Vol. 6, October, 2000.

levitra en vente libre 1/6  INTERLEUKIN 6 AND C- REACTIVE PROTEIN ARE AS A cialis internet avis DIAGNOSTIC PARAMETER FOR NEONATAL SEPSIS

A.A.Gad *@; A.T.Mouawad **@ and W. A. Emam***

* Medical science Department **: Childhood studies Department

@ National Center for Radiation Research and Technology.

***Medica lBiochemistry Department Faculty of Medicine- Zagazig University

Sepsis continues to be a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal intensive care unit. This study was performed to determine the serum concentration of interleukin 6 (IL-6) during bacterial infection in the first week of life, to evaluate the usefulness of IL-6 as a diagnostic test for perinatal bacterial infections alone; and or in combination with C-reactive protein (CRP); and whether the gestational age influenced the ability of infected neonates to produce IL-6. Twenty-five neonates (10 males and 15 females) suffering from neonatal septicemia had been admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit were studied. Their mean gestational age was 37.88 ± 1.88 weeks. Fifteen apparently healthy neonates, sex and age matched with the patients were served as a control group. Both cases and controls were subjected to careful history taking, thorough clinical examination, and laboratory investigations. Blood samples were collected to estimate the serum levels of IL-6, CRP. Complete blood picture was done. Neonates with neonatal sepsis showed very high significant increase (p< 0.0001) in the serum level of IL-6 when compared to the control group. Serum CRP showed very high significant increase (p<0.0001) in the infected neonates when compared to the controls. As regards gestational age, no significant difference (p>0.05) bet\veen the serum level of IL-6 between full term and preterm patients. Thus, the combination of IL-6 and CRP could be used as a valuable parameter in the early diagnosis of neonatal infection.

sildenafil arrow prix 2/6  MICROBIOLOGICAL CHANGES IN CHICKEN viagra nach alkoholkonsum CARCASSES KEPT AT CHILLING CONDITIONS

LA. Samaha and Bahy E.G. Abdel-All*

Dept. of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Vet. Medicine, Alexandria University

* Animal Health Research Institute, Alexandria Laboratory.

The microbiological changes which occur during chilling storage of freshly slaughtered chicken carcasses, were evaluated through the total counting of different microorganisms present on the skin and muscles of the examined chicken carcasses. This was carried out at zero day, after 2 days and after 4 days of storage at 3±J °C. The obtained results revealed that, the initial microbial counts of chicken skin and muscles were high. Also, the microbial counts in the skin were significantly higher than in muscles. As well as the microbial counts in both chicken skin and muscles were significantly increased by increasing the time of storage at 3±l CC. the hygienic significance of microbial counts as well as the suggestive measures to improve the quality of chilled storage were discussed.

a quoi sert le kamagra 3/6  OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ANTIOXIDANTS ACTIVITIES IN

viagra pfizer effets secondaires CERTAIN G.I.T. DISEASES

T.M. Salman, F.F. Attia, G.A. Omran and M.H. El-Zahabi.

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Reactive oxygen species are continuously formed in the human body either endogenbiisly by oxidation-reduction reactions or exogenously as components of tobacco smoke and air pollutants. A possible role of free radicals on certain gastrointestinal tract (G.I.T.) diseases, such as gastritis, peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcer would be investigated. This study was performed on 80 non-smokers, non-obese, non-treated male human subjects divided into 4 groups, 20 normal healthy control, 20 patients with gastritis, 17 patients with peptic ulcer and 23 patients with duodenal ulcer. The results of this study revealed a significant decrease in enzymatic antioxidants (SOD and Catalase) and non-enzymatic antioxidant (Reduced glutathione) in the three diseased groups when compared with control one. Serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances showed a significant statistical increase in the G.I. T. diseased groups more than normal subjects. Serum iron illustrated low level in both ulcer groups than either gastritis or control ones. Serum albumin and transferrin were nearly the same in the different groups. We concluded that, gastritis, peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcer diseases are accompanied with a state of oxidative stress and the antioxidant activities were disturbed.

site pour commander viagra 4/6  EFFECT OF COLCHICINE ON COLLAGEN METABOLISM IN EXPERIMENTALLY-INDUCED LIVER FIBROSIS

O.A. Mansour, F.F. Attia, M.M. EL-Zahaby, A.A. Abdallah, *T. El-Deep

Biochemistry Dept., Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University (Cairo). * Pathology Dept, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University.

The accumulation of collagen is a silent feature of chronic liver injury. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect ofcolchicine on collagen metabolism in experimentally-induced liver fibrosis. To accomplish this aim, liver fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride into rats. Two models were used, in the first, colchicine was intraperitoneally injected simultaneously with carbon tetrachloride into rats for two weeks to explore any preventive effect for colchicine on the ongoing fibrosis. In the second model, colchicine was injected intraperitoneally into rats after induction of permanent fibrosis to evaluate its therapeutic effect. In both models, two different doses ofcolchicine, 0.285 mg/kg.b.wt. (dose I) and 0.57 mg/kg.b.wt.(dose II) were used to evaluate the dose-response relationship. Liver sections were examined for histopathological features and collagen contents. The effects of colchicine on serum hydroxyproline and serum procollagen III aminolerminal peplide as well as liver function tests were assessed. Survival rates of the colchicine-treated groups were insignificantly prolonged. Histopathologically, dose I ofcolchicine showed a significant improvement offlbrotic and cirrhotic changes in rat livers treated with colchicine as compared to the untreated control. Biochemically, colchicine significantly lowered serum procollagen III aminoterminal peptide, elevated serum hydroxyproline and improved liver function tests, in both models, as compared to untreated control. The results of the present work showed that colchicine interferes with the collagen metabolism and could be used as an antifibrotic drug.

effets negatifs viagra

cialis grossesse 5/6 INCIDENCE OF AIRBORNE ENDOTOXIN IN CATTLE AND

cialis ne fait plus effet CALF HOUSES

H. Samaha and A. Draz

Dept. Animal Hygiene and Zoonoses, Fac. Vet. Med. Alex. Univ.

