Vol. 10, October, 2002.

1/10   BONE CHANGES IN CHRONIC LIVER DISEASES

A.M. Hashem, H. Mostafa, M.A. Abu El-Dahab, A. Dorah, *A.B. Mohamed,

**R. El-Sebaee, and *** F.S. El-Nabarawy

Tropical Medicine, *Radiology, **Biochemistry Deptments, Faculty of Medicine

Al-Azhar University.

*** Radioisotope Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt.

Chronic liver disease, especially primary biliary cirrhosis and alcoholic liver disease is well known to be associated with metabolic bone disease “Osteopenia” and “Osteoporosis”. The objective of this study is to evaluate bone loss and mineral metabolism in patients with liver cirrhosis secondary to viral hepatitis B and C. Forty subjects with ages ranged from 28 – 59 years old, were included in this study, and were classified into 3 groups; 15 subjects with hepatitis B virus, 15 subjects with hepatitis C virus and 10 normal healthy controls of matching ages and sex. Serum samples were assayed for liver function tests, and biomarkers of bone turnover (calcium, phosphorus and parathyroid hormone concentrations). Urine samples were collected for urine deoxypyridinoline and bone densimetry measurements. The anthropometric measurements revealed that significant differences (P < 0.001) in the bone mass index for hepatitis B and C patients in comparison with the control subjects. The measured biochemical markers of bone metabolism indicated that significant difference between the patients of hepatitis B and C as compared to the healthy control in all parameters of bone metabolism (calcium, phosphorus, bone densimetry, urinary deoxypyridinoline and parathormone measurements). The results of this study, showed that all chronic liver disease patients have reduced bone densimetry score “Osteopenia” and “Osteoporosis” in comparison with control subjects. In addition hepatitis C patients have more disturbed biomarkers of bone metabolism than hepatitis B patients. These findings highlight the importance of the management of the liver pathology and bone biomarkers to prevent or at least delay bone disease occurrence and progression.

2/10 OVARIAN AND UTERINE BLOOD FLOW PATTERNS IN OVULATING AND NON-OVULATING WOMEN: ASSESSMENT BY TRANSVAGINAL COLOUR DOPPLER

H. Tarabay, A. Rezk, A. Zakaria, A. Mohamed and S. Abd El Azim*

Department of obstetric and gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University.
*International Islamic center for population studies & research.

Objective: To measure the flow velocity of the uterine and ovarian arteries through ovulatory and non-ovulatory cycle to determine the presence of changes. Setting: El Hussein and Sayed Galal University Hospitals. Design: Serial measurements throughout menstrual cycle in the anovulatory women attending an Out Patient Clinic compared with volunteer coming for annual examination. Transvaginal ultrasound color flow Doppler was the investigative tool. Patients: One hundred anovulatory women compared with 100 women attending the clinic for annual check-up. Main Outcome Measures: Change in the resistance index of flow velocity index of 0.86 + 0.02 in the early proliferative phase decreases gradually to reach nadir one day before ovulation in the ovulatory cycle. Also the ovarian artery resistance index during early follicular phase were 0.57 + 0.041 which decreases to reach nadir just before ovulation 0.44+0.047 in the anovulatory cycle these changes do not occur and even may increase during the periovulatory day. Conclusion: there are changes in flow velocity pattern of uterine and ovarian arteries during normal ovulatory menstrual cycle. Because those changes begin before ovulation, it can be suspected that they may involve angiogenesis as well as hormonal factors.

 

 

3/10 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A HPLC ASSAY OF PHENYTOIN IN HUMAN PLASMA

O. Abd El-Sattar  

Pharm. Chem. Dept., Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of phenytoin in human plasma was developed and validated. The present method depends on deprotenization of plasma sample with 0.2 M zinc sulphate and acetonitrile. The mixture was centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 5 min and clear supernatant was directly injected into chromatographic system. The chromatographic conditions were using reversed phase C18 column (AlphaBond , 30cm x 3.9 mm. I.D., 10 mm particle size) as stationary phase and mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile - 0.005 M KH2PO4 solution (30:70, v/v). The flow rate was 1 ml min-1 and UV detection was at 220 nm. Trimethoprim was used as an internal standard. The standard calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 0.5-10 mg ml-1 (r= 0.9991) . The method was proved to be sensitive (the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.1 mg ml-1 and limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.5 mg ml-1), accurate (the percentage recovery ± RSD% from plasma was 97.57 ± 0.40), precise (as proved by intra and inter-day precision studies, RSD%<2) and relatively rapid (the time of assay of one sample was 25 minutes). The method was conducted for bioavailability and pharmacokinetic study of phenytoin sodium in capsules.

