Vol. 7, April, 2001.

1/7 THE CLINICAL VALUE OF SERUM CA 125 AND TPS LEVELS IN DIAGNOSIS AND MONITORING OF OVARIAN SWELLINGS

M. Mahmoud, O. El Ahmady*, A. Hamza**, M.R. Mourad**, M. Abdel Samie**

Biochemistry Depart., International Islamic Center for Population Studies and Research., Al-Azhar Univ.*Biochemistry Depart, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams Univ. **Obstetric and Gynecology Depart. Al-Azhar Univ., Egypt.

The purpose of this study was to compare the usefulness of tumor markers Tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS) and CA 125 in diagnosis and monitoring of ovarian cancer patients. TPS and CA 125 were determined in 84 cases (13 normal healthy women as control group, 52 with benign pelvic abnormal masses and 19 with malignant ovarian masses). The results of this study revealed that estimation of the tumor markers is suitable for diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Combined use of TPS and CA 125 in ovarian cancer increases sensitivity for the diagnosis.

2/7 CHARACTERIZATION OF SHIGA TOXIN PRODUCING E. COLI (STX-1) FROM BOVINES BY COLONY BLOT HYBRIDIZATION AND ITS PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE.

A.M. Byomi*, G.S. Radwan** and Bahy El- Gamal G. Abd El-Aal***

* Department of Animal Hygiene, Zoonosis and Animal Husbandry, Faculty of veterinary, Medicine, Sadat City, Menoufia University

** Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Sadat City, Menofia University

*** Animal Health Research Institute. Alex. Laboratory

One hundred and two E. coli strains isolated from rectal swabs of diarrhoeic, apparently healthy calves and their dams in addition to teat apex swabs were tested for the presence of STx-1 E. coli by colony blot hybridization using specific oligonucleotide gene probes. Only three strains (3.06%) were positive for STx-1 gene probe. One of the three positive strains was isolated from teat apex swab of a dam, while the other two strains were isolated from dams fecal swabs which prove that cattle feces is the main reservoir of shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) which contaminate the surrounding environment of the newly born calves rendering them easily infected and also constitutes a public health hazard for workers and consumers of milk, meat and their products. The isolated STx-1 E. coli strains were belonged to serovars O17: H18 and O6:H110.

3/7 GARLIC AND BLACK SEED WOULD PROTECT AGAINST CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES TOXICITY OF NERIUM OLEANDER: EFFECT ON SOME VASOACTIVE SUBSTANCES

R. El-Kholy, N. E. El-Ashmawy* and T.F. El-Moselhy**

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, *Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, **Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

In this work ,the possible protective effect of garlic extract (GE) and Nigella sativa oil (NSO) on Nerium oleander (NOL)-cardiac glycosides-induced toxicity in rats has been studied ,since cardiac glycoside toxicity is likely to occur as a result of default overdose of digitalis therapy. Forty adult male albino rats were included in this study and subdivided into four equal groups. The first one was the control group, the second was NOL group, the third was GE-NOL group and the fourth was NSO-NOL group. NOL (10 mg/kg/day) was injected i.p. into rats of the second, third and fourth groups for 10 days. GE (100 mg/kg/day) and NSO (100 mg/kg/day) were administered orally to the third and fourth groups for 15 days starting 5 days before the injection of NOL. Blood samples were used for measurement of some vasoactive substances including epinephrine, norepinephrine (NE), histamine and serotonin (5-HT). Spectrofluorometric methods of analysis were employed. The results revealed that NOL induced toxicity as manifested by significant elevation of blood catecholamines, histamine and 5-HT ,when compared with the control group. GE and NSO showed a protective effect as shown by significant inhibition of elevation of plasma catecholamines compared to NOL group. However, GE was more potent than NSO in this respect. The elevation of blood histamine and 5-HT was prevented by NSO but not by GE. It can be concluded that both GE and NSO would protect against cardiac glycosides toxicity by preventing disturbances of the vascular system and counteracting mast cell stimulation.

