Vol. 48, November, 2015

1/48 THE POTENTIAL RENOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CAPTOPRIL VERSUS IRBESARTANON EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED NEPHROTIXICITY IN RATS

Ahmed S. Mohamed, Hanan T. Emam,Sherif A.ElsayedShaltout and Doaa M. Khalil

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Benha Faculty of Medicine,

Benha University.

The present study was designed to study the potential renoprotective effect of irbesartan andcaptopril on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Twenty four male adult rats were used, rats were separated randomly into 4 groups, six rats in each group. 1st group is control group was fed with standard dietwith no medication. 2nd group received gentamicin 100 mg/kg/dayintraperitonial (i.p.) for 12 days. 3rd group received gentamicin100mg/kg/day i.p. concomitantly with oral adminstration of Irbesartan 25mg/kg/day for 12days. 4th group received gentamicin100mg/kg/day i.p.concomitantlywith oral adminstration of captopril 50mg/kg/day for 12 days. The obtained data in the current work revealed that gentamicin increased serum urea, serum creatinine, 24 hrs urinary protein excretion and decreased serum reduced glutathione (GSH) significantly (p<0.05) compared with control. Renal damage was confirmed with histopathological studies. Both irbesartan and captopril treatment decreased serum urea, creatinine, 24 hrs urinary protein excretion and increased serum reduced glutathione (GSH) significantly (p<0.05) compared with gentamicin group. Also, histopathology of the kidney was improved. Captopril affords better renoprotective effect as regardserum urea, creatinine, 24 hrs urinary protein excretionand histopathological examination of the kidney, while there was insignificant difference in serum GSH between both drugs.

 

2/48  QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF INSULIN LOADING CAPACITY AND RELEASE PROFILE FROM POROUS PLGA MICROPARTICLES

Sarah Y. Eilleia, Mahmoud E. Soliman, Samar Mansour, and Ahmed. S. Geniedy

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

The rapid growth in the market of therapeutic macromolecules increased the demand for the development of carrier systems that can protect these molecules from harsh biological environment till they reach the site of action. In order to design an efficient carrier, loading capacity and release profile should be accurately determined. Despite the importance of these parameters, there are hardly any studies related to their determination. In this study we investigate the determination of these parameters from insulin loaded porous Poly-DL (lactide co-glycolide) microparticles(PLGA MPs) using two simple and economic techniques namely;UV and fluorescence spectroscopy. In the former method, UV spectroscopy showed lower sensitivity but good linearity. In case of fluorescence spectroscopy, the method was sensitive enough to reach a concentration as low as 0.35 µg/mL. The used techniques proved to offer alternative cheap and simple quantification for insulin loaded and released from PLGA MPs.

 

3/48  EVALUATION OF CIRCULATING FATTY ACID SYNTHASE IN NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE

Aida Abdeen Mahmoud,Asmaa N. Mohammad*and Mohamed Abdel Wahab Ezat**

Medical Biochemistry, Tropical Medicine* and **Internal Medicine Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt.

The liver plays a major role in lipid metabolism, importing free fatty acids and manufacturing, storing, and exporting lipids; derangements in any of these processes can lead to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a key enzyme in de novo lipogenesis and circulating FAS is a biomarker of metabolically demanding human diseases. In this investigation, we aimed to evaluate circulating FAS in NAFLD patients and correlate its level to serum lipid parameters. The study included forty NAFLD patients and forty age and sex- matched healthy subjects as controls. The results of the study revealed that FAS levels were significantly higher in NAFLD patients compared to their level in the controls (P < 0.0001). Additionally, a positive correlation was found between the levels of FAS and BMI (r = 0.57), and between FAS levels andtriglycerides and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in NAFLD patients (r = 0.79 &0.53, respectively). In conclusion, elevated levels of circulating FAS can be considered as a biomarker of fatty liver disease.