Incidence of airborne endotoxin and the total number of viable airborne gram negative bacteria were estimated in cattle and calf houses. The total amount of airborne endotoxin ranged from 36 to 761 EUm-3 (EU= Endotoxin unit) in cattle houses, while between 44 and 262 EUm-3 in calf pens. No correlation was found between the concentration of airborne endotoxin and the total number of vuMable airborne gram negative bacteria.

6/6  DETERMINATION OF THE MEAN LETHAL DOSE (L D50)

AND EVALUATION OF THE ANTI-ECZEMATIC ACTIVITY OF

RHAMNUS LYCIOIDES L. STEMS AND RUMEX DENTATUS L.

HERB AND SEEDS.

S.E. El-Dondity and T.I. Khalifa

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy (boys) Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

The L dm of 70 % alcohol extracts of Rhamnus lycioides L stems and Rumex dentatus L. herb and seeds were carried out to determine the safety margin of these drugs. A double-blind trial comparing different concentrations of .ointments prepared from 70 % alcohol extracts ofRhamnus lycioides L. stems and Rumex dentatus L. herb and seeds with, standard therapy, flumethasone pivalate ointment and a placebo showed that, the extracts of Rhamnus lycioides L. stems and Rumex dentatus L. herb were effective in treatment of induced eczema in mice. A double-blind clinical trial comparing a 2 and 3 % ointments prepared from 70 % alcohol extracts ofRhamnus lycioides L. stems and Rumex dentatus L. herb respectively with a 0.2 % flumethasone pivalate ointment and a placebo showed that, the extracts of both drugs were effective in treament of chronic eczema. The results obtained with the extracts were statistically comparable to those obtained with the corticoid therapy.

7/6  BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL STUDY OF RUMEX DENTATUS L. HERB GROWING IN EGYPT.

S.E. El-Dondity and T. I. Khalifa

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy (boys) Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

The biological activity of the 70 % alcohol extract of Rumex dentatus L. herb on patients complaining of hair fall, dandruff, alopecia areata, warts, herpes simplex type 1 and herpes zoaster were studied against placebo. Chemical study of 70% alcohol extract lead to isolation of chrysophanol, physcion, emodin, chrysophanol-8-O-{$-D-glucoside and physcion-8- 0-fi-D-glucoside.


8/6  OCCURRENCE OF SALMONELLA AND CAMPYLOBACTER IN RAW AND HEAT TREATED CHICKEN PRODUCTS

LA. Samaha and E.A. Saleh

Department of Food Hygiene, Fac. Vet. Med., Alex. Univ.

A total of 360 samples of chicken fillet, liver, gizzard, chicken luncheon and chicken frankfurter (60 of each) were randomly collected from some meat processing plants and supermarkets at Alexandria and EI-Behira governorates. These samples were investigated for the incidence of Salmonella and Campylobacter species. Concerning Salmonella, the results revealed that Salmonella puUorum was the most frequently isolated strain followed by S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, S. infantis and S. paratyphi. The highest incidence for different species of Salmonella was found in gizzard and decreased successively in liver, chicken fillet, and heart. Also untyped Salmonella strains were isolated from chicken luncheon and chicken frankfurter at a very low incidence and could not be detected in raw chicken products. Campylobacter could be isolated from all raw and heat treated chicken products. Two species of Campylobacter could be isolated, C. jejuni which was isolated at a high incidence than C. coli. The highest incidence was found in gizzard and decreased successively in liver, chicken fillet, heart, chicken luncheon and frankfurter. The incidence of Campylobacter species in raw and heat treated chicken products was higher than the incidence of Salmonella species. The public health significance of the isolated strains as well as the suggestive measures to produce high quality products were discussed.

9/6  DETERMINATION OF LEAD AND CADMIUM RESIDUES

IN LIVER, KIDNEY, SPLEEN AND MUSCLES OF SLAUGHTERED COWS, BUFFALOES AND CAMELS IN EL-GIZA GOVERNRATE

I. Samaha*; E.A. Saleh*, Z. Niazi** and R. Abdel-Dayem**

*Food Hygiene Dept., Fac. Vet. Med., Alex. Univ.

**Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

Lead and cadmium residues were determined in 25 cows, 25 buffaloes and 25 camels which were slaughtered at EL-Warak slaughterhouse in EL-Giza governor ate. The residues of these heavy metals were detected in liver, Kidney, spleen and muscles of each animal by using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer. The obtained results revealed that the mean values of lead residues in liver, kidney, spleen, and muscles of slaughtered cows were 3.982 ± 0.588, 3.096 ± 0.679, 1.0J4 ± 0.203 and 0.679 ± 0.136 ppm wet weight, respectively and in slaughtered buffaloes were 2.395 ± 0.402, 1.788 ± 0.254, 1.302 ±0.142 and 0.744 ± 0.084 ppm wet weight, respectively and in slaughtered camels were 1.748 ± 0.082, 1.365 ±0.524, 1.103 ± 0.068 and0.637 ± 0.060. While the mean values of cadmium in cows were 0.341 ± 0.081, 0.573 ± 0.062, 0.170 ± 0.049 and 0.063 ± 0.014 ppm wet weight, respectively and in buffaloes were 0.304 ± 0.069, 0.633 ± 0.304, 0.123 ± 0.03land 0.122 ± 0.038ppm wet weight, respectively and camels were 0.199 ± 0.05J, 0.436 ± 0.048, 0.147 ±0.036 and 0.048 ± 0.009 ppm wet weight respectively. The present results were evaluated according to the permissible limits of Egyptian Organization for Standardization and Quality Control EOS (1991) and FAO/WHO (1992). The public health significance of each metal as well as the recommended measures to reduce such residues were discussed.