 

 

4/7 MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS AS A SOURCE OF SOME BACTERIAL PATHOGENS TO HUMAN BEINGS

H.A. Samaha, A.A. Draz, Y.N. Haggag and S.H. Gorbal

Dept. Animal Hygiene and Zoonoses, Fac. Vet. Med., Alex. Univ.

Four hundred and fifty random samples of meat and meat products (50 from each of beef, sheep and goat carcasses, pasterma, minced meat, hamburger, sausage, luncheon and frankfurter) were collected from El-Behera and Alexandria Province. These samples were subjected to bacteriological examination. The obtained results revealed the isolation of E. coli (11.33%), Salmonella (11.78%) {include S. typhimurium (4.67%), S. paratyphi (3.33%), S. enteritidis (2.00%), S. newport (1.11%) and S. thompson (0.67%)}, Shigella (6.89%) {which include Shigella sonnei (4.00%) and Shigella flexneri (2.89%)}, Yersinia enterocolitica (8.22%), Staphylococcus aureus (13.78%), Streptococcus spp. (10.0%) and Corynebacterium spp. (9.56%) from examined meat and meat products samples. The zoonotic importance of each isolated bacteria was discussed.

 

 

5/7 EFFECT OF SUB-INHIBITORY CONCENTRATION OF SOME QUINOLONES ON VIRULENCE FACTORS OF UROPATHOGENIC MORGANELLA MORGANII

M.S.M. Mansy, H. Hefny and T.R. El-Khamissy*

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

* Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt.

A total of thirty two isolates of Morganella morganii were isolated from urine of patients suffering from urinary tract infection. The effect of sub-inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxazin, ofloxacin, pefloxacin, norfloxacin and nalidixic acid on urease, adherence and haemogglutination activities of uropathogenic M. morganii was examined. Twelve isolates of M. morganii that exhibited the highest urease and adhesion activities were selected for further investigations. The effect of ciprofloxacin at ¼ MIC enhanced urease activity, particularly at the initial phase of growth compared with the untreated cells, while other quinolones had no effects (P < 0.05). The twelve M. morganii isolates adhered and agglutinated human erythrocytes group A in the absence of D-mannose, whereas the adherence and haemagglutination abilities of one isolate were altered in the presence of D-mannose. The effect of sub-inhibitory concentration of tested quinolones (1/4 MIC) on adhesion ability of M. morganii to human uroepithelial cells was studied. No significant reduction in adherence with nalidixic acid on all tested isolates, while norfloxacin had no significant reduction in adherence on seven isolates. On the other hand, there was significant reduction in adherence observed with ofloxacin and pefloxacin on eleven isolates. Meanwhile, ciprofloxacin had significant reduction in adherence on all tested isolates (P < 0.05). At ¼ MIC, all tested quinolones with the exception of nalidixic acid inhibited the haemagglutinsation abilities of most isolates. The urease activity of M. morganii isolates neither correlate with the distribution of the adherence ability to human uropithelial cells nor with haemagglutination to human erythrocytes in the presence of tested quinolones.

 

6/7 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ADDITIVES IN SOME HEAT TREATED CHICKEN AND TURKEY PRODUCTS

E.M.E Abd El-Hafiez and S.M. Arafa

Department of food hygiene, Animal Health Research Institute.

Samples from both of chicken and turkey products including luncheon, frankfurter, keshta and rosto were collected. The chemical composition (moisture, protein, fat, ash and salt) and the additive contents (ascorbate, nitrite, phosphate and glutamate) of each product were determined. The obtained results revealed that, the chemical composition of each product type was nearly similar in both chicken and turkey. All products were in the accepted limit for chemical composition except 4% of examined turkey luncheon for moisture content, and 48%, 56%, and 100% of examined chicken luncheon, chicken frankfurter, and turkey frankfurter for fat content respectively, and also 16%, 20%, 24% and32% of examined samples of chicken luncheon, chicken frankfurter, turkey keshta, and turkey rosto for salt content respectively. All results were within accepted limit for additive content except 12% of examined turkey frankfurter for nitrite content and 8%, 8%, 8% and 4% of examined chicken luncheon chicken frankfurter, turkey luncheon and turkey frankfurter for phosphate content respectively. The results also revealed that the keshta and rosto products have a high in protein content (more than 20%) and low fat content (less than 1.5%), while other products were moderate in protein and fat content. The importance of monitoring the chemical composition and the additives as well as the public health significance of the obtained results were discussed.

