, ethyl cayno acetate, malonoitrile to give pyrazole derivatives (4), (5), pyrimidine (6), pyridine derivatives (7), (8) respectively. Compound (8) reacted with carbondisulfide to give pyridopyrimidindithione (12). In addition, chalcon 3c reacted with m-aminophenol to give 13. Treatment of 3d with hydrazine hydrate gave 15. In addition chalcon 3e reacted with p-aminophenol to form 16. Also, 3f condensed with guainidine hydrochloride to yield 17. Interaction of 2 with a mixture of malononitril and elemental sulfer gave 2-aminothiophene derivative (18) which reacted with ethylchloroacetate and triethylorthoformate to give 19 and 20 respectively. Cyclization of 20 with hydrazine hydrate gave thienopyrimidine derivative (21) which refluxed with excess of hydrazine hydrate to give 4-hydrazino derivative (22). Antioxident activity of synthetic products were evaluated by scavenging of DPPH and inhibition of lipid per-oxidation assays. The results showed that the position and number of hydroxyl group and the different substitutions on prepared phenolic compounds have a considerable effect on their antioxidant activity.

9/45 ASSOCIATION OF INTERLEUKIN-10 AND INTERFERON-γ GENES POLYMORPHISMS WITH SUSCEPTIBILITY AND SEVERITY OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS INFECTION

Abeer Sheneef, Mamdouh M. Esmat,*Aida A. Mahmoud, **Hoda M. MoghazyandAsmaa N. Mohammad

Medical Microbiology and Immunology,*Biochemistry, **Physiology, ***Tropical Medicine Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between the polymorphisms in interleukin-10 and interferon- γ genes with susceptibility and severity of HCV infection in Sohag University Hospital, Sohag, Egypt. The study was carried out on 100 patients with chronic HCV who were allocated into 2 groups; chronic HCV patients without cirrhosis (group I; n = 50) and chronic HCV patients with cirrhosis (group II; n = 50). Fifty age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were considered as a control group. Interleukin-10 -592 A/C and IL10 -1082 G/A single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) while IFN-γ +874 T/A polymorphism was genotyped by the amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR). The results of IL10-592A/C polymorphism genotyping revealed that the frequency of CC genotype was significantly higher in chronic HCV patients than in controls (58% versus 30%, odd ratio [95% confidence interval] = 3.2 [1.8-5.8], P < 0.05). Regarding IL10-1082G/A polymorphism genotyping, a higher frequency of GG genotype was found in chronic HCV patients compared to controls (31% versus 10%, odd ratio [95% confidence interval] = 4 [1.86-8.8], p < 0.05). The results of IFN-γ -874 T/A genotyping showed thatTT genotype was significantly higher in chronic HCV participants than controls (31% versus 18%, odd ratio [95% confidence interval] = 2 [1.1-3.97], p < 0.05) while a higher frequency of T allele was found in cirrhotic HCV patients compared to non- cirrhotic patients (odd ratio [95% confidence interval] =3.7 [1.5-8.97], p < 0.05). There was an association between IL10-592 A/C, IL10-1082G/A and IFN-γ-874 T/A polymorphisms and susceptibility to HCV infection. However, there was no significant difference in the cytokine (IL-10 and IFN-γ) genotypes profile between HCV patients with and without cirrhosis; except for the high frequency of IFN-γ -874 T allele in cirrhotic patients.

10/45 DEVELOPMENT OF LORNOXICAM ORODISPERSIBLE TABLETS

Sherif K. Abu-Elyazid

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy (boys), Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

Orodispersible tablets (ODT) have received greatest attention during the last decade, and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active ingredients. This approach is helpful for all age especially pediatric, uncooperative, geriatric and dysphasia patients. Lornoxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with analgesic properties. The purpose of this study was to develop a taste masked oral disintegrating tablet of Lornoxicam to achieve rapid onset of action. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique using various superdisintegrants such as sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium and crospovidone in addition to camphor in certain formulae.The designed formulae powder blend were tested for micromeriticcharacters then directly compressed into 200 mg orodispersible tablets. These tablets were further subjected to the physical evaluation. From the obtained result in this study, one could conclude that almost all the studied Lornoxicamorodispersible tablets were passed the micromeritics demands to achieve a good flowability and compression property. Also the compressed tablets of certain formulae had an efficient disintegration time and release profile that make a good candidate for the large scale application as approach for drug delivery into the oral cavity. The most efficient formulae were S2 and S3 which contains 10 mg of crospovidoneand 12.5 and 17.5 mg of camphor as porosity increasing agent, respectively.