10/6  PROTECTIVE ROLE OF ZINC AGAINST OVARIECTOMY-INDUCED CHANGES IN THE LIVER OF RATS

**B.M. El-Sayeh; *G.K. Helal; ***O.K. Helal; *A.R.A. Abd-Allah

and *F.MA. Hamada

*Dept. of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University,

Cairo, Egypt.

**Dept. of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University. ***Dept. of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Banha University.

Ovariectomy of rats simulates a clinical condition in postmenopausal women as the lack of steroid sex hormones could develop psychic and consequently oxidative stress, leading to disorders in the integrity and function of cells in different organs. In the present study, zinc was used for its antioxidant properties to protect liver cells against hormonal deficiency-induced stress in rats. Data revealed that, Ovariectomy per se, significantly reduced liver glutathione (GSH, 29%) and increased liver malondialdehyde (MDA, 36%) as well as serum y-glutamyl transferase activity (GOT, 21%). On the other hand, ovariectomized animals showed induction of liver metallothionin (MT) and cytochrome P4502E1 (CYTP450 2E,). Preadministration of ovariectomized rats with a single dose of zinc sulphate (ZnS04, 15 mg/kg, i.p., 24 hours before ovariectomy), significantly increased liver GSH content (15%), also reduced liver MDA (20%) and serum GGT activity (9%) as compared with the ovariectomized control values. Immunostaining to MT was increased but CYTP450 2Ej showed faint stained sections when compared with that of ovariectomized control groups. From the previous results it can be concluded that, hormonal disturbances may be implicated in the pathogenesis of liver in female rats probably through disruption of the oxidant-antioxidant balance. Preadministration of ZnSO4 may rebalance such effect by increasing the reducing power of the liver cells.

11/6  EVALUATION OF SOME THERAPEUTIC DRUGS ON EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED IRRADIATED AND NON-IRRADIATED RATS WITH ClARDIA LAMBL1A.

M.A.F. Moawad and M.A.M. El Gawish

National Center of Radiation Research and Technology, N.C.R.R.T.

In these' study irradiated and non-irradiated rats were orally inoculated with Giardia lamblia cysts obtained from a human source and we carried out a comparative trial of the parasitological effects of three drugs in therapy for giardiasis. There was a marked decrease in the intensity of infection in the treated non-irradiated groups and no cyst was detected on the fourth week pos-infection. The results of the present study also revealed that the efficiency of antigiardial activity of the investigated drugs could be arranged in a descending order: Albendazole (normal or high doses) was more effective than metroindazole or tinidazole at both normal and high doses.


12/6  THE USE OF TRANS VAGINAL ULTRASOUND AND

SERUM LUTENIZING HORMONE LEVEL TO DETECT

RETURN OF OVULATION AFTER SPONTANEOUS ABORTION

E. Saker, A. Zakaria, M.F. Midan, I. Garhy and °W. Hblas

Obstetrics and Gynaecology and ( Clinical Pathology Departments,

Al-Azhar University

Abortion denotes interruption of pregnancy before twenty two weeks that is before the fetus is viable. The return of hypothalamic -pituitary - ovarian axis activity following fetal loss can be detected by transvaginal sonogi-aphy and radioimmunoassay of serum L.H. The aim of this study is to determine the length of time required for return of ovulation after spontaneous abortion by serial determination of L.H. level and transvaginal ultrasound study every 5 days. Sixty women were recruited from those admitted to the emergency rooms at Al-Azhar University hospitals with inevitable or incomplete abortion. After treatment of all cases and on discharge from the hospital, women were asked to come back after one week then every 5 days to check for the occurrence of ovulation by L.H. assay and transvaginal ultrasound. By 16th post operative day 10% had ovnlated, ovulation occurred by 19th post operative day in 20% of cases and in 60% of cases after 22 days and in 10% after 32 days ovulation returned within 3 weeks after abortion and this necessites early use of contraceptive method within 2 weeks after abortion to avoid unwanted pregnancy.

13/6  SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OFAMINEPTINE HYDROCHLORIDE VIA ION-PAIRFORMATION WITH THREE ACIDIC DYES AND ITSAPPLICATION FOR TABLETS

F. M. El-Anwar and P.M. Abou Attia

National Organization For Drug Control And Research

Ion-pair formation of amineptine hydrochloride with each of bromophenol blue '(BPB), bromocresol green (BCG) and bromothymol blue (BTB) was studied and the results was used for the spectrophotometric determination of this drug substance. Study of the optimum experimental conditions indicated that the optimum pH range of the aqueous reaction solution is 3.4 -3.99, and the ion-pair formed between the drug and each of these acidic dyes was extracted into dichloroethane and showed maximum absorbance wavelength of 4 10,4 13 and 408 nm with BPB, BCG and BTB respectively. The Job *s curve ofequimolar solutions (5xlO'4M)for drug-dye ion-pair in dichloroethane indicated the formation of 1:1 ion-pair. Beer s law was found to be valid within the concentration range of 1.5-15 ug ml1 in the organic layer. This proposed method was used for the determination of this drug substance with a mean % recovery ± standard deviation of 99,63±0.49, 99.47±0.37 and99.07±0.73for BPB, BCG and BTB ion-pair , respectively. The proposed method was found to be applicable for the determination of amineptine hydrochloride in tablets without interference.