 

 

4/10 COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF FEEDING CERTAIN VEGETABLE OILS ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PERFORMANCE OF ADULT MALE ALBINO RATS

E.A. Afifi and H.F.G. El-Niely*

Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt,

*Food Irradiation Department, Radiation Processing Division, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt,

This paper presents the physicochemical proprieties, and fatty acid profiles of oils extracted from sunflower, safflower, and sesame seeds cultivated under the Egyptian condition, alongside those for imported corn oil. Also, it presented the comparative effects of feeding four vegetable oils on physiological and biochemical performance of adult male Albino rats. Diets containing (40g/kg diet) sunflower, safflower or sesame oil were fed to adult male Albino rats alongside corn oil, as control diet, four 28 days. The results indicated that the content of unsaturated fatty acids of investigated oils are closed to those of imported corn oil. Total plasma protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, total plasma lipids, cholesterol, glucose, transaminases enzymes, uric acid, urea and createnine were not significantly changed in rats fed sunflower, safflower, or sesame diet compared with those fed corn oil diet The results confirm that the vegetable oils, extracted from cultivated seeds under the Egyptian condition, have a potentially useful effect on plasma lipoprotein risk factor for cardiovascular disease as the effect of corn oil.

 

 

5/10 IMPROVING THE NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF SOYBEAN SEEDS BY USING GAMMA IRRADIATION AND MICROWAVE HEATING

A.H. Rady*; S.A. Hallabo**; MM. El-Nikeety**; E.A. Afifi* and M.M. Anwar*

*Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Research Center, Plant Research Dept.

**Cairo Univ., Faculty of Agric., Food Science and Technology Dept.

       This investigation was carried out to studythe effect of gamma rays and microwave heating treatments on some antinutritional factors in soybeans   (variety Giza 21) to improve its nutritional value. Soybeans were gamma irradiated at 2,4 and 6 kGy and microwaved for 3,6 and 9 min. The results showed that the two treatments had no real effects on the chemical composition of soybeans except moisture content, which decreased only by microwave heating. Also, microwave heating for 9 min treatment was more effective for for removal phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor compared with irradiation treatment. While, the radiation treatment was more effective to eliminate polyphenol compounds. Regarding to the properties of extracted oil, the applied treatments had little effect on refractive index, iodine value and saponification value. However, color, flow time, acid value, peroxide value and T.B.A value of extracted soybean oil from treated seeds were increased especially with microwave treatment. In addition, the stability of oil extracted from treated soybeans reduced by the applied treatments.

 

6/10 LEPTIN VALUES IN THE NEWBORNS OF MOTHERS WITH GESTATIONAL AND PRE-GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS

A.M.E. Moustafa*@; A.A. Gad**@; A. Abdel- Lateef*@ and I. El-Maghawry ***

*Childhood Studies, **Radiological Medical Science, @Health Research. From Health Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology.