11/45 FORMULATION, OPTIMIZATION, AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF LOSARTAN POTASSIUM ORO-DISPERSIBLE TABLET

Hany M. Ibrahim

Department of Pharmaceutics and Ind. Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

First pass metabolism by the liver or intestine is one of several factors responsible for the low bioavailability of many drugs. It can be avoided by the sublingual route of administration thereby rapid drug passage to the systemic circulation with improved bioavailability can be achieved. The study aims to develop simple and inexpensive method of manufacturing losartan orodispersible tablets (ODTs) using direct compression method. A two factor, three levels (32) full factorial design was applied to investigate the main and interaction effects of superdisintegrant, sodium starch glycolate (SSG) and wicking agent, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) on disintegration time and hardness of the tablets. Tablets were evaluated for the physical properties, and optimum formula was chosen for effect of aging study, in vivo evaluation and for studying effects of moisture uptake at different levels of relative humidity (75, 85 and 95%) on hardness and disintegration time. Results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that disintegration time was decreased by increasing SSG up to 5% while at higher concentration, disintegration time will be delayed; however MCC has no impact on the disintegration time. On the other hand, hardness was significantly affected by MCC while SSG has no effect. The optimized formula was a tablet of 3.3% SSG and 10% MCC, showed a rapid disintegration time of 23 second and hardness of 3.39 Kp. Disintegration time and hardness of optimum formula were significantly affected by increasing level of relative humidity over time. The relative bioavailability of optimum formula (154.5 %) was significantly higher than commercially available dosage form Losar® tablet (50 mg losartan, UniPharma, Egypt). In conclusion, a cost effective oral dispersible tablets of losartan were successfully formulated with acceptable hardness, desirable taste and rapid disintegration in the oral cavity with improved bioavailability.

12/45 PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF THYMOQUINONE AGAINST ETHINYLESTRADIOL AND CHLORPROMAZINE-INDUCED INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS IN RATS

Mona Mohamed El-Naa and Ahmad Salahuddin*

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, October University for Modern Sciences and Arts (MSA), Egypt.

* Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Damanhour University, Egypt.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thymoquinone (TQ) against cholestatic liver damage induced by 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE) and Chlorpromazine (CPZ). Adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups; (EE-CPZ): received EE (5 mg/kg, s.c.) and CPZ (30 mg/kg, p.o.) daily for 5 days, (TQ): received TQ (100 mg/kg, p.o.) daily for 5 days along with EE-CPZ, and control. Liver damage and cholestasis were determined by bile flow estimation and the biochemical and the pathologic examination. Data showed an improvement of bile flow and a decrease in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and total bilirubin level of the TQ treated rats compared with EE-CPZ group. Treatment with TQ attenuated alternations in liver histology. The TQ treated rats’ liver level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly lower than that of the EE-CPZ group. Increases in total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase (CAT) activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were significant in the TQ treated rats compared to EE-CPZ group. These results indicate that TQ exerts a protective effect on cholestatic liver injury induced by EE-CPZ in rats possibly through attenuation of oxidative stress in the liver tissue.

 

13/45 POTENTIAL EFFECT OF SOME IPOMEA CARNEA (JACQ.) EXTRACTS ON SPODOPTERA LITTORALIS (BOISD.).

Mamdouh I. Nassar; Mohamed T. Taha*; Hala M.I. Mead**

and Mohamed G.M. Salama**.

EntomologyDepartment, Faculty of Science, Cairo University.

* ZoologyDepartment, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University..

**Plant Protection, Research Institute, A.R.C., Dokki, Giza.

The toxic effect of some extracts of the aerial parts of Ipomea carnea that collected from Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, against 4th instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Based on LC50 and LC90 values, Ipomea carnea extracts were recorded (24.622 and 164.947 ppm., respectively) for the most potent one (acetonic extract) followed by hexane (232.677 and 15377.590 ppm., respectively) and finally the alcoholic extract which doesn’t reveal any toxicity until 5 days post treatment. Chloropyrifos insecticide gave (9.497 and 91.126 ppm, respectively).The chemical constituents of acetonic extract of the aerial part of I. carnea were determined using GC-MS analysis. The most active compound were Palmatic (iso propyl - hexadecanoate),Silane, [[3.alpha.,5.alpha.,20R)-pregnane-3,20-diyl]bis(oxy)] bis (trimethyl-(cas)5.and Pederone, that recorded (44.025, 11.455 and 9.325%, respectively). On the other hand the activity of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (amylase, invertase and trehalase) in S. littoralis larvae was generally increased as affected by all tested concentrations compare to larvae treated with acetone only that gave (97.46, 97.66 and 99.33%), respectively, (LC25) of I. carnea that caused 77.11% on trehalase enzyme.