 

4/48  Formulation, preparation and In-vitro evaluation of Clotrimazole niosomes

Mohamed S. El-Ridy, Mahmoud A. Mahdy*,  Mostafa M. Younis, Mahmoud M. Ibrahim* and Sally A. Abdel Razik

Pharmaceutical Technology Department, Pharmaceutical and Drug Industries Research Division, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

Pharmaceutics Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Sharkia, Egypt

Clotrimazole is an imidazole derivative antifungal agent is widely used for the treatment of mycotic infections of the genitourinary tract. The objective of this research is to develop aclotrimazoleniosomal formulation with sustained and controlled release. Niosomes are nonionicsurfactant vesicles that are formed from self assembly of non-ionic surfactant in aqueous media resulting in a closed bilayer structure. Clotrimazoleniosomes were prepared by the lipid hydration method using sorbitan ester (Span), cholesterol (Chol) and charge inducing agent (CIA) in molar ratios Span: Chol :CIA (1:1:0.1,and 4:2:0.15). Dicetyl phosphate (DCP) and Stearyl amine (SA) were added as the negative and positive charge inducing agents, respectively. Characterization of the prepared Clotrimazoleniosomes was performed via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). These niosomal formulations will be investigated for their increased activity and safety compared to free drug.

 

 5/48  IMPACT OF SERUM APELINON NITRIC OXIDE AND ELECTROLYTESIN ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS

Mohamed Ahmed Abdel Elmoaty,Aida Abdeen Mahmoud,Mohamed Abdel Wahab Ezat*and Zeinab Mahmoud Kadry

Medical Biochemistry and *Internal Medicine Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt.

Apelin, an endogenous peptide exerts its actions through binding to its receptors (APJ receptors) and has been demonstrated in both animal and human studies to have inotropic, diuretic (nitric oxide-dependent), and vasodilator effects, in addition to antagonistic effects on angiotensin II. In this investigation, serum apelin, nitric oxide (NOx), sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were evaluated in patients with essential hypertension and compared to their levels in healthy subjects. Our results revealed a significant decrease in serum apelin in essential hypertensive patients compared to the controls (P < 0.0001). NO, Na and K increased in the patients compared to controls (P < 0.05). A weak positive correlation between serum apelinand NO (r = 0.185) and a significant negative correlation between both of Na and K and serum apelin (r = -0.526 & 0.269, respectively) was found in essential hypertensive patients.The study suggested that apelin may play a role in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension, possibly through affecting blood hemostasis.

 

6/48  PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ZINC COMPLEX WITH MANNAN POLYSACCHARIDE EXTRACTED FROM SACCHAROMYCESCEREVISIAE YEAST GROWN ON SUGAR CANE MOLASSES

Ebtsam Mohamed Morsy, Gehad Genidy Mohamed*, Mohamed Mohamed Omar* and Wael Khalil El-Tramsy*

Soils, Water and Environment Research institute,Agriculture Research Center(ARC), Giza, Egypt.

*Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Zinc complex of mannan was prepared by the reaction of mannan biopolymer with zinc choloride in molar ratio (2:1). Mannan and mannan zinc complex were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA revealed that mannan zinc complex is more thermally stable than mannan biopolymer. The effect of zinc complex on alcoholic cane molasses fermentation efficiency was studied and the results showed improvement in fermentation efficiency in the presence of zinc complex. The ability of mannan to complex a variety of metal ions in their web like structure and the resistance to high temperatures opens new perspectives in possible industrial uses. Potentiometric studies proved that mannan is a monodentate ligand

 

7/48  ENCAPSULATION OF TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR AGONIST RESIQUIMODIN LIPOSOMES BY PH GRADIENT TECHNIQUE AS ADJUVANT FOR TREATMENT OF VIRAL AND POTENTIALLY CANCER DISEASES

Hossam Hefesha, Sherif Khalifa and Hany M. Ibrahim

Department of Pharmaceutics and industrial pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