 

 

7/7 INCIDENCE OF AEROBIC MESOPHILIC SPORE FORMERS IN SOME MEAT PRODUCTS

S.M.L El- Shishnagui and E.M.E Abd El- Hafiez,

Department of Food Hygiene, Animal Health Research Institute

A total of 160 samples of meat products were collected from different localities at Alexandria governorate. The samples were uncooked frozen products (Kofta and Burger), cooked chilled products (Hot dog and frankfurter), smoked cooked products (Keshta and Roast), and dry products (Basterma and dry Luncheon). These samples were examined bacteriologically for the incidence of aerobic mesophilic spore formers. The obtained results revealed that the mean counts (log c.f.u/g) in Kofta and Burger (uncooked frozen meat products) were 3.6 ± 0.14 and 3.5 ± 0.14 log c.f.u/g respectively. While in basterma and dry luncheon (dry meat products), they were 4.43 ± 0.26 and 5.10 ± 0.22 log c.f.u/g respectively. As well as in Roast and Keshta (smoked cooked meat products) they were 0.55 ± 0.19 and 0.53 ± 0.19 log c.f.u/g respectively. Finally in Hot dog and Frankfurter (cooked chilled meat products) they were 2.10 ± 0.45 and 1.74 ± 0.39 log c.f.u/g respectively. All the examined meat products have aerobic mesophilic spore formers counts less than 105 c.f.u/g, except the dry meat products (Basterma and dry Luncheon) in which 37.5% of the samples have counts ranged from 105 to greater than 106 c.f.u/g. The results also revealed that, B. cerus was the most frequently isolated strain followed by B. subtilis then B licheniformis. While B. brevis, B. pumilus and B. alvie were isolated at low percentages. The highest incidence of B.cereus. and B.subtilis was found in the uncooked frozen, followed by dry ,chilled cooked and smoked cooked meat products respectively. Whereas that of B. licheniformis was observed in the dry products followed by chilled cooked, uncooked frozen and smoked cooked products respectively. B. brevis, B. pumilus and B. alvie were isolated only from chilled cooked and dry meat products. The public health significance of Bacillus species as well as the suggestive measures to produce high quality products were dicussed.    

 

 

8/7 IN-VITRO RELEASE AND EX-VIVO SPASMOLYTIC EFFECTS OF MEBEVERINE HYDROCHLORIDE FROM RECTAL SUPPOSITORIES CONTAINING RELEASE ENHANCERS

S.S. Abd El-Hady, N. Mortada*, G.A.S. Awad*, N.M. Zaki* and R.A.Taha**

Department of Drug Technology and *Departmentof Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

**Department of Pharmacologyand Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy (Girls),           Al Azhar University, Egypt.

Mebeverine hydrochloride was formulated into suppositories using different fatty and water soluble suppository bases. The physical parameters of the prepared mebeverine hydrochloride suppositories as well as the in-vitro drug release were studied. The release from the water soluble polyethylene glycol bases reached 100% of drug content after an average time of 45 minutes, while the highest drug release obtained from fatty bases did not exceed 35% of drug content after 150 minutes when witepsol H15 was used. The drug release from the different fatty bases used can be arranged in the following decreasing order: witepsol H15 > witepsol W25 > suppocire AM > witepsol W35 > witepsol S 55 > suppocire CM > witepsol E 75. The effect of the type and concentration of different non-ionic surfactants, viz: tween 20, tween 60, tween 80, brij 35 and myrj 52 on the drug release from witepsol H15 and witepsol W35 was investigated. The results showed that the maximum drug release was from witepsol H15 suppositories containing 5% w/w tween 80 reaching a 91% of drug content, while the lowest drug release was from witepsol W35 suppositories containing 1% of tween 60, where not more than 39.6% of drug content was released. The incorporation of hydrophilic gels with witepsol H15 and witepsol W35 resulted in increasing the amount of mebeverine hydrochloride released. Among the tested gels, hydroxyethyl cellulose incorporated with Witepsol H15 afforded the maximum amount of drug released while carbopol 934 led to maximum drug release with witepsol W35. The release of mebeverine hydrochloride from the tested bases was found to correlate well with the melting range and disintegration time of the suppositories but not with the hardness. Upon storage for 12 months at 4°C, no changes in either physical parameter or drug release pattern from the tested suppositories were observed. On studying the spasmolytic effect of mebeverine hydrochloride suppositories on some spasmogens using the isolated guinea-pig ileum, a linear correlation with a squared coefficient of correlation value (r2)= 0.9963 existed between the ex-vivo spasmolytic activity and the in-vitro release of mebeverine hydrochloride from the used suppositories.