14/6  DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A

CONTROLLED RELEASE BUCCOADHESIVE DOSAGE FORM

OF BENZYDAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE

S.Y. Amin

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo

University, Cairo, Egypt.

Buccoadhesive systems releasing topical drugs in the oral cavity at a slow, predetermined rate may present distinct advantages over traditional dosage forms such as mouth washes, oral gels and lozenges. The present study was concerned with the preparation of muccoadhesive benzydamine hydrochloride from hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose 50 and Noveon AA-1 in different ratios. The prepared discs were subjected to in-vitro and in-vivo testing. In-vilro testing included measurement of swelling index and release of the dmgfrom the discs. In -vivo residence time and release of the selected formulae were also performed. The discs, containing 25 mg of benzydamine hydrochloride, and prepared using hydroxpropylmelhyl cellulose 50 cp and Noveon AA-1 (2 : 5) in both inner and outer layers seem to provide a suitable compromise for both good bioadhesion as well as optimum drug release . The in-vitro and in-vivo release data were subjected to kinetic treatment, also applying the well-known semi-empirical equation. The release characteristics followed zero-order mechanism and showed non-Fickian mechanism of release (case II transport). The product gave optimal first drug flush, showed the potential to fully release its drug content in a controlled manner over six hours, and it dissolved completely.

15/6  STRUCTURE ELUCIDATION OF THE SEPARATED

CONTENTS OF DATURA INNOXIA HAVING

MOLLUSCICIDAL ACTIVITY

*M.M. Abdel Gawad, **F.M. El Anwar; *L.A. Refahy; *M.M. Hamed

and 'S.M.El Amin.

Theodor Bilharz Research Institute."National Organization for Drug Control and

Research.+Corresp.

Datura innoxia molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria alexandrina snails was studied. The methanolic extract exhibited LC9o = 160 ppm against these snails, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. The contents of this methanolic extract was fractionated and purified using different chromatographic techniques to separate the pure compound having this molluscicidal activity. This compound was identified as indoline alkaloid linked through C-16 to glucose and rhamnose using spectroscopic methods such as U. V., IR, !HNMR and mass spectra.

16/6  PHENOLICS AND TRITERPENOIDS OF FRUITS OF SPONDIAS LUTEA L. CULTIVATED IN EGYPT.

N.M. El-Fiki and M.S. Afifi*

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo and *Department of Natural and Microbial Product, National Research Centre, Dokki,

Guiza, Egypt.

Phytochemical investigation of the anthocyanin content of fresh pericarp of Spondias lutea L revealed the the presence of three pigments identified as cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3- glucoside and delphinidin 3-glucoside. Their structures were achieved through UV, spectral data, acid and alkaline hydrolyses and chromato- graphic studies of the isolated pigments. In addition, hydroquinone and three triterpenoid compounds viz; (3-amyrin, ft-amyrin acetate and ursolic acid were isolated. The structures of the isolated compounds have been established on the bases of mp., mmp., chromatographic and spectral studies.

17/6  THE BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES AND CERTAIN TRACE ELEMENTS IN RENAL FAILURE PATIENTS.

T. Salman and I. Salman*

Biochemistry Dept., Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University and *Urology Dept., Faculty of Medicine, El-Menofia University, EGYPT.

Oxidative stress, which occurs when there is excessive free radical production or low antioxidant levels, has recently been implicated as a caustive factor for many diseases. The aim of this study was to determine if renal failure patients were associated with oxidative stress. This study included 63 individuals, 35 of them were patients with renal failure treated with hemodialysis. The remaining 28 are healthy subjects as control group. Antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) andcatalase (CAT), and trace elements such as iron, copper, zinc and selenium were investigated. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) were determined as an index of lipidperoxidation. A significant decrease of plasma and erythrocyte GSHPx, SOD, CAT was found in patients before hemodialysis. The data of trace elements indicated significant decrease of iron, copper, zinc and selenium in plasma and erythrocyte of patients with renal failure when compared to the control group. Hemodialysis process did not improve the enzymatic antioxidant status or the trace elements contents of those patients. A significant relationship between erythrocyte SOD and copper was found before hemodialysis. There is an indirect evidence for increased oxidizing stress in uremic patients revealed by elevated value of TBA-RS.

18/6  PHYTOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON DATE SEEDS (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) PRODUCED IN

EGYPT

S.M. Abdel Wahab and N. M. El-Fiki. FROM

Department ofPharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El-Ainy,

Cairo, 11562, Egypt.

Qualitative phylochemical similarly in date seeds of five Egyptian cultivars was observed, as the samples were found to contain sterols, sugars, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, proteins, minerals and fixed oils. Study offlavonoid contents of Zaghlool cultivar (Market) resulted in isolation of three flavonol compounds; rhamnetin, rut in, quercetrin, aflavone compound; luteolin and aflavanone compound; naringenin. The amount of total flavonoids was 2.02% calculated as rutin. In addition a steroid saponin glycoside with diosgenin as aglycone part was isolated from seeds. The percentage of total saponins was found to be 0.07%. The structures of isolated compounds have been established on the basis ofmp., mmp., chromatographic and spectral studies. Protein content of Zaghlool variety was 7.3%. Fifteen am/no acids of both essential and non-essential types were estimated with glutamic acid being the highest   (1.19%).   The   total   tannin   was   16%   as   determined gravimetrically. Microbiological and pharmacological screening,   with the different extracts of Zaghlool cultivar, showed significant antimicrobial activity against certain Gram positive   microorganisms and fungi,   as well as,   significant antipyretic and antihyperglycemic effect. Acute toxicity studies were also carried out and showed a good therapeutic index.