14/45 PEPTIC ULCER: RELEVANCE TO POSSIBLE PROTECTION BY ZINC IN STRESSED RATS

Ahmed S. Mohamed, Mahmoud M. El-Fouly,Ahmed A. El Gazar and

Heba A. El Hafeez.

Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Benha Faculty of Medicine,

Benha University.

Peptic ulcer is an erosions or open sores in the mucous lining of the stomach or duodenum. The present study aims to evaluate the role of zinc in attenuation of peptic ulcer using cold-immobilization rat model. Animals were classified into normal control group (received normal saline ), non treated stressed animals exposed to cold immobilization at 4 oC for 6 hrs in refrigerator, Diazepam-treated group (3mg/kg i.p) single dose one hour before stress, zinc sulphate-treated group (80 mg/kg orally) three days before stress. Data in the present study revealed that exposure of animals to cold-immobilization resulted in induction of peptic ulcer indicated by both ulcer score & ulcer index, however pre administration of zinc sulphate significantly reduced both ulcer score and ulcer index and significantly decreased serum activities of (ALT, AST, GST as well as caspase-3) in addition to reduction of the level of TNF-α and improved histopathological examination of stomach sections compared to rats exposed to cold-immobilization with out prior administration of zinc sulphate. Zinc sulphate pre administration can protect against stress-induced peptic ulcer & this effect may be mediated through attenuation of oxidative stress mediated inflamation and subsequent induced apoptosis. This may provide a valuable stratigy for prevention of peptic ulcer during stress insults by using zinc sulphate as an adjuvent therapy.

15/45 Anti-diabetic and antioxidant activities of some Egyptian medicinal plants; a comparative study.

Mohamed A. Abdelaziz, Mohamed A. Ashour*, Amani Seleim** and

Hazem A. Kadry*

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr University for Sciences and Arts, 6th of October, Egypt.

*Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

**Department of Pharmacology, National Research Centre, Eldokky, El-Giza, Egypt.

Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs when the body cannot produce enough insulin or cannot use insulin effectively. Diabetes is one of the most famous Health problems and about 8.3% of the people worldwide are suffering from diabetes. Although glucose-lowering drugs (e.g. insulin and sulfonylureas) are available in the market, however, most of them may have serious side effects. Currently, substantial research for safe and efficacious hypoglycemic drugs is in progress. In this context, WHO has suggested the utilization of herbal medicine. Although several herbal preparations are used to treat diabetes, however, few herbal drugs have been well characterized and demonstrated the efficacy in systematic clinical trials. In this research four Egyptian plants have been comparatively evaluated for antidiabetic effects, these plants are Annona squamosa Linn. (Annonaceae), Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. (Poaceae), Cymbopogon proximus Stapf. (Poaceae) and Zygophyllum coccineum Linn. (Zygophyllaceae). The total methanolic extract was prepared from each plant. LD50 and antioxidant activity were determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical(DPPH) method and blood glutathione method. Anti-diabetic activity was tested using Blood glucose test method. The results revealed that C. citratus extract was the most active one. Anti-diabetic and antioxidant activities of different C. citratus extractives, C. citratus volatile oil, and vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) fractions of 70 % methanolic extract of C. citratus were also evaluated.

16/45 DETECTION OF ENDOTOXIN PRODUCING GRAM NEGATIVE BACTRIA THROUGH AN ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAM APPLIED IN AN ANTISERA PREPARATION PLANT

Norhan S. Sheraba, Mohamed R. Diab, Aymen S.Yassin*, Magdy A. Amin* and Hamdallah H. Zedan*

VACSERA, The Holding Company for Biological Products and Vaccines,

Giza, Egypt

*Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

Snake bites represent a serious public health problem particularly in rural areas worldwide. Antitoxic sera preparations are antibodies from immunized animals and are considered to be the only treatment option. The purification of antivenom antibodies should aim at obtaining products of consistent quality, safety, efficacy and adhering to the GMP principles. Endotoxins are an integral component of the outer cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria. They are common contaminates of the raw materials and processing equipment used in the manufacturing of antivenoms. In this work, we establish and examine an environmental monitoring program for identification of potential sources of endotoxin producing Gram-negative bacteria throughout the whole process of antivenom preparation. Samples from air, surface and personnel were collected and examined through various stages of manufacturing for the potential presence of Gram-negative bacteria. A validated sterility test was carried out in parallel at the different production steps. The results showed that air contributed to the majority of bacterial isolates detected (48.43%), followed by surfaces (37.5%) and then personnel (14%). The most common bacterial isolates detected were Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Ochrobactrum anthropi. A heavy bacterial growth with no fungal contamination was observed in all stages of antivenom manufacturing excluding the formulation stage. Implementation and continued evaluation of quality assurance and quality improvement programs in aseptic preparation is essential in ensuring the safety and quality of these products.