***Medical Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University.

            Leptin, a hormone produced in adipose tissue and placenta, has been implicated in the regulation of body weight and energy balance. Chronic fetal hyper-insulinemia and accelerated fetal growth with increased amounts of body fat are frequent findings in the offspring of diabetic mothers. In order to gain more insight into the role of leptin in fetal growth, this study has been carried out to identify leptin level in cord serum of newborns of mothers with gestational and pre-gestational diabetes mellitus and to clarify its relationship with various anthropometrical parameters. An umbilical cord blood sample was obtained at delivery from 35 newborn infants. Ten of these infants (5males and 5females) were born to normal mothers (control group). Thirteen newborns (5males and 8females) were born to gestational diabetic mothers. Twelve newborns (5males and 7 females) were born to pre-gestational diabetic mothers. Leptin concentration was measured by using radio-immuno-assay. Serum leptin levels showed significant elevation in newborns of gestational diabetic mothers (28.37 ± 18.59 ng/ml) and pre-gestational diabetic mothers (22.86 ± 9.46 ng/ml) when compared to the controls (5.58 ± 3.36 ng/ml). Female newborn infants showed significant higher serum leptin levels than male infants in newborns of gestational and pre-gestational diabetic mothers. Leptin level was higher in infants delivered vaginally than those delivered by Cesarean section (CS) in all the studied groups. Leptin showed strong positive correlation with birth weight for newborns of non-diabetic, gestational diabetic and pre-gestational diabetic mothers (p<0.001, <0.001 and <0.0001 respectively). Moreover, serum leptin correlated with gestational age, ponderal index, hemoglobin level, hematocrite value and maternal blood glucose. Our results suggest that the degree of adiposity is one of the main regulators of leptin concentration in the newborns and that maternal diabetes may influence fetal leptin either through the reduction of metabolic clearance of leptin or alternatively their adipocytes secrete more leptin.

 

7/10 ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES AND CERTAIN TRACE ELEMENTS VALUES IN PREMATURE INFANTS WITH RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME

A.M.E. Moustafa*@; A.A. Emam *@; A.A. Gad**@ and W. Abdel- Lateef***

*: Childhood studies. **: Radiological Medical Science. @: Health Research. From Radiological Health Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology.

***:Medical Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University.

Prematurely born infants are at a high risk of developing neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). It is believed that besides an insufficient surfactant system, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in its pathogenesis. The current study was designed to assess the erythrocyte level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and the serum levels of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in newborn infants with RDS aiming to correlate the disturbances in the antioxidant enzymes and trace elements with the clinical findings of RDS. For this reason, 24 premature infants were investigated. Ten premature newborns with gestational age (GA) ranging between 28- 36 weeks (32.5 ± 3.7) served as a control group. Fourteen premature infants suffered from RDS. Their GA ranged between 26- 32 weeks (30.1 ± 2.2). Clinical evaluation was assessed among both groups including mode of delivery, Apgar score and signs of respiratory distress. Laboratory investigations were performed including complete blood picture, direct and total bilirubin, serum copper and zinc and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (E-SOD) and erythrocyte GSHPx (E-GSHPx). This study displayed that the level of (E-SOD) and (E-GSHPx) showed significant reduction in those prematures with RDS when compared to the control. The E-SOD and E-GSHPx levels showed pronounced reduction in those preterms using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) followed by those who used head box and finally who used nasal prong. A significant reduction in the mean serum Cu was detected while the mean Zn level showed insignificant decrease. A significant positive correlation was found between E-SOD and Cu level. This study revealed a positive correlation between E-SOD and E-GSHPx. Also, a positive correlation between E-SOD and E-GSHPx with Apgar score at 1 minute was established. A negative correlation was found between E-SOD and E-GSHPx with both heart rate and respiratory rate. Those results proved that there is a significant increase in oxidative stress in newborns with RDS revealed by reduction in both E-SOD and E-GSHPx levels. It is evident that oxidative stress is likely to increase when assisted ventilation is given for treatment of RDS in those infants. So, we can postulate that administration of antioxidants such as vitamin E or vitamin C with surfactant could be of good benefit in reducing the oxidative stress in those infants with RDS.

 

 

8/10 CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL AND BOTANICAL INVESTIGATION OF ZIZYPHUS SPINA-CHRISTI (L.) WILLD FRUITS, GROWING IN EGYPT.

M.M.A. El-Hamouly, H.A.H. Ammar, S.K. Ismail and M.F. El-Saiid

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University,

Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

Phytochemical screening of Zizyphus spina-christi (L.) Willd fruits showed presence of saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and volatile constituents. Alcohol (70%) extract of fruits(epi-and mesocarp) and seeds showed promising antimicrobial as well as anti-eczema properties. Macro- and micromorphological study was done for identification of fruits and seeds in entire and powdered (and/or isolated elements) forms.

