Vol. 8, October, 2001.

1/8 EFFECT OF TREATMENT WITH EITHER BROMAZEPAM OR GINSENG ON ESTRUS CYCLE, PLASMA HORMONES AND UTERINE STRUCTURE IN CHRONICALLY STRESSED FEMALE RATS

B.H. El Zawahry and N.A. Moustafa*

Departments of Physiology and Zoology* , Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Science * for Girls, Al-Azhar University

The present study investigated the estrus cycle changes, hormonal changes and uterine histological changes in response to chronic restraint stress with or without administration of bromazepam or ginseng in female albino rats. Forty female albino rats were used. They were divided into control group, restraint group, restraint administered ginseng (18mg/rat/day, i.e. stress/ginseng) group, and restraint administered bromazepam (0.054mg/rat/day, i.e. stress/bromazepam) group. The restraint stress was applied for four hours/day, five days/week for three weeks. Stages of estrus were monitered twice daily by vaginal smears. Body weights were measured weekly, and the plasma hormones were determined once at the end of the experiment. The body weight showed significant reduction after one week of beginning of restraint then it increased significantly at the end of the second and third weeks. Administration of either ginseng or bromazepam to restrained animals resulted in steady increase in body weight to be insingnificant in comparison to the control. Stress caused significant prolongation of the diestrus and the total cycle length, while administration of either ginseng or bromazepam caused significant decrease of the diestrus and the total cycle length compared to the stress group. In rats sampled during estrus phase, restraint caused significant decrease of LH and FSH and significant increase of cortisol in comparison to the control, while administration of either ginseng or bromazepam, caused significant elevation of LH and FSH and significant reduction of cortisol in comparison to the stress group. In rats sampled during diestrus, restraint caused significant decrease in LH and FSH levels and significant increase in cortisol, estradiol and progesterone levels compared to the control, while administration of either ginseng, or bromazepam resulted in significant elevation of LH and FSH and significant reduction of cortisol, estradiol and progesterone in comparison to the stress group. The histological study revealed that chronic stress resulted in significant increase in PAS +ve material in the different layers of the uterus during estrus and diestrus phases,degeneration of the endometrial glands, and atrophy of the stroma. These changes clearly improved in stressed rats receiving either ginseng or bromazepam. We concluded that chronic stress caused prolongation of estrus and diestrus and the total cycle length, and that ginseng as well as bromazepam could alleviate stress induced disrupted estrus cycles and improve hormonal and uterine structural changes caused by stress.

 

 

2/8 IN-VITRO RELEASE OF INSULIN FROM THE ISOLATED PANCREAS OF HYPERTHERMIC RATS. THE MODULATORY EFFECT OF NON-STEROIDAL ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS

M. Seif-El-Nasr, S.S. Moustafa, S.A. Kenawy and M.E. El-Sayed

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

In the present study, the effect of yeast-induced hyperthermia on insulin secretion from the isolated perfused rat pancreas was studied. Hyperthermia was induced by subcutaneous injection of yeast suspension in the dose of 4 g/kg. Six hours later the pancreas was isolated and perfused with Krebs Ringer Bicarbonate buffer containing glucose solution (3.0 mM or 16.7 mM). Samples were collected at different time intervals along 30 min of perfusion. Insulin concentration in the samples was then determined using radioimmunoassy technique. The results show that yeast-induced hyperthermia (38.9oC) produced a significant rise in glucose-induced insulin secretion from the isolated perfused pancreas of rats reaching about three folds of the normal control. Both of antipyretics used, namely, diclofenac sodium and paracetamol, could normalize the hyperthermia-induced elevation in insulin secretion to the values of 22% and 16% of the hyperthermic control respectively.