Resiquimodis a poorly water soluble drug; this character restricts the delivery of this compound to primarily topical formulation. One potential method to deliver Resiquimod; as an example of imidazoquinolines, parenterally is to be formulated in liposomes. So the aim of this study was to obtain liposomal formulations of Resiquimodwhich can be administered by injection and assessing its immune response as a therapeutic vaccine for viral infections. The liposomes were prepared by ethanol injection technique. The lipid mixture of the phospholipid (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) or 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC)) (DSPE-PEG2000) DMPC, DPPC or DSPC) with cholesterol (Cholesterol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[maleimide(polyethylene glycol)-2000] (DSPE-PEG2000) (mol/mol/mol 55/40/5). The liposomal formulations were subjected to characterization procedures which included Liposome size, polydispersity index (PDI), and zeta-potential, encapsulation efficiency determination, in vitro dissolution, immune cells activation and INF α induction. The obtained results from this study was revealed that all liposomes showed oligo-lamellar liposomes with particle size ranged between (~160-300 nm), (polydispersity index, PD < 0.4) and slightly negative Zeta potential (≤ 20), also the encapsulation efficiency was ranged between 97.5% - 99 %. The sub visible particle measurements showed that all liposomes comply with USP specifications for injectables. All liposomes showed a release kinetic following first order kinetics with maximum % released of 95, 78, and 74 for DMPC/CHOL/DSPE-PEG2000, DPPC/CHOL/DSPE-PEG2000, DSPC/CHOL/DSPE-PEG2000, respectively. Regarding investigation of immune cells activation, liposomes composed of DPPC/CHOL/DSPE-PEG2000 led to the highest activation of all types of cells of immune cells as well as INF α induction than DMPC/CHOL/DSPE-PEG2000 and DSPC/CHOL/DSPE-PEG2000 liposomes.

8/48  SPONTANEOUS BACTERIAL PERITONITIS IN CIRRHOTIC PATIENTS: DIAGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF IL 8 AND DIFFERENT BIOMARKERS IN RAPID DIAGNOSIS

Mohammed S.E. Ashour, Wafaa N. El Tayab*, Fatma Alzahraa M. Gomaa** and Eman A. Hammad*

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

*Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, Cairo, Egypt.

**Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al Azhar University (Girls), Cairo, Egypt.

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a frequent and severe complication in cirrhotic patients with ascites with a significant risk of mortality. In patients with SBP, early diagnosis and rapid treatment can improve patient survival. The objective of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of interleukin 8 and some biochemical techniques for rapid diagnosis of SBP. Also to determine the causative agents of SBP in patient with liver cirrhosis and ascites and their antimicrobial sensitivity to guide therapeutic care. One hundred and one patients with cirrhotic ascites were included in the study, from each non repetitive ascetic fluid specimens were collected during the period from February 2014 to January 2015. Specimens were collected for cytological, biochemical and microbiological examination. IL8 concentration was determined using ELISA. The incidence of SBP represents 32.7% of cirrhotic patients with higher frequency of males (72.3%) of those patients. HCV is the most common cause of liver cirrhosis followed by HBV and NASH.SBP patients is classified into classical SBP (78.8%), while BA (12.1%) and CNNA (9.1%) of total SBP patients. Ascitic fluid WBC's & PMN counts and LDH level were significantly higher in SBP patients when compared to non SBP patients. Ascitic fluid Glucose level was significantly lower in SBP patients when compared to non SBP patients.  Ascitic fluid Creatinine level was not significantly lower in SBP patients when compared to non SBP patients.  Ascitic fluid IL-8 concentration was significantly higher in SBP patients when compared to non SBP patients, showing high sensitivity, specificity and best diagnostic accuracy for diagnosing SBP following ascitic fluid cell count. Gram-positive isolates represented 53.3% of causative organisms, while Gram- negative accounted for 46.7%. E. coli was responsible for majority of infection followed by CoNS. Multi-drug resistance was witnessed in A. baumannii and E.coli and 50% of S. aureus, were VRSA.  From this study, it can be concluded that SBP is caused by various Gram positive and Gram negative pathogens.  IL-8 concentration is considered as a rapid, reliable, easy and cost effective technique in diagnosing SBP that could be applicable in the context of emergency.

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