Vol. 4, October, 1999.




G.H. Shaker, M.K. Okasha and H.A. Abdel-Salam

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig

44519, Egypt.

The infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans in our study was found to be of serotypes A or A/D pair. The cryptococcal antigen latex agglutination system (CALAS) was used for detecting cryptococcalpolysaccharide antigen in 10 CSF and 23 serum samples of patients suffering from cryptococcosis. The CALAS tilers in CSF and sera ranged from 8-2048 (mean 596) and 32-2048 (mean 1107), respectively, in cryptococcal meningitis. Serum liters ranged from 8-2048 (mean 706) in cases of intestinal cryptococcosis. The total leukocyte count and biochemical parameters in CSF were significantly increased. Two primers for internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions ofribosomal DNA were used for molecular detection of C. neoformans. After PCR amplification, a DNA band of 415 bp in the electrophoreses agarose gel was visualized and indicated the presence ofC. neoformans cells in the tested CSF and serum samples. The primers sensitivity was also characterized using purified yeast chromosomal DNA as template. The primers sensitivity was about 20 pg or more chromosomal DNA that represent about 10 cells ofC. neoformans. The primers were also specific for ITS regions ofC. neoformans and gave negative results with Candida albicans and E. coli chromosomal DNA templates. Close relationship was ascertained between cryptococcal encapsulation and in vivo virulence. The in vitro exchange of the teleomorph; sexual state to the anamorph; asexual state in the environment, was also high lightened. The teleomorph state is more virulent and infectious in the host, than the anamorph state. The most of isolated C. neoformans strains showed uniform patterns of susceptibility testing to antifungal agents tested. The MIC required to inhibit 50 and 90% of the isolates to 7 drugs were tested, and showed broad ranges for 5-flucytosine (0.25-8\.\.g/ml), nystatin (0.2-6.25 \ig/ml), fluconazole (0.5-16 l\.g/ml) and miconazole (0.4-12.5 \ig/ml), whereas amphotericin B (0.25-1 ^.g/ml), ketoconazole (0.03-0.25jJLg/ml) and itraconazole (0.03-0.25 \ig/ml) were within narrower ranges of MICs for the clinical yeast isolates. None of the isolates was resistant to any of the tested antifungal.



A.M. El Said, M.A. El Maltawy*, and S.M. Ghaly*

Dept. of Tropical Medicine and Internal Medicine* Faculty of Medicine - Ain Shams University

Arterial blood gases and vital capacity were measured just before and 24 hours after injection sclerotherapy with 5% ethanolamine oleate, band ligation and diagnostic esophagogastroscopy in patients with chronic liver disease and esophageal varices. Our results showed that there was significant reduction ofPaO? only after injection sclerotherapy (P < 0.001), this reduction was significant when compared with the other 2 groups (P < 0.001). Vital capacity was also significantly reduced (P < 0.01) after injection sclerotherapy but not after band ligation. or diagnostic endoscopy. Again the difference between the injected group and the other 2 groups was significant (P < 0.01). In the injection group only, there was significant linear correlation between the changes in PaOz nd ercentage hange n ital capacity (P < 0.0J). Conclusion: band ligation has an advantage over injection sclerotherapy in the treatment of esophageal varices because injection sclerotherapy may be complicated by restrictive defect in pulmonary functions with decrease in PaO? and vital capacity, possibly due to sclerosant embolization.


H.H. Radwan

Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University.

Washed cells of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) ATCC 43629, incubated in distilled water, underwent spontaneous transformation from cultivable spiral form to viable nonculturable coccoid form. Coccoid forms were incubated in stomach aspirate modified biphasic culture system (SAMBS) composed of bruceHa agar base overlaid by filter-sterilized stomach aspirates. In this modified medium, the nonculturable coccoid forms reverted to the cultivable spiral forms as demonstrated by colonial growth and microscopical examination. Only stomach aspirates from peptic ulcer patients successfully supported the reversion process. Stomach aspirates from uninfected peptic ulcer patients, however, failed to support reversion. The newly developed SAMBS was utilized for attempts of primary isolation of H. pylori from peptic ulcer patients. Significantly higher recovery rale (86%) was obtained with this newly developed SAMBS, whereas other ordinary used media recovered about 64% of H. pylori from peptic ulcer biopsy specimens. In addition, while ordinary media failed to recover H. pylori from stomach aspirates of peptic ulcer patients, by SAMBS it was possible to recover the organism in viable form at a rate of 89% of tested specimens, '['he distribution of H. pylori in stream water, beverages, milk and some traditional Egyptian foods was also studied by utilization of SAMBS. The organism could be isolated only from raw milk, stream water and some other liquids.