 

9/7 MICELLAR SOLUBILIZATION OF LORATADINE IN SURFACTANT AND LIPID SOLUTIONS

N.D. Mortada

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University

Loratadine is a poorly soluble non-sedating antihistaminic drug. In this study, its solubility in simple and mixed micellar systems was examined. It was found that the solubility of loratadine in simple micellar solutions of the non-ionic surfactants tween 20 or tween 80 was higher than that in the simple micellar solutions of the bile salts sodium cholate or sodium deoxycholate. 10% w/w solution of tween 20 in water showed the maximum enhancement in drug solubility. The mixed micellar systems containing the bile salts sodium cholate or sodium deoxycholate in association with either caprylic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid or soya phosphatidylcholine were studied. The solubility of loratadine in these mixed micelles was affected by the type and the mole fraction of the lipid residue used. Moreover the solubility of loratadine in the mixed micellar systems was higher when Sorensen’s phosphate buffer pH 7.4 was used as a dispersion medium rather than water; the maximum enhancement in drug solubility was obtained in the mixed micellar systems of sodium cholate/linoleic acid (0.5 mole fraction of the acid) and sodium deoxycholate/phosphatidylcholine (0.4 mole fraction of the lipid residue). The solubilizing capacity of mixed micelles for loratadine was increased to varying extent upon the addition of benzyl alcohol, a commonly used preservative in liquid pharmaceutical preparations.

 

10/7 OESTROGEN RECEPTORS IN ENDOMETRIAL HYPERPLASIA AND CARCINOMA

A.H. Khalifa, I. Kotry, M.A. Ismael, A.H. Soliman and H.T. Salem

Dept. of Obstet & Gynaecol., Faculty of Medicine, Al- Azhar University and National Cancer Institute - Cairo University.

This study was done between January 1997 to January 2000 at Al-Azhar University Hospital and National Cancer Institute. It was conducted to evaluate the level of estrogen receptors (ER) and itsprognostic significancein endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma. A total of fifty women were investigated for estrogen receptors in case of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma as three groups: Group (I), 20 cases ofendometrial hyperplasia, Group (II), 20 cases of endometrial carcinoma and Group (III), 10 cases as control group of proliferative endometriumEstrogen receptors (ER) were found positive in 80% of glandular endometrial hyperplasia but, ER were positive in 70% of glandular and 65% of stromal element in endometrial carcinoma. Estrogen receptors estimation is more significant in endometrial carcinoma than in endometrial hyperplasia and might denote aggressiveness of the tumor.