19/6  ENDOMETRIOSIS PREVALENCE AMONG INFERTILE

EGYPTIAN WOMEN

A.F. Hamed, G.A. Risk, A.M. Zakaria and A. Risk

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology,   • Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University

Five hundred infertile patients were subjected to laparoscopy for infertility work up at Al Azhar University Hospitals during a period of one year starting June 1999. Endometriosis was diagnosed in 64 cases (12.8%) of the study group of whom classical lesions ofendometriosis, subtle lesion and combination of both lesions were present 43.7%, 25% and 37% respectively. Primary infertility was present in 76.5% and secondary infertility in 23.5% of cases ofendometriosis, Dysmenorrhoea was present in 86%, dyspareunia in 70, Deep pelvic pain in 54.5%, menorrhagia in 23.5% and irregular cycles in 11% of cases of endometriosis during laparoscopy. Endometriosic foci were present on the ovaries, uterosacral ligament, Douglas pouch, pelvic peritoneum, Fallopian tubes, Round and Broad ligament in 62.5%, 31.25%, 25%, 23.5%, 7.8% and 6.25% of the cases respectively. Also, the disease was classified into minimal, mild, moderate and severe type in 56.25%, 25%, 12.5% and 6.25% of the cases respectively.

20/6  CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF CLEOME DROSERIFOLIA (FORSSK.) DEL.

PART -I

M.A. Abd El-Kawy; *S. El-Deib; **Z. El-Khyat and **Y.A. Mikhail

Dept. of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo,Egypt.

*Dept. of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.      

**Dept. of Basic Medical Science, National Research Center., Cairo, Egypt.

Three highly methoxylated flavonoid compounds were isolated from ether fraction of alcohol extract of Cleome.droserifolia (Forssk) Del. Family Capparaceae namely 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,3\4\5^-hexamethoxyflavone, 5,4-dihydroxy-3,6,7,3\5'-pentamethoxyflavone, quercetagetin - 3,6,7,3` - tetramethyl ether, kampferol and quercetin. Effect of daily oral administrations of different extracts of C. droserifolia herb and / or wheat bran on blood glucose level, hepatic glycogen content and glucose -6-phosphatase activity, as well as, plasma insulin andglucagon levels were investigated in normal and diabetic male rats. The results revealed hypoglycemic effects of different extracts ofC. droserifolia herb separately or in combination with wheat bran in diabetic animals. The most potent were benzene and ethyl acetate extract. Treatment of diabetic rats with different herb extracts separately or in combination with wheat bran induced also a marked loading of liver with glycogen with a significant increase of glucose -6- phosphatase activity in addition, to normalization of plasma insulin andglucagon levels.

21/6  CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF

CLEOME DROSERIFOLIA (FORSSK.) DEL.

PART - II

M.A. Abd El-Kawy; *S. El-Deib, **R.A. Hanna; **Z. El-Khyat

and **Y.A:Mikhail

Depart, of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, *Depart of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

** Depart, of Basic Medical Science, National Research Center., Cairo, Egypt.

Essential oil of fresh herb of Cleome droserifolia Fam. Capparacea was prepared by hydrodistillation method (1.5%) and analyzed using GC/MS. Thirty eight components corresponding to 90.72% of the oil were detected. Monoterpene hydrocarbons represented -44% of the constituents among them limonene was the major component 43%. Oxygenated components (21%), nit riles (16%) and isothiocyanates (2%) were also detected in the essential oil. The presence of nit rile and isothiocyanate components was confirmed by determination of total nitrogen and sulfur contents of the oil in addition to, its IR spectrum. Different extracts of C. droserifolia viz., n- hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate and alcohol showed no effect on hemoglobin, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of normal rats., as well as, no effect on both kidney and liver functions of normal and diabetic rats. As a result of induced diabetes, diabetic rats show low level of hemoglobin, high levelx of cholesterol and triglycerides. Treatment of diabetic rats with all extracts lead to a rise in hemoglobin to the normal value. A decrease in cholesterol was observed on treatment with n-hexane (16%), benzene (16%) and ethyl acetate (12%) extracts. A normal level of triglycerides was observed in diabetic rats on treatment with benzene and bran supplemented diet (20%). The alcohol extract showed no effect on triglycerides level of diabetic rats. The effect of benzene, n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts on diabetic rats may be due to the presence of volatile oil and / or non-polar components of n-hexane and benzene fractions.as well as, to theflavonoid aglycone and > or glycoside content of the ethyl acetate fraction

22/6  EFFECT OF MOTILE SPERM COUNT AFTER SWIM-UP ON OUTCOME OF INTRAUTERINE INSEMINATION

E.B. Abd Rabou* and E.A.Mohamad**

*Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology* and Clinical Pathology**, Faculty of Medicine, El-Azhar University for Girls

Introduction: Homologous artificial insemination (IU1) after clomiphene citrate (CC) stimulation is considered an acceptable method for treating some infertility problems caused by both male and female factors. There are a variety of sperm preparation techniques used before intrauterine insemination (IUI) designed to increase the pregnancy rate. Objectives: To analyze the prognostic value of motile sperm count after swim-up in IUI with husband's sperms in subfertile couples. Methods: Fifty couples underwent a total of 238 homologous artificial insemination cycles after clomiphene citrate stimulation. After swim-up preparation technique the semen sample was reexamined for density and motility. Under ultrasonographic control of follicular development, a single IUI was performed 24 hrs. after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration. Results: The overall pregnancy rate (PR) was 48% (24 out of 50) with a pregnancy rate of 8% pertreatment cycle. The cumulative probability of pregnancy after six treatment cycles was 61.2%. The probability of conception per cycle was found to be increased as the total number of motile sperms was above 0.5 x 106 (table 4).