 

 

3/8 EFFECT OF HYPERTHERMIA ON SOME ASPECTS OF CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN RATS

S.A. Kenawy, M. Seif-El-Nasr, S.S. Moustafa, M.E. El-Sayed

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

            In the present investigation, the effect of hyperthermia on carbohydrate metabolism was studied in rats. Hyperthermia was induced by subcutaneous injection of yeast suspension in the dose of 4 g/kg. The following parameters were determined 6 h after yeast injection: serum glucose level, serum insulin level and liver glycogen content. In addition, the effect of treatment with the antipyretic drugs, diclofenac sodium and paracetamol on the same parameters was studied. Drugs were administered either 30 min before or 2 h after yeast injection. The results show that hyperthermia decreased significantly the serum glucose level, and this was accompanied by a decrease in the liver glycogen content, while the serum insulin level was not affected significantly. Treatment of animals with antipyretics could normalize the serum glucose level, only when administered before induction of hyperthermia. On the other hand, paracetamol decreased significantly the serum insulin level, while diclofenac sodium had no influence. Both paracetamol and diclofenac sodium lowered the liver glycogen content.

4/8 INFLUENCE OF TWO NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN ARTHRITIC MALE ALBINO RATS

N.A. El Sawy *, A.M. El-Zwahry * * and L.A. Attia**

* Biochemistry and **, Histopathology Departments,

National Organization for Drug Control and Research

(NODCAR), Egypt.

Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs "NSAIDS" ketoprofin (Bi-profenid) and piroxicam (Feldene) were given in a dose equivelant to human therapeutic dose, 2mg/150gm body weight and 0.27mg/150gm body weight respectively. This work was conducted to investigate the effects of treating arthritic male albino rats with the two drugs and to reveal how the utilization of the combined form can minimize their toxicological side effects. From the biochemical parameters estimated, c-AMP which was signific­antly decreased with both drugs and increased with the combined form. Prostaglandin F2 µ was significantly lowered after treatment with Bi-profenid, feldene and their combined forms. Cortisol level was insignificantly increased with Bi-profenid, but significantly lowered following feldene treatment whereas the level was insignificantly decreased with the combined form. AST, ALT elevated significantly with Bi-­profenid and nonsignificantly changed with feldene and combined form. Creatinine was insignificantly raised, while urea revealed significant increase. The histopathological results showed some hepatotoxic and renal injuries.In conclusion, "NSAIDS" should be taken with great care when given for long periods as it affect kidney and liver. Clinical examinations must be done during treatment to recognize their harmful side effects.

 

5/8 BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN SOME MEAT PRODUCTS

E.A. Saleh

Department of Food Hygiene, Fac. Vet. Med., Alex. University

            A total of 200 random samples of fresh sausage, minced meat, luncheon meat and frankfurter (50 from each) were collected from different processing plants and shops in Alexandria and El-Behera governorates. The collected samples were analysed for determination of biogenic amines content by high pressure liquid chromatography. The results revealed that the highest biogenic amines content were found in fresh sausage and decreased successively in minced meat, luncheon meat and frankfurter. Eight biogenic amines could be detected namely cadaverine, putrescine, tyramine,histamine,β-phenylethylamine, tryptamine, spermidine and spermine. The highest biogenic amine level was for cadaverine then decrease successively for putrescine, tyramine, histamine, β-phenylethylamine and tryptamine, while for spermine and spermidine therewere no great variation from product to another and could be detected in all examined meat product samples (100%) while the first 6 biogenic amines, they could be detected in some of samples and not in others with great variation in its level and in percentage thus,reflect the effect of different factors controlling the formation of biogenic amines, safety of such products as well as the quality assurance of such products. Cadaverine could be detected at 88, 72, 30 and 18% of the examined samples of fresh sausage, minced meat, luncheon meat and frankfurter respectively, while forputrescine, it was 78, 70, 26 and 14% in respect of previous order, for tyramine, it was82, 62, 32 and 12%, for histamine it was 58, 54, 32 and 12%, b-phenyl ethylamine it was 46, 42, 24 and 10% and for tryptamine was 32, 26, 16 and 10%, respectively for fresh sausage, minced meat, luncheon meat and frankfurter. The method of food processing plays an important role in controlling the formation of biogenic amines in meat products. The health hazard as well as the suggestive measures for controlling the biogenic amines contents in processed meat products were discussed.