17/45 RELATION BETWEENOBESTATIN AND METABOLIC DYSFUNCTION IN RATS SUBJECTED TO PARTIAL SLEEP DEPRIVATION.

Maha MAttia, Mamdouh El-Yamany and Azza Saad

Physiology Department, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University

Short sleep duration was reported as a new risk factor for   metabolic and endocrine alterations. Obestatin, is a recently discovered stomach hormone that functions as a part of gut-brain network. However, its role in partial sleep deprivation (PSD) remains to be fully elucidated.This study aimed to evaluate   serum and brain obestatin levels in relation to metabolic alterations in different durations of partial sleep deprivation. Thirty malealbino rats were divided into 3 groups: group1: Ten rats underwent normal sleep served as controls. Group 2: Ten rats exposed to PSD for one week. Group 3: Ten rats exposed to PSD for 3 weeks. Sleep deprivation was carried out by audio-visual mechanism.Weight and food intake were recorded with determination of serum and brain obestatin ,glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, insulin, lipid profile and CRP in all rats. Findings revealed significant decrease in serum and brain obestatin with significant increase in weight, food intake and metabolic parameters in the group exposed to PSD for 3 weeks as compared to othertwogroups.Significant negative correlations were also noticed between both serum, brain obestatin and all studied parameters in the same group.In conclusion, PSD for a longer duration more than3 weeks was associated with hyperphagia with increased risk of obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Obestatin could be considered as a part of the regulatory mechanisms between feeding and sleep. Data indicated its role in metabolic dysfunction associated with PSD suggesting potential therapeutic perspectives in modulating this dysfunction.

18/45 BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES, NUTRACEUTICAL POTENTIAL, AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITYOF TERFEZIABOUDIERICHATIN, A WILD EDIBLE DESERT TRUFFLE FROM EGYPT

Amal A.I. Mekawey

Regional Center of Mycology and Biotechnology (RCMB), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Nutritional composition, antioxidant and biological properties of Terfezia boudieri Chatin, a desert truffle largely distributed in Egypt were evaluated. Carbohydrates were the most abundant macronutrients (15.4 g/100 g) followed by proteins (9.04 g/100 g), ash and fat contents were 4.47 and 3.82 g/100 g, respectively. Arabinose recorded in high amount (3.02 g/100 g) while fructose found in small amount (0.2 g/100g). Citric acid considered the main organic acid (5.03 g/100 g) while p-Hydroxybenzoic acid considered the main phenolic acid (10.65 g/100 g) in Terfezia boudieri (dry mass). Also, higher content of the essential linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids (44.9%, 19.05% and 11.38% respectively) were determinated. Furthermore, the truffle extracts were tested for their antioxidant and antibacterial and antifungal activities. Aqueous extract showed highest antioxidant activity (IC50 value =221.9 µg) more than organic solvent extracts. As well as, all Gram positive and unicellular fungi (yeasts) exhibited highest sensitivity to aqueous extract of T. boudieri while organic solvent extracts had great ability to inhibit the growth of Gram negative and filamentous fungi.

19/45 SERUM RESISTIN LEVEL AND INSULIN RESISTANCE IN EGYPTIAN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC RENAL DISEASE