 

 

9/10 THE INFLUENCE OF OXIDATIVE STRESS ON RENAL FUNCTIONS IN CHILDREN WITH b-THALASSEMIA MAJOR

A.M.E. Moustafa and A.A.M. Hassan

Childhood Studies and Clinical Pathology

Health Research Department: National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Egypt

b-thalassemia is the most common form of hemoglobinopathies in Egypt. The most important cause of morbidity and mortality in children with b-thalassemia is organ failure due to deposits of iron. Studies on renal involvement in thalassemic syndromes are very few. In this study, the nature of kidney injury and the pathogenic factors due to thalassemia were investigated. Forty children with b-thalassemia major and ten healthy controls were involved in this study. Blood and urine samples were collected for hematological and biochemical investigations. The patients were divided into two groups: group I 24 children with severe anemia according to the hematocrite value (HCT < 25%) and group II 16 children with moderate anemia (HCT > 25%). 13 patients from Group I and 9 from Group II were on deferoxamine (DFO) therapy. The results of this study showed that there are increased serum levels of iron, ferritin, sodium and potassium in children with severe anemia, which may be attributed to rapid erythrocyte turn-over. Also the presence of high values of urinary malondialdehyde (MDA) and urinary b-2-microglobulin (b2M) for those patients indicated that oxidative lipid peroxidation mediated by iron overload may lead to proximal renal tubular damage. A positive correlation between MDA and the levels of serum ferritin and urinary b2M was recorded. From this it can be concluded that children with b-thalassemia suffer from proximal renal tubular damage and this damage correlates with the severity of the disease suggesting the major role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of the disease. Thus, it may be postulated that administration of selective anti-oxidants along with an appropriate diet might represent a promising way of counter acting oxidative damage and its deleterious effects on the progression of the renal disease in patients with b-thalassemia.

 


10/10 THE EFFECT OF PASSIVE CIGARETTES SMOKING ON THE RESPIRATORY LINING EPITHELIUM OF WISTER ALBINO RATS

O. Al-Sagair, A.A. Mohamed and M.W. Al-Bakry

Medical Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science,

King Saud University (Al-Qassim Branch)

The effect of inhalation of cigarette smoke on the permeability of the cell membrane of the air ways epithelium was studied using rat’s model. The rats were exposed to cigarette smoke in a special container with good aeration. The dose of exposure corresponded to 1 mg nicotine/kg body weight/day for two weeks. The airways epithelial cells were separated according to a chemical method which reduced the trauma exerted on the cells during separation. The release of lactate dehydogenase enzyme (LDH) from the cytoplasm of the airways epithelium into a medium was used to assess the changes in the permeability of the cell membrane due to direct effect of cigarette smoke. The activity of the released LDH from the cells of passive smoking rats was significantly increased compared to the control rats. In conclusion, inhalation of cigarette smoke increased the permeability of the cell membrane of the airways epithelium, an effect which may contribute to the direct noxious effect of cigarette smoke.

 

11/10 ANGIOGENESIS IN NORMAL, HYPERPLASTIC AND NEOPLASTIC ENDOMETRIUM. AN IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY.

H. El-Kateb*, H. Thabet, H.A.H. Gadalla*#, N.A.H. Kamel*, A. El-Darwish#

and A. Abdel-Sattar*#.

Pathology* and Gynaecology & Obstetric, Departments, Faculty of Medicine,

Al-Azhar # and Assiut Universities.

Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, has been described in normal and pathologic conditions. Angiogenesis occurs physiologically in the functional layer of the endometrium during the menstrual cycle. Angiogenesis is also required for both tumour growth and progression, and is regarded as one of the most important events occurring in the neoplastic process. This study was designed to qualify angiogenesis (angiogenic count) in normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic endometria, and to estimate its relationships to other prognostic features of endometrial carcinoma. Curettage specimens of proliferative, secretory, hyperplastic endometrium, and endometrial carcinoma were stained by factor VIII-related antigen. In addition, 10 hysterectomy specimens from carcinoma cases were included. This study revealed significant increase in the angiogenic count from early to mid- to late proliferative phase and from early to mid-secretory phase (P=0.05). The angiogenic count in the stroma of the hyperplastic endometrium shows significant increase (p=0.001) than those of the normal endometrium. The stroma of adenocarcinoma, though reduced in proportion to epithelium, was significantly more vascular than those of the normal and hyperplastic endometrium (p=0.001). The microvessel count is directly proportional to the depth of tumour invasion of the myometrium, as well as tumour grade. In conclusion; Complex endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma are more angiogenic than normal endometrium. Furthermore, in endometrial carcinoma, greater depth of invasion, and the high tumour grade are directly correlated with the angiogenic count. The results of the present study support the theories of therapeutic inhibition of angiogenesis directed against tumours or other angiogenesis-dependant diseases.  