 

6/8 INCIDENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF SOME PSYCHROTROPHIC PATHOGENS IN MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

E.A. Saleh* and B.G. Abdel-Aal**

*Department of Food Hygiene, Fac. Vet. Med., Alex. University

**Animal Health Research Institute, Alex. Branch

            A total of 350 random samples from beef, sheep, goat carcasses, minced meat fresh sausage, pasterma and luncheon meat (50 from each) were collected from different meat processing plants and butcher’s shops in Alexandria and El-Behera governorates. Each sample was divided into two halves, one half was examined immediately (zero time) and the second half was examined after chilling at 1 – 2 oC for 6 days for detection of Aeromonas hydrophila group and Yersinia enterocolitica. The results revealed that the total incidence for A. hydrophila group and Y. enterocolitica was higher in samples chilled at 1 – 2 oC for 6 days (32.28 and 14.28%, respectively) than non-chilled ones (24.85 and 8.28%, respectively) .The highest incidence for these organisms was found in fresh sausage and decreased successively in minced meat, pasterma, goat, sheep and beef carcasses, while the lowest incidence was found in luncheon meat. Concerning A. hydrophila spp. a total number of 155 Aeromonas spp. could be isolated from examined meat samples which could be differentiated into 95 A. hydrophila, 36 A. caviae and 24 A. sorbia. The hygienic as well as the economic importance of the above mentioned bacteria are discussed and methods are suggested for minimizing and preventing bacterial contamination of meat and meat products.

 

7/8 THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS CONCENTRATIONS ON GROWTH OF AZOLLA PINNATA DURING DIFFERENT INCUBATION PERIODS.

M.H.M. Abdel-Rahman, S.M.M. Shanab*, E.F. Shabana**, S.N. Shaalan*** and                         M.A-T.I. Abdel-Tawwab****.

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Fayum branch, Cairo University.

*,** Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza.

***Soil and water research institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza.

****Central laboratory for Aquaculture, Abbasa, Abo-Hammad, Sharkia, Egypt.

Studying the effect of different nitrogen and phosphorus levels on Azolla pinnata during different incubation periods (6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 days). The obtained results indicated that, the biomass of Azolla pinnata was increased by time and reached its higher value during 24-day period under the effect of 5, 10 ppm-P and 10 ppm-N. Higher growth rate and relative growth rate were recorded in all treatments during the 6-day period, then their values decreased to the minimum values during the 30- day period. Chlorophyll (a and b) values reached their maxima at 5 ppm-P and 10 ppm-N levels during 18-day period. Chemical analysis of Azolla pinnata indicated that, ash and phosphorus contents were increased with increasing phosphorus levels and slightly decreased with higher nitrogen concentrations (highest values at 40 ppm-P and 5ppm-N during 18-day period). Maximum values of total nitrogen were recorded with treatments of 10 ppm-P and 20 ppm-N at 18-day period.

 

8/8 DIETETIC YOGHURT ENRICHED WITH FENUGREEK

Z.A. El-Atawy, L.M. Mohamed and E.L. Mostafa

Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research Centre

Yoghurt has its considerable rate in consumption comparing with other dairy products. Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum graecum) has been known with its benefiial nutritional and therapeutic effects. A trial for producing a dietary youghurt fortified with ground Fenugreek seeds to the milk after pasteurization was carried out. Four different levels of ground Fenugreek seeds (0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25% w/w) were used in making yoghurt. It was observed that the addition of Fenugreek markedly increased the total solids, ash, total protein, pH value, proteolytic activity, caloric value, calcium, phosphorus and iron, while fat content showed a slight increase. On contrary, titratable acidity and total volatile fatty acids decreased. Lactic acid bacteria counts were slightly higher in control than other treatments, while moulds and yeasts were not detected. The present work showed that yoghurt enriched with Fenugreek up to 0.75% (w/w) gained the highest scores and the storage period increased to 18 days under refregiration.