11/7 NON-IONIC SURFACTANT VESICLES (NSV) AS CARRIERS FOR SALBUTAMOL SULPHATE

O.A. Sammour

Departemnt of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

Non-ionic surfactant vesicles (NSV) or niosomes have shown promise as cheap, chemically stable alternatives to liposomes. A series of sorbitan monoesters (Span 20, 40, 60 and 80) and a sorbitan trioleate (Span 85) were used to prepare NSV. Salbutamol sulphate (SS) was used as a model solute to investigate the entrapment efficiency and release of NSV. Niosomes were prepared by the hand shaking method (HSM), ether injection method (EIM) and reverse-phase evaporation method (REV) using a series of Spans, cholesterol (Chol) and dicetylphosphate (DCP) in the molar ratio of 47.5: 47.5: 5.0. NSV prepared by EIM and REV exhibited a higher entrapment efficiency than HSM. However, HSM giving the least permeable vesicles were used to study the effect of variables like type of Span and total lipid concentration on entrapment efficiency and release rate. Most efficient entrapment of SS occurred with Span 60 (HLB 4.7) and Span 40 (HLB 6.7). Mean size of HSM vesicles showed a regular increase with increasing HLB from Span 85 (HLB 1.8) to Span 20 (HLB 8.6). Span 40 and 60 released 31.1 and 29.1% drug in 6 h while Span 20, 80 and 85 displayed 41.2, 50.1 and 47.5% release, respectively in the same time. The entrapment efficiency increased linearly with increasing concentration of lipid. Entrapment efficiency per m mol lipid, however, was constant at about 55%, independent of the lipid concentration.

12/7 GLYCOSIDESOF CASSIA TORA L. CULTIVATED IN EGYPT

M.M. Shabana, M.H. Gonaid, A.E. Khaleel and M.F. Yousif

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Egypt

Two anthraquinone glycosides (I & II) were isolated from the seeds of Cassia tora L. (Family Fabaceae) cultivated in Egypt. These were identified as obtusifolin-2-β-D-glucoside(I) and aurantio-obtusin-2-β-D-glucoside(II). One naphtho-γ-pyrone glycoside was also isolated from the seeds namely, rubrofusarin-6-β-gentiobioside (III). Two flavonoidal compounds, quercetrin (IV) and hyperoside (V) and an anthraquinone glycoside, emodin glucoside (VI) were isolated from the flowers of Cassia tora L. for the first time. Identification of the isolated compounds was achieved by physicochemical and spectroscopic analysis, viz.: m.p., UV, 1H-NMR, and EI-MS.

13/7 PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF CLERODENDRON SPLENDENS DON GROWING IN EGYPT

A.H. Shehata, M.F. Yousif and* G.A. Soliman

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy and * Pharmacology Department , Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

Phytochemical screening of leaves and flowers of Clerodendron splendens Don revealed the presence of carbohydrates and/or glycosides, unsaturated sterols and/or triterpenes and flavonoids. Compound I was isolated from the unsaponifiable fraction of the petroleum ether extract of leaves. It was identified as 22-dehydroclerosterol, by the study of physicochemical characters and spectroscopic analysis, viz.: m.p., 1H-NMR, and EI-MS. Identification of the fatty acids methyl esters of both leaves and flowers was carried out by GLC. It revealed presence of 8 and 11 components respectively, methyl myristate being the major one in leaves corresponding to methyl stearate in flowers. Three flavonoidal compounds were isolated from the butanol extracts of both leaves and flowers. These were identified as apigenin II, apigenin-7-O-glucoside III, and 3/, 4/, 7-trihydroxyflavone-7-O-glucoside IV. Identification was carried out on bases of chromatographic studies and spectroscopic analysis, viz.: 1H-NMR and UV. The flavonoidal content of leaves and flowers were determined colorimetrically. LD50 for mice was found to be 3.700, 3.150, 4.142 and 3.423 g/ kg b.wt. for the aqueous and alcoholic extracts, petroleum ether and butanol fractions of the leaves, corresponding to 3.750, 3.300, 3.756 and 3.266 g/ kg b.wt. for those of flowers respectively. Analgesic, antipyretic and anti inflammatory effects of these extracts were revealed.

 