23/6  EFFECT OF APPLICATION OF QUALITY SYSTEM ISO

9000 IN MICROBIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL STATUS OF

SOME FROZEN MEAT PRODUCT

E.M. Abdel-Haffeiz

Animal Health Research Institute Alexandria Branch

The effect of application of quality system ISO9000in microbiological and chemical statuses of some frozen meat products were carried out in some meat processing plants at Alexandria Governorate. Random samples were taken before and after application of quality system ISO 9000 from some frozen meat products as Oriental sausage, Kofta, Burger and Minced meat. The samples were examined microbiologically and chemically and the results revealed that there are improvement in the criteria and specification of microbiological and chemical status of the products after application of the quality system ISO9000. The point of the quality system ISO 9000 that effect in the quality of the products and the points to improve the safety and quality of the frozen meat products were discussed.

24/6  SOME FACTORS AFFECTING LEARNING ABILITY IN

GOATS

MM Thabt; *U.E. Mahrous and *I.S. Meneeh

Anim. Husb. Dept.; Fac. Vet. Med. Alex. Uniy. *Hygiene, Zoonoses and Anim.

Behav. Dept.; Fac. Vet. Med., Suez canal Univ.

This study was carried out to investigate the ability of young kids for learning and the effect of methods of rearing system, type of maze and sex of kids on learning ability. 11 Baladi kids between 1-1.5 months old were divided into two groups, the first was reared naturally with their dams (n=5) and the second was artificially reared on cow's milk (n=6). The time spent by the kid until it located the feeding bottle or mother at the far end of the maze was recorded. The producers were conducted for 4 consecutive days and 5 trails were made in each day. The obtained results were: The type of maze (simple or complex) had a highly significant effect on the learning ability of kids where the kids took longer time to reach the goal area at the far end of the maze in complex than simple one (12.41^1.07 Vs 5.3J±0.49 seconds). On the other hand, the sex of kids had no significant effect on their learning ability (9.19±0.92 Vs 8.48±0.78 seconds in male and female kids respectively). However, females spent less time, to pass the maze than males. The rearing system of kids had no significant effect on their learning ability (9.65±0.90 Vs 7.92±0.80 seconds in artificially and naturally reared kids respectively). However, naturally reared kids showed little bit better learning ability since they spent less lime to reach the goal. There was a highly significant difference between trails performed by kids for learning. Where in the first trail the kids recorded the highest time to reach the goal area (14.42±2.30 seconds) if compared with other trails 2nd, 3rd or 5th trials (8.63±0.98, 7.40±0.83, 6.44±0.51 and5.4J±2.32 seconds respectively). There was a highly significant difference in the time required by kids to reach the goal area between days of testing which reflecting the ability of mentoring for learning. The first day represented the highest time (18.74±2.11 seconds) if compared with the following days 2nd , 3rd or 4th day (6.73±0.52, 5.59±0.34and4.39±0.18seconds respectively). The decreasing of time from day to day indicates the better ability qfmemoringfor learning in kids.

25/6  DISBUDDING AS A STRESSFUL MANAGEMENT AFFECT

CALVES WELFARE

U.E. Mahrous; *M.M. Thabt and **H. Samaha.

Anim. Husb. Dept.; Fac. Vet. Med Alex. Univ.

* Hygiene, Zoonoses and Anim. Behav. Dept.; Fac. Vet. Med.; Suez canal Univ.

** Hygiene and Zoonoses Dept.; Fac. Vet. Med., Alex. Univ.

Eighteen calves (9 males and 9 females) a\>erage 8 weeks old were allotted into three groups, each comprised 6 calves (3 males and 3 females). The first group was subjected to disbudding with caustic potash and the second with electrical dehorner, while, the third was kept as a control. Both chemically and electrically disbudded calves displayed more stress indicative behavior such as vocalization, head shaking, horn rubbing, foot stamping, scratching and self-licking than control group. The acute effect of disbudding with caustic potash was observed to be continued for much time than that of electrically disbudded calves which represented by the time consumed in painful behaviors specially stress indicative ones such as head shaking, horn rubbing and foot stamping which lasted longer to return to normal level of the control group. Moreover, the active period for stress was mainly during the first hour after disbudding. The chemical disbudding if compared with electrical disbudding resulted in significantly decrease in time spent sucking milk, rumination, drinking water, and idle & active standing. Moreover, frequencies of vocalization, other licking and tail wagging were also decreased. However, the time spent feeding, recumbent and frequencies of walking, head shaking, horn rubbing, foot stamping, scratching, self licking and rubbing were all increased.

26/6  CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND BIOLOGICAL

ACTIVITIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF LEAVES AND BARKS OF

CERTAIN CEDRELA SPECIES GROWING IN EGYPT

A.M.Shehata

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El-Ainy Street, Cairo, 11562, Egypt.