 

 

9/8 PRODUCTION OF ACETONE-BUTANOL BY IMMOBILIZED LOCAL STRAIN OF CLOSTRIDIUM ACETOBUTYLICUM USING DIFFERENT CARRIERS AND FERMENTATION TECHNIQUES

R.F. Allam, M.S. Shafei and L.A.R. Sallam

Chemistry of Nat. & Microb. Products. Dept., National Research Centre,

Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

Several carriers have been tested for production of acetone-butanol by immobilized local strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Thus, both batch and continuous fermentations were performed using sodium alginate, poly-acrylamide, activated carbon and silica gel carriers. Calcium alginate was found to be the most suitable with batch culture techniques where the total solvent produced was 19.55(g/l) after 4 days. On the other hand, higher solvent yields using continuous fermentation was noticed with silica gel G-60 (0.063-0.2 mm) with 13.06 g /l solvent production. In all cases, the tested solid supports were of inferior effect for solvent production under the experimental conditions used as compared with Ca-alginate.

 

10/8 IMMUNOREGULATION OF SCHISTOSOME LIVER GRANULOMA IN EXPERIMENTAL MICE :

STUDY THE IMMUNOLQGICAL ROLE OF APOPTOSIS IN LYMPHOCYTES AND EOSINOPHILS

N.F. Bouzubar*, N.M. AI-Ajmi*, B.M.A. El-Falaha** and M.A. Ramadan***

*Biochemistry, **Microbiology, ***Parasitology Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, College of Health Sciences, PAAET, Kuwait.

Infection with the helminth parasite, Schistosoma mansoni, is associated with a pathogenic granulomatous response to parasite eggs. Multiple cell types constitute the granuloma with eosinophils achieving numerical dominance. In this study the hypothesis that eosinophil dominance was achieved by selective apoptosis in lymphocytes. The results indicated that lymphocytes from both the spleens and granulomas of infected mice undergo apoptosis. The data also show that granuloma lymphocytes are more susceptible to Fas-FasL mediated apoptosis, which is contingent on antigen concentration. Additionally, eosinophils from the granuloma and spleens of S. mansoni infected mice are resistant to apoptosis in vivo and are protected in vitro from Fas­FasL mediated apoptosis by the absence of FasL expression in the presence of Fas expression. Finally, Bc 1-2, Bcl-xL, and Bax expression do not appear to play a significant role in the regulation of eosinophil apoptosis in the schistosome granuloma. These studies suggest that the schistosome granuloma may serve as an anti-pathology organelle, importing pathogenic lymphocytes and destroying them by apoptosis.

 


11/8 ERYSIPELO-CELLULITIS; A PROPLEM

M.M. Tawfik*, A. Abdel-Latif*, S.Z. El-Sayed**, A.A. Shalaby***,

A.G. El-Sheity**, R.H. Mansour** and R.R. Bedir****.

Tropical Med. Department, Cairo University*. Tropical Med. **, Microbiology***, and Dermatology****, Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University.

Erysipelas is an acute infection of epidermal surface of the skin typically caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. Many patients suffer from this disease and its complications. Through one year (from October 2000 to September 2001), 339 patients were admitted to Imbaba Fever Hospital with symptoms and signs of erysipelas and/or cellulites. The disease is common in age group > 50 years (39.23%), female (52.51%), rural patients (61.65%), lower limbs (93.50%), and diabetic patients (47.20%). The isolated organism is group A beta-hemolytic Streptococci (35.39%) alone or associated with Staphylococcus aureus (43.65% of cases). Penicillin, cephalosporins, quinolones are highly effective therapy. The duration of therapy is from 15 to 25 days. The recurrence of the illness and the skin disfigurement are the main problems of erysipelas.  