E.M. Desouky(1), N.M. Sidkey(2), M.S. Ammar(3) and W.A. Hussein(4).

Bot. and Microbiol-Depts., Faculty of Sci., "Girl(1'2'4) and boys(3) branches" Al-Azhar Univ., Nasr City, Cairo P.N. 11884, Egypt.

The antimicrobial action of crude Nigella sativa, L.oil (N.S.O.) was emphasized using various test isolates e.g. Streptomyces sp., Bacillus subtilis, B.licheniforms, B.coagulans, E.coli and Staphyllococcus aureus. The recorded antimicrobial action was also confirmed using well identified test organisms viz. Streptococcus faecalis ATCC 292J2, Candida albicans DSM1386 andE.coti NCTC 10416. The minimum inhibitory concentration (M.I.C.) of N.S.O. was 20% for all the test organisms used whereas the minimum inhibitory Dose (M.l.D.) was found to be 0.2 ml of the crude N.S.O. (100% cone.) in case of all the tested microorganisms. Data indicated that N.S.O. - antimicrobial action could be applied safely in the field of medicine in general and infectious diseases control in particular.


N.E. Yousef, A.A. Abdelrahman and M.E. Askar*

Department of Microbiology and Department of Biochemistry* Faculty of Pharmacy,

Zagazig University.

This work was developed to demonstrate the antagonistic effect of orally administered lactic acid bacteria (including, Lactobadllus casei and Lactobacittus bulgaricus) on local mucosal immunity in response to the enteropathogens. The normal mice were protected against enteropathogens by previous feeding with L. casei and L. bulgaricus. The protective effect was mainly due to IgA production in the intestinal secretions. The level of immunoglobulins from the intestinal fluid of mice previously fed with lactic acid bacteria was measured by radial immunodiffusion assay. The assay showed in all cases an increase in the immunoglobiilin concentrations. The presence of two lines of immuno-precipitation was observed on using immunoelectrophoresis. The presence of IgG and IgA was detected on using monospecific serum. EL1SA tests showed high levels of IgA to Shigella dysenteriae, E. coli and Salmonella typhi in the intestinal secretions of mice pretreated with Lactobacillus casei. and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. The levels of IgG to Shigella dysentriae, E. coli and Salmonella typhi were similar to controls in all cases. The results showed the possible protective role in lactobacilli against enteric infections and suggested that these microorganisms could be used as oral adjuvant in enhancing the antibody production to enteropathogens at the intstinal level.




H.M. Shalabi*, A.A. Abdel-Aziz*, M.E. Ramadan** and A.M. Nooh***

*Obstetrics & Gynecology Dep. Faculty of Medicine for Girls Al - Azhar University

**Pathology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Zagazig University **•* Obstetrics & Gynecology Dep. Students' Hospital Zagazig University