14/7 EVALUATION OF POSTABORTION IUD INSERTION IN THE EGYPTIAN WOMEN: A MICROSTUDY

E. Sakr, A. Moussa, S. Fouad and I. Said

Obstetrics and Gynecology Dept., Al-Azhar Faculty of Medicine

Objective: To asses the safety and efficacy of RD insertion immediately post abortion and two weeks postabortion. Settings: Al-Hussein University Hospital and El-Monera General Hospital. Patients and Method: One hundred women with age between 18 years and 40 years were recruited from those admitted via the emergency room with first trimester spontaneous abortion. All women were counseled for using a method of contraception particularly copper T 380 and divided into two groups: Group I: included 69 women who preferred immediate RD insertion. Group II: included 31 women for, late RD insertion, two weeks post abortion was done. All women were followed up at 2; 6; and 10 weeks post insertion. Results: Bleeding patterns were compared in both groups. Mild bleeding occurred in 9.2% and 16% in groups I and II respectively; moderate bleeding occurred in 80% and 64% in group I and II respectively and severe bleeding occurred in 10.8% and 20% in group I and II respectively these were statistically not significant. Expulsion rate was 4.5% and 3.4% in group I and II; this also was not statistically significant. No cases of perforation or pelvic infections were recorded. Conclusion: Insertion of RD immediately after spontaneous abortion is safe and could be offered to those who have abortion and ask for a method of contraception.

15/7 SYNTHESIS OF SOME NEW DERIVATIVES FROM THE REACTION OF OXAZOLINONES WITH AMINO ACID ESTERS

M.H. El-Hakim and A.S. El-Sayed

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Egypt

2-Aryl-4-Arylidene derivatives (Ia-c) were prepared which were reacted with some amino acid ester hydrochlorides to afford substituted styrylamido ester derivatives (IIa-j) and imidazolin-5-one derivatives (IIIa-j) according to the medium of the reaction. Derivatives (II) and (III) were reacted with hydrazine hydrate to afford the corresponding acid hydrazide derivatives (IVa-i) and (Va-f) respectively. The elemental analysis and spectral data of the new products were recorded.

 

16/7 SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF TRIHEXYPHENIDYL-HCL (PARKINOL)R ON BRAIN MONOAMINES AND HORMONAL PATTERN

IN ADULT MALE RATS

O.A. Heikal; H.H. Ahmed* and A.M. Diab

Department of Pharmacology, Narcotic and Toxicology Lab.

*Hormones Department, National Research Center,Dokki,Cairo,Egypt.

The effects of subacute and chronic administration of both therapeutic and overdoses of trihexyphenidyl –HCl (THP) on neuroendocrine functions in adult male rats were studied.Seven groups of rats each consisting of 8 animals were used, one group served as control [ gpI ].Three groups were used for the subacute toxicity study (one week treatment)[gsII, III, and IV]. Animals of one group were gavaged orally aqueous solution of THP-HCl equivalent to the therapeutic dose (i.e. 0.143mg/Kg B.W.) [gpII]. Animals of 2nd and 3rd groups were given 1.43,2.86 mg/Kg B.W. respectively [gps III and IV]. Remaining groups were used for the chronic toxicity study. They were similarly treated with THP-HCl but for 4 weeks [gps V, VI and VII]. Brain monoamine, Nor-epinephrine (NE), was significantly decreased (p< 0.01) in subacute group (gpIV) and in all other groups (p< 0.05). Dopamine (DA) level was significantly increased in all subacute treated animals [ gps II, III and IV] while serotonin (5-HT) was significantly decreased in gps II and III (P < 0.05). Plasma cholinesterase activity showed a very high significant decrease (p< 0.001) in subacute overdosed animals [gps III and IV] and highly significant decrease (p< 0.01) in chronic therapeutic treated animals [gpV] as compared to control. T3, T4 and TSH levels significantly decreased (p < 0.01) in subacute groups [gp IV]. Chronic treated animals [ gps V and VII] revealed a significant decrease, while chronic treated animals [gp VI] showed a significant increase (p< 0.05) in T3, T4 and TSH levels as compared to control values. On the other hand, plasma corticosterone and adrenocoticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels revealed a significant increase in all subacute treated animals [gps II, III and IV], and a significant decrease in chronic treated animals [gps V and VI]. Plasma testosterone level was significantly decreased in all treated animals (p< 0.001) as compared to the control. It could be concluded that subacute and chronic overdoses of THP administration showed significant impact on neuroendocrine functions as indicated by disturbance of brain monoamines concentrations and hormonal disorders (hypothalamus-hypophyseal axis). Plasma–THP concentrations are dose- related in the subacute treated groups rather than in chronic treated ones.