12/10 BIOFLAVONOIDS FROM PITURANTHOS TRIRADIATUS GROWING IN EGYPT

A.B. Singab

Ain Shams University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy,

Abbasia, Cairo, Egypt.

Fractionation of the 70% methanol extract of Pituranthos triradiatus (aerial parts) family Apiaceae resulted in the isolation of six flavonoidsViz., apigenin 1, isorhamnetin 2, apigenin-7-O-b-glucoside 3, isorhamnetin-3-O-b-rutinoside (narcissin) 4, isorhamnetin-3-O-b-apiosylrutinoside 5 and apigenin-6, 8-di –C-glucoside (vicenin-2) 6. The structures of these compounds were determined based upon the interpretation of their physico-chemical and spectral data (UV, 1D-NMR (1H& 13C), 2D-NMR (HMQC & HMBC) and MS). this is the first report regarding the isolation and identification of these compounds from the titled plant. The flavonoids content was estimated by spectrophotometeric method and its percentage was calculated as apigenin. Moreover, compounds 5 and 6 showed a pronounced antiinflammatory effect using carrageenan induced rat hind paw oedema.

 

 

13/10 PHARMACO-CHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF ZIZYPHUS SPINA-CHRISTI(L.)WILLD FRUITS, GROWING IN EGYPT.

M.M.A. El-Hamouly, S.K. Ismail, H.A.H. Ammar and M.F. El-Said

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University,

Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

Chemical investigations of Zizyphus spina-christi(L.)Willd fruits led to detection, isolation and identification of three alkaloids and one saponin. Structural illucidation of the isolated compounds was based on chemical and spectroscopic evidences and comparison with data published in literature. Alcohol(70%) extract of fruit (epi and mesocarp) was used in determination of LD50. Pharmacological screening showed analgesic, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities in rats. This is the first report for isolation and identification of alkaloids and saponins in fruits of this plant

 

14/10 FOOD PREFERENCES OF SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN IN CAIRO

M.M. Rashed* and H.D. Elgindi**

National Nutrition Institute, Cairo* and National Research Center, Cairo**

Globalization has been associated with increased availability of foods other than cultural foods in many countries of third world including Egypt, with consequent changes in food preferences and food habits. Children and young people are more likely to be affected by those changes. Understanding food preferences of children helps to understand their nutritional problems and design practical solutions for those problems. This work was designed to study the food preferences of school-aged children in Cairo.Therefore ,one hundred school children were included in the study, anthropometric measurements were taken in the form of weight and height. Children were asked to name three most favorite foods and three least favorite foods. Children were also asked to scale their likeness of some commonly consumed Egyptian foods. The results showed that the most favorite foods for these children were potato chips, chicken and fruits, followed by macaroni, sweets and soda drinks. The least favorite foods were milk and dairy products, cooked and fresh vegetables. However, the difference in favorite foods between children of different nutritional status was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The food preferences of those children should be considered in designing nutrition education programs and school meals in addition to more education about other foods of high nutritional value.

 

15/10 SYNTHESIS AND TECHNETIUM-99m LABELLING OF PENTADENTATE AMINOPHENOL LIGAND AND STUDIES OF ITS BIODISTRIBUTION AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN ANIMAL ORGANS

S.S. Ali, H. Gomaa, M.M.H. El-Zahabi and F. Abdul-Megeed

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University,

Cairo, Egypt.

* Hot Lab. Center Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt.