Intra uterine growth retardation (IUGR) is a common obstetric problem affecting up to 10% of all live born babies. Impaired uteroplacental circulation play a significant role in the pathophysiology of IUGR. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictive value of uterine artery Doppler flow velocity waveform in diagnosis and monitoring of IUGR, and also to compare it with other tests of assessment of fetal well-being. The study was carried out on:- I) Thirty women (study group) showed clinical evidence of IUGR fetuses 2) Twenty women (control group) with clinically appropriate for gestational age (AGA) fetuses. All women were subjected to : a) trans abdominal obstetric ultrasonography (US) b) Fetal Biophysical profile (BPP) scoring c) Uterine artery Doppler flow velocimetry waveform (FIW) d) Histopothological examination of the placenta. The predictive ability of uterine artery Doppler FVW(S/D ratio) in diagnosis of IUGR; Sensitivity 89.5%, specificity 71.0%, positive predictive value 65.4%, and negative predictive value 91.7%. A significant correlation between uterine artery Doppler FVWand birth weight (r=0.53, p<0.001). The predictive ability of BPP score in diagnosis of IUGR; sensitivity 79.0%, specificity 96.8%, positive predictive value 93.8%, negative predictive value 88.2%, and a significant correlation was found between BPP and birth weight (r= 0.54, p< 0.001). The predictive ability of non - stress test (NST) in diagnosis of IUGR; sensitivity 63.2%, specificity 90.3%, positive predictive value 80.0%, negative predictive value 80.0%. Nineteen cases out of 21 (90.5%) with placenta! infarction gave birth to IUGR babies while 2 cases (9.5%) delivered AGA babies. All 29 cases (100%) which did not show placental infarction gave birth to AGA babies. This is statistically highly significant (p- 0.001). Intervention based solely on abnormal Doppler FVW patterns is not justified as it possesses high false positive rate (3-4.6%, in this study). No single test is capable alone, of identifying the fetus at risk allowing for timely intervention without posing additional risks to mother and fetus. Tests of assessment of fetal well-being should, therefore, be used in conjunction with each other.




H.O. El-Mesallamy, H.A. Gomaa*, W.A. El-Mesallamy** and H.O. Bader El-Din***

Biochemistry department faculty of pharmacy (Girls) Al-Azhar University, *Biochemistry department faculty of pharmacy (Boys) Al-Azhar University,

**Microbiology department faculty of medicine, Benha University. Egypt.

***Obstetrics and Gynecology department faculty of medicine Al-Azhar University.

Although the prevention of preterm birth remains the most important challenge in obstetrics, the mechanism for the onset of preterm labor has not been fully explained. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the usefulness of cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin and certain cytokines (interleukin-IB nd nterleukin-8) levels during pregnancy as markers of preterm and term delivery. This study was performed on 130 pregnant women at 24 to 29 years old age. The women were classified into group I (women not in labor, n=65) and group II (women with spontaneous labor, n=65). Each group was classified into two subgroups [preterm delivery (<37 weeks gestation, n=40) and full term delivery (>37 weeks gestation, n=25)J. We obtained cervicovaginal swabs for fetal fibronectin and cervicovaginal fluids for cytokines determination. The present study revealed that fetal fibronectin, IL- IB and IL-8 levels were significantly higher in patients in preterm labor than in patients at preterm not in labor. They were significantly higher in women at full term in labor than in women at full term not in labor. Interleukin-IB and IL-8 obtained from women not in labor increased exponentially as gestational age increased, and the cytokines levels were significantly correlated. This study revealed that cervicovaginal measurements offetalfibronectin, IL-IB and IL-8 in combination with clinical findings may be useful for the evaluation of patients with threatened premature delivery.





I.A. El-Sheikh; *N.A. Younis and **N.M. Sidkey

**Botany Dept., Fac. of Sci., Al-Azhar Univ. (Girls Branch), Cairo.

*Nuclear Research Center, Plant Research Dept., A.E.A., Cairo, Egypt.

In a study to find out the relation of the irradiated spores of Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999 to the dormant embryo of wheat grains (Giza 165), it was found that: on growing the irradiated fungus on Czapek 's liquid medium, a gradual change in the colour of the fungal colony from the green colour to.yellow one with the appearance of oily droplets on the surface of fungal colonies could be recorded. Microscopic examination revealed that, y-ray greatly affected the mycelium formation at nearly all the tested doses. Also, giant spores in Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL '2999 containing a very big vacuoles were recorded at doses of I, 2, 3, -J and 5 kGy. Lethal dose was found to be 6 kGy. A complete decay of wheat grains was recorded at 10 and 15 kGy. Percentage of germination, seedling sun>ival as well as length of coleoptile of wheat seedlings were affected by all the doses used. Image analyser illustrated that, the mitotic cell cycle in the root meristematic cells of wheat roots showed an increase in GO/G1 in all the treatments up to 15 kGy. On the other hand, a decrease in S-phase, G-2, mitotic phases was scored An increase in the proportion of chromosomal abnormalities was observed in the root cells of wheat seedlings specially by 1 and 2 kGy doses. Stickness of chromosomes, disturbance in metaphase, chromosomal bridges and lagging chromosomes at ana-telophase were the common abnormalities detected.