 

12/8 EFFECT OF METFORMIN ON SPONTANEOUS AND CLOMIPHENE INDUCED OVULATION IN THE POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

A. Rizk, A. Zakaria, M. Olama and A. Mohamed.

Department of Obestetrics and Gynecology, Al-Azhar University

Obese women with the polycystic ovary syndrome are relatively unresponsive to the induction of ovulation by clomiphene. We hypothesized that reducing insulin secretion by administerating metformin would increase the ovulatory response to clomiphene. 71 obese women non ovulating with PCOs attending infertility unit at El-Hussin University Hospital. On day 0 of the menstrual cycle, the women came to the hospital, forty women were assigned to take 500mg of metformin three times daily and the remaining 31 women were assigned to receive placebo, serum progesterone was measured on days 14, 28 and 35, and ovulation was presumed to have occurred if the value exceeded 8ng per milliliter. The 26 women in the metformin group and the 30 women in the placebo group who did not ovulate between days 0 and 35 were given 50 mg of clomiphene citrate daily for five days, while continuing to receive metformin or placebo. 14 of the 40 women in the metformin group ovulated spontaneously during treatment with metformin alone as compared with 1 of the 31 women in the placebo group. 24 of the 26 women who received combined metformin and clomiphene ovulated as compared with 2 of the 30 women in the group given placebo and clominphene. The frequency of spontaneous ovulation and ovulation induced by clomiphene can be increased in obese women with the polycystic ovary syndrome by decreasing serum insulin concentrations with metformin.

 

13/8 An alkaloid and four pyranocoumarins from Swingle citrumelo

A.M. El-Shamy, A.H. Shehata and H.M.M. Eid

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University,

Kasr El-AinY street, Cairo, 11562, Egypt.

the roots of seedlings of Swingle citrumelo (Poncirus trifoliate[L.] Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macf.) cultivated in Egypt revealed an acridone alkaloid 4 (5-hydroxynoracronycine ) and four pyranocoumarins (poncitrin 1, seselin 2, xanthyletin 3 and nordentatin 5) for the first time from this plant. Their structures were determined based on spectral analysis.

14/8 TEMPORARY TREATMENT OF EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED UREMIA IN RATS VIA CONVERTING WASTE METABOLITES INTO GLUTAMATE

H.M. Sharada

Chemistry Department, Division of Biochemistry, Faculty of science, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt.

Renal failure was established 24 hours after intramuscular injection of 1 ml /100 gm body weight of 50% glycerol into 15 hours dehydrated rats. Different concentrations of urease (2960, 1480, 987 and 740 U /rat), - ketoglutarate ( -KG, 98 g / rat), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH, 0.21U/rat), NADH (4.48 mg / rat) or/ and corasore (8L/ rat) were subcutaneously injected into renal failure rats. The serum levels of urea, ammonia, creatinine, uric acid, total proteins, AST and ALT activities, in addition to the survival time, were determined. The half – life of urease in rats was measured by injection of two concentrations of urease (2960 and 1480U/rat) was found to be 105 minutes. The maximum activity of urease in serum was seen after 120 minutes. Rats with renal failure and urease – treated renal failure rats died by ammonia toxicity within 120 – 180 minutes and within 71.5 + 4.05 minutes, respectively. Injection of urease with multicomplex (- KG + GLDH + NADH + Corasore) in a specific manner increased the survival time to 3 days or more and significantly decreased the serum levels of urea and ammonia.