 

 

17/7 INFLUENCE OF PANAX GINSENG ROOT ON THE BLOOD CHEMISTRY PROFILE AND CHROMOSOMAL INSTABILITIES IN CHROMIUM (VI) INTOXICATED RATS

F. Mannaa*; A.E.M. El-Wardany ** H.H. Ahmed*** and E.F. Eskander***

*Basic Medical Sciences Dept.** Cell Biology Dept. Hormones Dept., *** National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

Chromium (Cr), like many transition metals is essential at low concentrations for life survival, yet it is toxic to many systems at high concentrations. Cr is widely used in numerous industrial processes, therefore it is a contaminant of many environmental systems. The results of in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate that Cr (VI) cation induces an oxidative stress that results in oxidative deterioration of biological macromolecules. This study aimed to elucidate the protective action of Panax ginseng roots against hazardous effects of Cr (VI) intoxication. Oral administration of potassium dichromate (50 mg/kg. B.W./day) for 15 days greatly affected thyroid and adrenal glands. This appeared from highly significant decrease in serum T3, T4 TSH and corticosterone levels. Accordingly, the carbohydrate metabolism was affected as indicated by the marked increase in glucose level and amylase activity. Lipid metabolism was also affected by Cr (VI) intoxication, so that the level of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL- cholesterol were significantly elevated. Moreover, the activities of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase were significantly increased. Furthermore, Cr (VI) seriously affected blood hemoglobin concentration as well as serum iron level in the intoxicated rats. In addition, the present study was undertaken to shed light on the DNA- damaging potentialities induced by Cr (VI) intoxication of somatic cells. Cr (VI) administration caused a wide range of cell injuries as indicated by the significant increase in the frequency of cells with structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations. However, oral administration of Panax ginseng roots (20 mg/kg.B.W./day) for a period of 15 days prior to Cr (VI) administration performed a prophylactic effect against Cr (VI) toxicity. The obtained results showed that pretreatment with Panax ginseng roots significantly modulated the changes in the physiological pathway induced by Cr (VI) intoxication, and that Panax ginseng roots manifested marked improvement in the thyroid, adrenal and cardiac functions in the pretreated rats. Also, the genotoxic effect of Cr (VI) was significantly controlled by preadministration of Panax ginseng roots for 15 days. The present data indicated that pretreatment with Panax ginseng roots caused a significant reduction in the deteriorated cells and that may support protection against cellular damaging action.

 

 

18/7 EFFECT OF PASSIVE SMOKING AND VITAMIN E SUPPLEMENTATION ON LIPID PEROXIDATION AND BLOOD ANTIOXIDANTS IN CHILDREN

A.F. Shaaban, Y.A. Farid and M. Salah*

Faculty of Education, Helwan University. * Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University.

Children of smoking parents are subjected to close and prolonged exposure to cigarette smoke, which is potentially capable of generating high free radical load in the body and creating a state of proxidant/ antioxidant imbalance. This oxidative stress may initiate and propagates the process of lipid peroxidation, which is injurious to the human tissues.   Highly efficient antioxidant defence systems exist to inhibit this oxidative damage. This study aimed to assess the influence of passive smoking on the susceptibility of children to lipid peroxidation and their antioxidant system. We also evaluated the potential beneficial effect of vitamin E supplementation on their antioxidant defence mechanisms. Forty healthy children (22 males and 18 females) with ages ranging between 6-12 years were categorized into two groups. Group I included 25 children of smoking parents, group II included 15 children of non-smokers to serve as control group. Erythrocytes glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) enzymes activities, plasma vitamin E and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were assayed before and two weeks after daily intake of 100 mg α- tocopherol acetate (vitamin E). Passively smoking children were more susceptible to lipid peroxidation as evident from their higher TPARS levels. Erythrocytes GSH-Px exhibited increased activity in children of smoking parents, while CAT showed no significant difference in its activity between the two groups. High dosage vitamin E supplementation improved the protection against lipid peroxidation in passively smoking children, though it did not affect the activity of GSH-Px or CAT enzymes, signifying that vitamin E may act independently from the antioxidant cytosolic enzymes. In conclusion, passively smoking children had higher susceptibility to lipid peroxidation that can be ameliorated by vitamin E supplementation, despite its minimal effect on the antioxidant cytosolic enzymes.