H.O. El- Mesallamy, H.A. Gomaa* and H.O. Bader El-Din**

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (girls), * Biochemistry Department,

Faculty of Pharmacy (boys), **Obstetric and Gynecology Department, Faculty of

Medicine (girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo-Egypt.

Lead is a nonessential metal and a major environmental toxicant and its deleterious effects continue to be a major health hazard for the population. It is demonstrated that lead exposure might decrease the defense mechanism of the cell to the oxidative stress, and therefore, elevate the reactive oxygen species generation, which enhance vascular reactivity. Since vitamins E and C are natural antioxidants, changes in their status may reflect alterations in free radical production rate. The aim of this work was to study the relationship between maternal blood lead level and the antioxidant vitamins in a step to understand the mechanism of lead action and its possible influence on blood pressure and fetal growth. Ninety-six women were included in this study, 23 normal pregnant women (group I) as control, 31 patients with fetal growth retardation (FOR) (group II) and 42 patients with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) (group III). The result of this study revealed that, the maternal blood lead level was significantly higher in the FGR and PIH groups as compared with normal control. In contrast, the levels of vitamins E and C were significantly lower in both FGR and PIH groups. In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between maternal blood lead level and the antioxidant vitamins in both FGR and PIH groups. In conclusion, high blood lead levels in pregnancy may be associated with low vitamins E and C, FGR and PIH. This study may help in raising our consciousness of our environment and the need to protect ourselves from lead toxicity.


E.B. Abd Rabou and E.I. El Noor

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Al-Azhar University for Girls.

Thyroid antibodies are known to occur in apparently healthy populations and are more frequently observed in women during their reproductive years. A significant association was present between the presence of 'thyroidperoxidase and thyroglobulin autoantibodies and the risk for subsequent first trimester loss. This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence of thyroid autoantibodies in non-pregnant women with a history of recurrent (three or more consecutive) spontaneous abortions. A total of 20 euthyroid non-pregnant females with history of habitual abortions, served as study group, were analysed for thyroid autoantibodies (thyrope roxidase and thyroglobulin), 20 nulligravidae and 20 multigravidae without endocrine dysfunction served as control groups (group A and B respectively). Thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin autoantibodies were assayed using highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay kits. Nine of the 20 women with recurrent spontaneous abortions (45%), but only 3 (15%) of the 20 nulligravidae (control group A) and 2 (10%) of the 20 multigravidae (control group B) demonstrated positive litre (X2 test P = .01) of thyroglobulin (>100 Ill/ml), thyroid peroxidase or both antibodies. The mean ± SD of thyroglobulin antibodies were 56.18 ± 50.4 lU/ml in the study group versus 24.9 + 40. J5 lU/ml in the nulligravidae (P = .03) and22.8± 26.51 Uml in multigravidae (P = .01) populations. We concluded that the incidence of thyroid autoantibodies in euthyroid non-pregnant women with history of habitual abortion is significantly increased compared with the controls of reproductive age without previous abortions. So the thyroid autoantibodies may be a marker and should be included in the list of autoantibodies tested in the evaluation of women for autoimmune-mediated recurrent spontaneous abortions.