GCMS analysis of the leaf and bark essential oils ofCedrela toona Roxb. and C odorata L. (family Meliaceae) revealed qualitative and quantitative differences. Study of leaves and barks oils prepared from C. toonaRoxb., revealed the presence of 18 and 27 components representing 92.46% and 90.94% of the total composition of the oils. On the other hand, 29 and 20 components were identified in leaves and barks oils of C odorata L. representing 94.75 and 89. 72 of the total oils respectively. All the examined oils are rich in hydrocarbons especially the sesquiterpene type. Trans- fi-caryophyllene (43.60%) was the major constituent of C. toona Roxb. leaves essential oil; while isocaryophyllene (24.87%) constituted the main component of the bark essential oil. fi-elemene 26.83% and 20.35% ) was the major constituent of the leaf and bark essential oils of C. odorata L. Trans-muurolol (17.10%) and -cedrol (6.80%) constitute the major components of the oxygenated sesquiterpene fraction of the bark oils ofC. toona Roxb. and C. odorata L. respectively. The four studied oils characterised by the presence of common constituents like a- humidene, 5-cadinene and Trans-muurolol. The oils under investigation showed a significant cytotoxic activity against Ehrlich ascites. The essential oil of barks of C. toonaRoxb. showed a marked antiwormal activity against Allolobophora caliginosa; while the oil of leaves and barks of C. odorata L. showed a potent antimicrobial action against Bacillus subtilis microorganism. Qualitative and quantitative differences were found in the chemical composition of the studied oils as well as in their biological activities.

27/6  EVALUATION OF PRIMARY ADHESION OF

PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA, STAPHYLOCOCCUS

EPIDERMIDIS, AND SERRATIA MARCESCENS TO SOFT

CONTACT LENSES BY RAPID ATP ANALYSIS

M.A.M. Yassien, *E.N. Ahanotu, *D.G. Ahearn

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain-Shams

University, Cairo, Egypt Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Science,

Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

A   comparative analysis of relative degree of the primary   adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, andSerratia marcescens to

hydrogel contact lenses was   performed with ATP determinations and a mild- sonication-cell culture recovery procedure. The data obtained by A TP analysis and culture recovery method have similar pattern of relative adhesion; however, the results of ATP analysis indicated greater density of cells (1.8-6fold) on the surface of lenses. Also, Slime-positive strains of P. aeruginosa and S. epidermidis gave greater adhesion (1.6-4.8 fold) to the surfaces of the lenses than did slime-negative strains. For each of the tested strains, a different degree of adherence to the used lenses was observed. The lowest degree of adherence was observed to FD lenses which have highest water content. While, the highest degree of adherence was observed to SM lenses which have lowest water content. The presented data showed that A TP analysis is a suitable method for rapid evaluation of the bacterial adherence to contact lenses and other inanimate surfaces.

28/6 SERUM SOLUBLE INTERCELLULAR ADHESION MOLECULE-1 AND p2-MICROGLOBULIN IN ACUTE AND

CHRONIC HEPATITIS

O.A Mansour, S. Seddik, M.H. El-Zahaby, M. Naguib, M.S. Rozaik and

M.T. Mansour**

Biochemistry Dept., Faculty of pharmacy ( Boys-Cairo),* tropical medicine Dep.,

Faculty of Medicine (Boys-Cairo), Al-Azhar University., **Virology& Immunology

Dept., National Cancer institute, Cairo, Egypt.

Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-J (sICAM-1) is expressed on a variety of cells, including leukocytes and hepatocytes, its function is to strengthen the adherence of antigen presenting cell (APC) with helper T cell (Tu) and adherence of antigen bearing cell (ABC) with cytotoxic T cell (Tc). Brmicroglobulin (fc-M) constitutes the B-chain of the Major histocomatability complex class-J which is necessary for antigen presentation by ABC. Serum levels of sICAM and fa-M, therefore may be useful in evaluation of immune response and subsequent cellular damage. In the present study an ELISA was used to measure serum sICAM-1 and BrM levels of 69 patients with various inflammatory liver diseases induced by hepatitis B virus (acute and chronic), chronic hepatitis C virus and chronic schistosomal infection. Serum levels of sICAM-J and fa-M were significantly higher in all patients than normal subjects. The highest levels ofICAM-1 and BrM were observed in patients with acute hepatitis B. Serum levels ofsICAM and B2-M were significantly correlated with liver function tests in patients with acute hepatitis B virus infection, but no correlation was noticed in patients with chronic hepatitis B. In chronic HCVpatients a significant correlation of si CAM and ALT enzyme was observed, while in Bilharzial patients a significant correlation was observed between sICAM and AST. A significant correlations were observed between serum levels of both sICAM-1 and B2-M in all the studied patients. It could be concluded that in acute and chronic liver disease, slCAM-1 and B^-M serum concentrations seem to represent hepatocellular damage. Their levels, like serum aminotransferases, could be used in diagnosis of various inflammatory conditions of the liver.

29/6  INTRA-UTERINE INSEMINATION[IUI] VERSUS

INTRAFALLOPIANTUBE SPERM PERFUSION[IFSPJ IN THE

TMATMENT OF INFERTILITY

A.A. Moussa; S.F. Abdel Aziz; A. Zakaria; G. Rizk; I. Saeed.

Obstetrics and Gynecology Dept, Al-Azhar University.

To compare the efficacy of Intrafallopian sperm pertusion and Intrauterine. Insemination in cases with unexplained infertility and male subfertility. Prospective non-randomized clinical study. Al-Azhar University Hospitals. Fifty infertile couples underwent artificial insemination husband [AIH]. They were divided into 2 groups: I) group I included 25patients, underwent intrauterine insemination[IUI] 2) group 11 included 25 patients who had intrafallopian sperm pertusion (IFSP). The cause of infertility in both groups was unexplained infertility or male subinfertility. Ovulation was stimulated by clomiphene citrate and human chorionic gonadotrophin (1 {CG). Ovulation Monitoring was carried out by Transvaginal ultrasonography. Insemination was performed 34-36 hours after injection of HCG. Incidence of pregnancy was 20%& 12% incasesof IUI&IFSP respectively. Intrafallopian sperm perti4sion[IFSP] offers no advantages over IUI in terms of pregnancy rate,also Intrauterine insemination IUI is less invasive and less expensive.