 

 

19/7 FUNGAL SINUS DISEASE IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED PATIENTS

A.G. Abdul Rahman and M.A.F. Moawad*

Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University.

*National Center of Radiation Research and Technology, N.C.R.R.T.

Aspergillus infection of the paranasal sinuses is not uncommon. 15 cases of Aspergillus fungal sinusitis are reviewed aiming at identifying local and systemic risk factors of the different clinical, radiological and histopathological presentations of the disease. Local and systemic risk factors are identified in 12 patients. Invasive disease is associated with high degree of systemic compromise, while non-invasive forms are associated with local factors. Identification and control of correctable local or systemic factors is the corner stone for proper management. Identification of high-risk patients is important for preventive plans.

 

 

20/7 AMELIORATIVE EFFECT OF CACL2 ON NACLSTRESSED VICIA FABA L. PLANT GROWTH AND ACCUMULATION OF SOME OSMOREGULATORS.

A.A. Fathy

Botany department, Faculty of science, Alexandria university, Alexandria, Egypt.

The present work was conducted to elucidate the excess, external Ca++ concentration potentiality to ameliorate the deleterious effect of excess Na+ concentration on Vicia faba plant. Vicia faba seeds were grown under different stresses of NaCL levels (up to 200 mM NaCL) alone, and in combination with different CaCL2 concentrations (5 and 10 mM CaCL2).All growth parameters (fresh and dry weight, and photosynthetic pigments) were adversely affected by increasing NaCL level. Chlorophyll a was greatly affected more than other photosynthetic fractions. Total free amino acids and proline were accumulated with the increase of NaCL level. The increase was higher significantly in shoot than in root system. On contrary, the protein content in both root and shoot systems exhibited an obvious decrease, especially at NaCL level of 200 mM. Root system seemed to be much affected than shoot system, concerning protein content. The total soluble carbohydrate contents increased significantly in both root and shoot systems with the increase of NaCL level. Accumulation of carbohydrate content was much higher in shoot than in root. Addition of CaCL2 in the saline growth medium enabled Vicia faba to withstand severe conditions of salt stress up to 200 mM external sodium chloride concentration. All growth parameters showed a great enhancement by the addition of CaCL2 into the saline growth media. Finally, it can be concluded that exogenous application of CaCL2 alleviates the inhibitory effect of NaCL on Vicia faba plant growth, within the studied range.

 

 

21/7 ISOLATION OF FREE-LIVING AMOEBAE FROM THE NASAL SWABS

N.F.A. Mahmoud and M.A.F. Moawad*

Research Institute of Ophthalmology and

*National Center of Radiation Research and Technology. N.C.R.R.T

Free-living amoebas (FLA) are quite obviously widely spread protozoan and some of them have been established as causing serious disease in animals and humans. Humans are frequently exposed to the free-living amoebas organisms but few infections occur. Samples from the nasal swabs were examined after being cultivated on non-nutrient agar. Out of 75 samples 31 only gave growth to FLA. The isolated FLA belongs to two genera Acanthamoeba and Naegleria based on the morphological characters and ability to produce flagellated forms. All the isolated FLA were non pathogenic as proved by animal pathogenicity test.

 


22/7 A SURVEY OF ALGAL MICRO FLORA OCCURRING IN SOME MOSQUITO LARVAE BREEDING SITES.

M.M. Gaballah

Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Botany Dep., Ismailia, Egypt.

A survey of algal flora occurring in different types of breeding places of mosquito larvae was conducted in October, March and June 1998- 1999 from different localities in Egypt. 82 algal taxa were recorded. Bacillariophyceae were qualitatively the most important group it represents 33 species followed by Cyanophyceae 22, Chlorophyceae 18, Euglenophyceae 5, Prymnesiophyceae 2, Cryptophyceae 1 and Chrysophyceae 1. The chemical analysis was also detected. Species composition of the algal flora differed according to the types of mosquito habitats. However, the results showed some associations of some algal flora and some mosquito species, which could be taken as a biological control system.

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