 

15/8 THE INFLUENCE OF LOW RADIATION DOSES ON SOME BACTERIAL VIRULENCE DETERMINANT, WITH RELATION TO PHAGOCYTOSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY IN CANCER CERVIX PATIENTS

H.A . Farrag * S.A. Issa **, Z.K. Mohamed and M.M.K. Shehata

Department of Drug Radiation Research, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Cairo, Egypt.*, Department of Clinical Pathology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo, Egypt.**, Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University***

Some clinically isolated microorganisms can produce antiphagocytic virulence substance. In this study 42 bacterial strains were isolated from cervix of 50 patients. Escherichia coli was the most common species isolated (40.48%) followed by Klebsiella pneumonia (23.82 %), Klebsiella oxytoca (4.76 %), Klebsiella group 47 (2.38 %), Proteus mirabilis (9.52%), Morganella morganii (2.38 %), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11.90 %) and Staphylococcus warneri (4.76 %). The isolated strains were tested for antimicrobial agent susceptibility to 18 different antibiotics. The effect of bacterial virulence factors on neutrophil phagocytosis and antimicrobial activity was examined. Disk susceptibility testing suggested that the isolated producer strains which was positive for extracellular proteinase enzyme and / or for slime production that correlate with infectivity was rarely susceptible to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, cefotaxim, cephalothin, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline and sulphamethoxazol trimethoprim. In contrast, many non producer strains were susceptible to most of the tested antibiotics with marked variability among species. It was found that slime substance and / or proteinase enzyme reduced the phagocytic activity of the leukocytes against the producer bacterial strains 18 than non producer 24 strains (p-value = 0.00009). Radiation treatment of those cancer patients had many effects on the microbial cells. In-vivo irradiation of bacterial isolates at 10, 30, and 50 Gy, decrease the phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) of the irradiated tested strains. The ability of the organisms to produce slime has been changed after in-vitro irradiation in 50% of the producer strains from positive to weak positive or negative. Only. 80% of enzyme producer strains positive after irradiation.This increased phagocytosis in some cases. While, the percentage of the antibiotic resistance was increased after irradiation.

 

16/8 HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 7 : A POSSIBLE CAUSE OF PITYRIASIS ROSEA

T.A. Abdel Raouf, T.M. El Ghandour*, A. Saleh, S. Bendari and M.F. Helmy

Microbiology & Immunology, and Dermatology* Departments,

Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University

Pityriasis rosea (PR) was long thought to be due to an infectious agent. However, this agent is not known. Recently, the association between PR and human herpes virus type 7 (HHV7) has been a matter of debate. The aim of the present study was to detect any possible association between HHV-7 and PR with its different clinical variants. Serum samples from 30 patients with PR (17 classical type, 7 with herald patch only and 6 inverse PR),15 matched dermatological controls (7 with psoriasis and 8 with tenia capitis),and 15 apparently healthy controls were examined for DNA of HHV-7 by nested polymerase chain reaction (n-PCR). It was found that 56.7% (17 out of 30) of PR patients were positive for HHV-7 DNA in serum, while none of the controls (dermatological and healthy) were positive. Out of the 17 classic PR patients, 15 (88.2%) were HHV-7 DNA positive ,while two cases of those having herald patch only were HHV-7 positive (11.8%) On the other hand, all inverse PR patients were negative with high statistically significant difference (p < 0.001).   PR cases positive for HHV-7 DNA were significantly associated with prodromal symptoms as well as household contact. HHV-7DNA positivity in PR patients was statistically correlated with age. From the present study it is concluded that PR is most probably an infectious disease. The PR (particularly the classic type), is associated with active replication of HHV-7. This could be attributed to primary infection or reactivation of latent infection.

17/8 HELICOBACTER PYLORI: MICROBIOLOGY AND ELECTROMICROSCOPY WITH REFERENCE TO ITS POTENTIAL ZOONOTIC IMPORTANCE

O. Al-Sagair, M.W. Al-Bakry, A.A.Mohamed, M.I. El-Enbaawy*

and S.T.Y. Abdel-Rahman**

Medical Microbiolgy Department, Faculty of Science, King Saud

University, ( Al-Qassim branch ) *Girls Collge of Education (Buraidah)** Riyad

Al-Kabraa General Hospital

Infection with Helicobacter pylori could lead to   acute and   chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers. Forty nine patients were the subjects of this study ( 34 male,15 female).The histopathological studies showed gastritis in 14 , gastric ulcer in 15 and duodenal ulcer in 12 patients.The organism was isolated from 41 patients.The specific antibody against H. pylori was positive in 73.5 % of the patients.The electron microscopic studies showed changes in the apical complex of the mucosal cells, mucosal depletion and cellular damage in response to bacterial adhesion The organism also disrupt the intercellular spaces of the gastroduodenal mucosal cells. The role of animals in disseminating H. pylori infection has been referred to.              