30/6  CERVICAL INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA (CIN II AND

III): ENHANCEMENT OF REGRESSION WITH ORAL AND PERILESION INJECTION OF VITAMIN (E) (a-TOCOPHEROL)

M.E. Sakr, G.A. Rizk, S.F. Abdel Aziz, A.A. Abdu, A. Zakaria and Ahmad Rizk

Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Al-Azhar University

Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) is thought to play a role in several stages of carcinogenesis through its contribution to immunocompetence, inhibition of mutation formation and repair of membranes and DNA. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of vitamin E in treatment of cervical cancer precursor (cervical intraepithelial lesion, CIN II and III). This is a prospective double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial was carried out at .Al-Hussein University hospital for a period of one and half year starting from January 1999. The target population was 100 women with biopsy confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN II and HI). All women were from the same catchment area (El-Dardssa) with similar socioeconomic status. Patients signed informed consent and serum was taken for vitamin E assay using high-pressure liquid chromatography, serum vitamin E measured at the start of the study and after 6 months. Patients were randomly divided into four groups. First group (group J) comprised 25 patients received vitamin E injection, 100 mg (0.33 cc) peri lesion every month under colposcopic guidance. Second group (group II) 25 patients received placebo (0.33 cc, sterile saline) perilesion every month under colposcopic guidance. Third group (group III) 25 patients received oral vitamin E 400 mg daily for 6 months. Fourth group (group IV) 25 patients received oral placebo daily for 6 months. Response rates were determined at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months with cytology, calposcopy and/or biopsies. It was found that complete regression of CIN occurred in 44% (11/25) in group I, while in group II regression rate was 16% (4/25) which is statistically significant (P<0.05). Also the duration taken for complete response was significantly less in group I, than in group II (5.57 ± 1.56 months and 6.75 + 1.5 respectively, P<0.05). Regression rates in group III were higher 24% (6/25) than that in group IV12% (3/25), but was not statistically significant. Lesions with diameters < 100 mm showed more significant regression rates than those with diameters > 100 mm2. Serum vitamin E was low in all groups and remained low except in group HI where it was significantly higher than other groups after 6 months of treatment. It could be concluded that injection of vitamin E locally in cases with CIN II and III gave good regression rates and further studies with larger and frequent doses are recommended.

31/6  OVARIAN CANCER ANTIGEN CA125 AND ITS ROLE IN ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PLATINUM COMPLEX

THERAPY

M.M.Issa

Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University

Serum CA125 was measured using an immunoradiometric assay, employing monoclonal antibody technology. Quality control assessment indicated good precision with intra-assay RSD at 90 and 387 it/ml of 6.3 and 2.0%, and an inter-assay RSD at 83 and 43 7 it/ml of 11.3 and 8.9% respectively. Serum CA125 levels in 72 healthy females did not exceed 20 u/ml. In 25 patients with gynaecological conditions ( 6 benign cysts, 10 fibroids, and dysfunctional bleeding), Serum CA125 did not exceed 14 u/ml. The upper limit of normal was set at 35 u/ml. In 24 ovarian cancer patients, serum CA125 levels measured before platinum complex therapy, were elevated in 18 (range 48-437 u/ml), whereas 6 had levels within the normal range despite the presence of ovarian malignancy. There was no relationship between the frequency of elevation and tumour histology, however those patients with large tumours ( >10) all had elevated levels, suggesting a relationship with tumour size. The sequential changes in serum CA125 levels during platinum therapy and at follow-up   to 2 years were monitored in 13 patients. In 9 of these patients, changes in CA 125 levels followed the clinical course of the disease. Constantly rising levels of CAJ 25 during platinum therapy in two patients was associated with progressive disease. Elevated levels at the end of platinum therapy were associated with residual disease as diagnosed at second-look laparotomy. In four patients, serum antigen levels remained within the normal range during platinum therapy and at follow-up, despite the clinical evidence of tumour.

32/6  THE ROLE OF ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS IN THE CLINICAL MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED

OVARIAN CANCER

M.M. Issa.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig Universtity, Zagazig, Egypt.

Quantitative immununoelectrophoresis has been used to determine the serum concentrations of 6proteins; haptoglobin (HP), acid- glycoprotein (AGP), antitrypsin (AT), ceruloplasmin (CP), prealbumin (PALB),and albumin (ALB), in serial samples taken from 21 patients with advanced overian cancer, being treated with Cisplatin as a single agent. The mean serum concentration of HP,AGP and AT for all 2 J patients were significantly elevated (P< 0.001)prior to the first Cisplation treatment when compared to the corresponding normal values.The magnitude of these increased levels appeared to correlate with the tumour size on presentation. In those patients who completely responded to Cisplatin, the mean serum Hp, AGP and AT levels were within the range at the time of the last blood sample. In contrast, these proteins remained significantly elevated (p < 0.001) in patients who didnot respondto drug therapy. The changing levels of serum Hp and AGP appeared to correlate the best with the clinical status of each patient. It is suggested that when measured as a pair, longitudinal estimation of these proteins may aid in the clinical management of patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Long- term serial determination of serum AT, Cp, PALB and ALB are of doubtful value in the clinical management of these patients. Cisplatin (100mg/m2), as a single agent, is an effective first line treatment in approximately 33% of patients with advanced ovarian cancer. This figure appears to be markedly influenced by tumour size on presentation.

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