A. El Hemaly, I. El Garhy, T.A. El-Aziz, M. Midan, 1. Hassan

Departments of Obs. and Gyn. and Pathology Al-Azhar University, Cairo

It has been documented that Norplant is a long acting contraceptive method that provides protection for 5 years. It consists of 6 subdermal capsules which provide a constant plasma level of levonorgestrel at 0.5 nanogram/ml. The exact mechanism by which it prevents conception is not definitely clear. Inhibition of o\>ulation and changes in cervical secretion are the most accepted suggestions. To study the effect of long-acting progestin (Norplant) contraceptive on the endometrial contents of estrogen and progesterone receptors. The family planning clinic of Bab El-Sheria Hospital, Al-Azhar University. The study was conducted on 60 women who had Norplant contraceptive implants as a method of contraception. They were divided into three equal groups each consists of 20 cases. First group had Norplant for one year, second group had Norplant for two years, and Third group had Norplant for three years. Another group of 20 women, not using any types of contraception at the time of study, were taken as control. All studied women were subjected to history taken, clinical examination and endometrial biopsy on the 7th, 14th and 21st days of the cycle using Sherman curette. There was statistically significant higher estrogen and progesterone receptors content in proliferative endometrium of control group compared with that of Norplant users. However, there was no statistically significant difference of estrogen and progesterone receptors between secretary endometrium of control group and that of Norplant users. Long-acting progestogen contraceptive (Norplant) has a depressive effect on the level of endometrial estrogen and progesterone receptors. This may be another mechanism for the contraceptive effect of Norplant.


*M . Abo-Farrag, *A. Erfan, *M. Awny, *A. Zoair, **O. Amin, ***G. El-Azab and

****N. Al-Ishmawy

From the departments of * Pediatrics, * ""Orthopedics, Tanta Faculty of Medicine; *** Clinical Pharmacy and ****Biochemistry, Tanta Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta

University, Egypt.

The Objective of this cross-sectional study is to investigate serum and synovial fluid type 1 (Thl) and type 2 (Th2) T cell activities in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis fJRAj, and to correlate ThJ/Th2 cell activities with severity of the disease. Among attendants ofPediatric Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic Tanta University Hospital, 27 children with JRA, 15 polyarticular & 12 pauciarticular, were enrolled in the current study. Serum and synovial fluid samples were collected from all patients and from 10 children with congenital orthopedic deformities during corrective orthopedic surgery. Those 10 children constitute the control group. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from patients and controls. Primary T cell activity in these mononuclear cells was enhanced by means ofanti-CD3/anti-CD28, which mimics stimulation of T cells by activation of the T cell receptor and a major co-stimulatory signal. Interferone gamma (IFNy) and interleukin 4 (1L4) production were quantified as measures of Thl and Th2 cell activity respectively. ESR, C-RP, and grading of clinical activity were determined as parameters of disease activity and correlated with serum and synovial fluid Thl/Th2 cell activity. Results: (1) Peripheral T cells from JRA patients produced significantly less IFN-y [ 77±35 pg/ml vs 128+30pg/ml, P< 0.05 Jandmore 1L4 [151±28pg/ml vs 97 ±25 pg/ml, P 0.05 ] than T cells from matched controls. ( 2 ) Synovial fluid from JRA patients showed significantly more IFNy [ 189±51 pg/ml vs 108±47 pg/ml, P<0.05 J and less IL4 [54+14 pg/ml vs 94+35 pg/ml, P<0.05 ] than T cells from matched controls. (3) Peripheral blood and synovial fluid IFNy and IL4 activities correlated significantly with clinical and laboratory indices of disease activity. In conclusions: (1) The balance between Thl/Th2 cells activity seems crucial in controlling the severity of JRA in children. (2) Skewing towards Thl cell predominance is suggested to be the pathogenic mechanism underlying JRA activity. (3) Redressing Thl/Th2 balance - immune deviation - could he suggested as the future therapy in JRA. This could be attained by the use of different lines of biotechnological therapeutic advances including inhibitors of proinflammatory cytokines that could change Thl/Th2 cell balance in favor of Th2 cell activity and'or by prevention of the migration of Thl cells using 11-4, IL-10, CD4 monoclonal antibodies, anti-ICAM-J antibodies, or combination therapy.


*M.A. Nasra, *G.A. El-Azab, M.K. Zahra, ***O. Tolba, **N.E. El-Ashmawy, and *

T.A. Moustafa.

*Clinical Pharmacy Department, and **Biochemistry Department, Tanta Faculty of Pharmacy *** Pediatric Department, and Clinical Pathology Department, Tanta

Faculty of Medicine.

Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory reaction characterized by infiltration of the myocardium and endocardium with monocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes. Monocytes and neutrophils are known to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon stimulation by streptococcal membrane antigen. Besides, the immunologic response to group A streptococci has been implicated in the etiology of acute rheumatic fever. In the present study, the interrelation between the immunologic changes and ROS in rheumatic fever was investigated. Forty six children with various presentations of rheumatic fever were examined during the active and quiescent phases of the disease. In cases of rheumatic carditis (newly diagnosed), rheumatic arthritis, recurrent carditis and acute follicular tonsillitis, there were increases in immunoglobulin G, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdhyde (MDA) during activity of the disease, while, blood glutathione (GSH) and vitamine E showed a decreased level during activity of the disease. Complement 3 (Cs) was increased in cases of initial carditis, arthritis and acute follicular tonsillitis, but decreased in case of recurrent carditis. During quiescence, all these parameters tended to return the control group level, which paralleled the clinical improvement. However, in rheumatic chorea no changes of statistically significance were observed in any of the studied parameters during the active or the quiescent phases. The results obtained emphasize the presence of oxidative stress and the possible role of ROS in the pathogenesis of rheumatic fever which, together with the altered immune response, tissue injury of varying degrees in this disease are probably involved in.


H.A. El-Bahrawy* and R. El Kholy**

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy* & Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine**, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

Because of the wide spread and the long term use ofatenolol ((3-adrenergic blocker) and chlorthalidone (Thiazide like diuretic) for the management of the hypertension, this study was planned to evaluate and to compare the effects of multiple administration of both as mono or combined therapy on some biochemical parameters on liver function and on hepatic metabolizing enzymes. Atenolol (3.5 mg/kg) and chlorothalidone (1.5 mg/kg) were administered orally in rats for 28 days. The duration of hexobarbital sleeping time (HBST) aniline hydroxylase and aminopyrine-N-demethylase activities did not changed by atenolol administration. While chlorthalidone as mono or combined therapy increased HBST and decreased aniline hydroxylase activity. High alkaline phosphatase, aminotransferases and bilirubin content were measured with atenolol administration, but to lesser degree with chlorthalidone as mono or combined therapy. Serum triglycerides concentration tended to increase in all .rats given atenolol or chlorthalidone while the total cholesterol contents not significantly changed with atenolol monotherapy but their levels were significantly increased with chlorthalidone alone or in combination with atenolol. It was found that atenolol had no significant effect on serum level of uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, potassium and sodium but it significantly increase fasting blood glucose level. In the meantime chlorthalidone was significantly increased them but to lesser extent when combined with atenolol. This work recommended that the combined therapy with low doses ofatenolol and chlorthalidone may be convenient and the magnitude of the unfavorable effects was small. Attention should be given to prescription of glucose and cholesterol lowering diet and to periodic monitoring of blood glucose and lipid levels with concomitant check up for the liver function.



H.M. Roushdy*, Z.E. EL-Bazza*, M.R. Abu-Shady**, A. Shihab* and

H.M.N. EL-Hifnawi*.

*National Center for Radiation Research & Technology. **Faculty of Science - Ain Shams University.

The gamma radiation resistance of 12 highly active proteolytic bacterial species isolated from human amniotic membranes, besides 3 standard bacterial species, were determined through construction of their dose response curves. The DJO - values for the studied bacterial species were found to be 1.86 kGyfor Micrococcus luteus, 1.96 kGy for M. roseus, 2.0 kGy for M. varians, 1.83 kGyfor the isolated Staplylococcus aureus, 1.9 kGy for Stapfuaureus (ATCC), 1.8 kGy for Bacillus licheniformis, 2.0 kGy for B. coagulans, 2.83 kGyfor B. pumilus, 2.7 kGy for B. brevis, 2.2 kGyfor the isolated B. cereus, 2.0 kGy for B. cereus (ATCC), 2.0 kGy for B. circulans,1.86 kGy for the isolated B. tnegaterium,L9kGyforB.megaterium (ATCC) and 1.9 kGy for Pseudomonas cepacia. For calculation of the sterilization dose, Dio-value, bioburden and required sterility assurance level (SAL) were taken into consideration. Accordingly the radiation sterilization dose for human amniotic membranes was calculated and found to be 13.25 kGy.

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