18/8 ROLE OF NITRIC OXIDE IN MODULATION OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE-INDUCED ACUTE HEPATOTOXICITY

IN MICE

S.S. Ali and A.M.A Mostafa

Departments of Pharmacology & Toxicology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

The effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a potent nitric oxide (NO) donor, or aminoguanidine (AG), a relatively specific inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase enzyme, on acute carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)-induced liver damage were investigated. In mice, CCl4 (20 ul/kg, i.p.) caused a pronounced elevation in serum alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) as well as lipid peroxidation together with a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) in liver homogenate. Treatment of mice with SNP(10 ug/kg i.v.) an hour before CCl4 administration significantly aggravated in ALT activity and lipid peroxidation with a remarkable attenuation in GSH. Treatment of mice with AG (0.2 g/l) in drinking water for 5 consecutive days prior to CCl4 administration showed remarkable protection against acute CCl4 induced liver damage as indicated by marked improvement of the tested parameters .The results of the present study showed that NO may be involved, at least in part, in CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity and the inhibition of its synthesis offers a reliable line of protection.

 

19/8 EXTENDED SPECTRUM b-LACTAMASES IN E. COLI ISOLATES FROM SAUDI ARABIA

S.I. Fouda, A.A. Kadry, A.F. Tawfik, A.M. Shibl

Division of Microbiology, Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

            The prevalence and characterization of extended-spectrum b-lactamases (ESbLs) in 105 E. coli clinical isolates, collected from different hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were studied. b-lactamase production was detected in 69.5% of the isolates. Twelve isolates (11.4%) evidently ESbL-producers, were subjected to isoelectric focusing and plasmid DNA profile analysis. Ten isolates were found to contain only one plasmid of 9.4 kb and produced a major type of ESbL enzyme of pI 7.5. Whereas the other 2 isolates contained 2 plasmids of 9.4 and 21.2 kb and showed a major band of ESbL of pI 8.2. Mating was performed, using ceftazidime-resistant ESbL-isolate of E. coli (donor) and E. coli JM105 (recipient). The mean frequency of transconjugations was 1.71 x 10-5 after 24 h. The level of resistance to ESbL-producers to b-lactams as well as non b-lactams were higher than non producers. Moreover, the resistance genes coding fore both b-lactams and non b-lactams were conjugally cotransferred except for meropenem.

 

20/8 PLASMID –ENCODED TRANSFERABLE ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM DRINKING WATER IN ISMIALIA CITY

A.M. Diab, M.H. Abdel Aziz and S.A. Selim

Department of Botany, Microbiology Section, Faculty of science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

Thirteen multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) gram-negative bacterial isolates isolated from drinking water of Ismialia city were examined for the presence of plasmid DNA. Six isolates only were found to be plasmid-bearing isolates. One of these isolates, Aeromonas hydrophila, found to contain three plasmids with molecular sizes of 21.226, 3.530 and 1.375 Kbp. Other isolates belonged to the genera Eschericha, Enterobacter (2 isolates), Pseudomonas and Salmonella were found to contain only one plasmid each with varying molecular sizes. Curing and transformation protocols indicated that the ampicillin resistance of these isolates is plasmid-linked. Transformation coefficient, resistance expression within E. coli HB 101 and DH 1 as well as restiction analysis of the plasmids were achieved.

 

 

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