Ola Sayed Mohammed Ali, Soheir Saead Maklad*, Shereen Saead El-Shaer,

Ahmad Abdullah Mohammad** and Dalia Abdel Lateef Zeidan

Biochemistry department, Faculty of Pharmacy (girls), Al-Azhar University

* Microbiology department, Faculty of Medicine (Girls), Al-Azhar University

** Pediatric Dialysis Unit at Ain Shams University, Children's Hospital

The current study investigates the hypothesis that patients with chronic renal disease may develop insulin resistance (IR) which is considered as a risk factor to a cardiovascular disorder. IR and serum resistin hormone level which mediates a mechanism linking IR to cardiovascular disease were assessed in chronic renal failure (CRF) children and investigates the possible impact of hemodialysis on resistin levels. The study included 20 predialysis patients on conservative treatment (group 1), 20 end stage renal disease patients on regular hemodialysis (HD) (group 2) and 10 age and sex matched healthy subjects (group 3). IR was determined by measuring serum levels of fasting blood glucose (FBS) and fasting insulin (FI) using HOMA-IR equation. Resistin hormone level was measured by ELISA for all groups and before and after HD sessions for group 2. Both patients groups have significant IR (group 1: P<0.05, group 2: P<0.01) compared to the controls with insignificant difference between the two patient groups (3.66±1.87) and (4.96±2.18) respectively. In addition, resistin levels in the studied groups were (10.70±3.70), (26.25±8.86) and (4.70±3.19) ng/ml respectively. There was a highly significant increase in resistin level (P<0.01) in group 2 as compared to group1 and controls. A significant reduction (P<0.01) was detected in the mean value of resistin after HD session than before (13.4 ± 4.71 vs. 26.25± 8.86 ng/ml). The study did not find any correlation between resistin levels and any clinical or laboratory parameters. Conclusion: Children with CRF have IR and elevated serum resistin levels which was improved by HD. This indicates that HD may help in correction of resistin levels and hence prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders.

20/45 ICSI OUTCOME USING EJACULATED VERSUS TESTICULAR SPERM IN CASE OF REPETITIVE INTRACYTOPLASMIC SPERM INJECTION (ICSI) FAILURE DUE TO MALE FACTOR.    

Ahmad Mohammad Abdelrahem Rammah*, Ibrahim Mearaj Ibrahim Abul-Ela

and Eman Ahmad Hassan*

*Faculty of Medicine, Department of Andrology, Al Azhar University.

*International Islamic Center for Population Studies and Research, Assisted Reproduction Unit, Al-Azhar University.

The aim of this study is to Compare ICSI results: fertilization rate , Cleavage rate , number and quality of embryos and chemical pregnancy rate using either fresh ejaculated sperm or testicular sperm in the same infertile man with repeated ICSI failure . Prospective study on one hundred infertile men with repeated ICSI failure but their wives were completely normal. In these disorders, testicular biopsy was normal and the sperm count was adequate for doing ICSI. . ICSI of different Oocytes from the same woman using an ejaculated sperm and testicular sperm from her husband was performedsimultaneously. ICSI outcomes were compared in the two sequential attempts. Number of Oocytes, Fertilization rates, number and quality of embryos and pregnancy rate were recorded. The fertilization rate was 41.9% in the ejaculated group and 58.1 % in the testicular group with high statistical significant difference. Regarding the obtained number of embryos, there was statistically significant difference between ejaculated and testicular sperms. Also the number of obtained grade A embryos was more in testicular sperms with statistically significant difference. Pregnancy rate was 50% with ET of grade A, 44.4% with grade (A&B) embryos while ET of grade B resulted in lower pregnancy rate.ICSI using testicular sperm should be considered whenever there was repeated failure with using ejaculated sperm.

21/45 MOLECULAR TYPING OF SALMONELLA TYPHIISOLATES ISOLATED FROM DRINKING WATER AND TYPHOID PATIENTS IN EGYPT

Zeinab H. Helal, Somaia A. Eissa* and Soaad A. Mohamed

Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt and *Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

Outbreaks caused by Salmonella Typhiare common and mainly due to the consumption of untreated or sewage-contaminated water. For that reason the study was undertaken to determine a correlation between typhoid fever and water pollution in Egypt. A total of 1000 drinking water samples were collected from seven governorates in Egypt. Also, a total of 453 clinical specimens (blood & stool) were collected from 278 typhoid patients from different hospitals in Egypt. The conventional methods were used for isolation and identification of Salmonella spp. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. ERIC-PCR has been chosen for intra-species profiling of Salmonella spp. There were 484 (48.4%) contaminated samples, out of these 15 (3.1 %) Salmonella Typhiwere isolated.   Fifty three Salmonella Typhi and 24 Salmonella Paratyphi B were isolated from clinical specimens. With ERIC-PCR primers, all of the 53 Salmonella Typhistrains isolated from patient displayed 35 patterns with 3-10 major bands between 150 and 1100 bp, whereas, the 15 Salmonella Typhiisolated from water generated 10 different patterns, with 6-10 major bands between 150 and 1100 bp. The total genotypic profiles to all isolates were 38 band patterns. There was strong correlation between typhoid cases and Salmonella Typhiisolated from contaminated water sample. In conclusion, unsafe water supplies continue to raise public health concerns, especially in urban areas in low resource places in Egypt. ERIC-PCR is informative and discriminative for typing of Salmonella spp.

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