This work was oriented toward synthesis of pentadentate N,N-bix (2 hydroxy methyl benzyl) N-Benzyl diethylene triamine and its labelling with technetium-99m by direct per technate addition to bicarbonate buffer PH9, stannus chloride dihydrate and by ligand exchanged. Exchange studies were carried out by the use of 99mTC-chelate, 99mTC-gluconate, 99mTC-citrate and 99mTC-citrate complexes. The radiochemical yield of the synthesized aminophenol ligand was estimated by solvent extraction, electrophoresis and HPLC methods. The produced technetium-99m aminophenol complex was neutral, lipophelic and stable during the period of 24 hours so it can be used as a radio pharmaceutical comp for diagnosis of some diseases. To optimize labelling conditions the following parameters were studied: effect of ligand content, effect of tin(II) content, effect of pH of the reaction medium and effect of reaction time. The bio distribution of the synthesized N,N-bix(2-hydroxy methyl benzyl) N-benzyl diethylene triamine was estimated in different organs of mice, heart. Liver, kidney, blood, intestine, stomach, spleen muscle, bone and urine. The result revealed that its distribution localized in the different organ with different percentage. Changes in certain biochemical parameter in liver kidney and blood protein in rats were the main objective work due to high uptake of labelled radioactive aminophenol complex. So we investigated the biochemical effects of synthesized 99mTC complex of pentadentate aminophenol ligand on the function of most organs of the body, liver, kidney, heart and blood by determination of the following parameter in plasma, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, total protein, urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, a lanine transaminase, aspartate tranaminase, g glutamyl transferase, uric acid and micro albumin in urine. The result revealed that, there was a non significant effect of synthesized lingand on liver, heart, blood and kidney plasma biochemical markers.

 

16/10 SYNTHESIS AND LABELLING OF SOME AMINO PHENOL LIGANDS WITH TECHNETIUM-99m AND STUDIES OF THEIR BIODISTRIBUTION AND BIOCHEMICAL EFFECT ON BODY ORGANS OF MICE AND RATS

S.S. Ali, H. Gomaa, M.M.H. El-Zahabi and F. Abdul-Megeed

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

* Hot Lab. Center Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt.

In our work we synthesized one tetradentate and one pentadentate ligand with technetium - 99 by the direct pertechnate addition and by ligand exchange methods. Labeling by direct pertechnetate addition was attended by adding pertechnate elute to the ethanolic solution of aminophenol ligand at PH9. Stannous chloride dehydrate was used as reducing agent. Ligand exchange method was carried out by incubation the ligand solution with 99mTC-co-ligands complexes in 0.05 M bicarbonate buffer pH9. At pH9 the 99mTC-co-ligand dissociated and a more stable new 99mTC-lingands were formed with high radiochemical yield ³ 95%. The radiochemical yield of 99mTC labeled amino-phenol-ligands were estimated by solvent extraction, electrophoresis and HPLC methods. The biodistribution of 99mTC complex of ligand N,N’-bis(2-hydoxy benzyl) diamino propane and 99mTC complex of lignad N,N’-bis(2 hydoxy methyl benzyl) diethylene-Triamine, were estimated in different organs of mice, heart, lung, liver, kidney, blood, intestine, urine, stomach, spleen muscle and bone. The results revealed that. The 99mTC aminophenol chelates activity was concentrated in liver blood and kidney. Also we investigated the biochemical effects of these 99mTC complexs of amine-phenol ligands on the function and vitality of some organs of the body, liver, kidney Heart and blood, by determination of the following biochemical parameters in plasma, albumin, globulin, A/G/ratio, total protein, urea, creatinine alanin- transaminase, aspartate transaminase, g-glutamyl transferase, uric acid and micro albumin in urine. The results revealed that there are no significant effect of the two ligand on plasma protein kidney, liver and heart function.

 

17/10 GENETIC COMPARISON OF YEAST STRAINS USING AMPLIFIED FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM (AFLP) ANALYSIS

A.T. Abul-Hamd; M.E. Zain; H.M. Atta and R.A. Bayoumi

Bot. & Microbiol. Dept., Fac. Of Science, Al-Azhar Univ., Nasr City, P.N. 11884, Cairo, Egypt.

Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers offer quick screening of different regions of the genome for genetic polymorphisms. The standard RAPD procedure uses a single 10-base-long random olignucleotide as a primer to amplify short stretches of the genome by PCR. In the present work, we modified the procedure by using 20-base long specific primer in addition to the standard one to assess directly the genotype of selected ten yeast strains, instead of examining some features of the phenotype, as revealed by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP). To examine the utility of the AFLP approach, the whole genomic DNA was prepared and used as a template. The amplification of AFLP templates were carried out by a set of common oligoneuclotide primers resulted in reproducible banding patterns. The presence or absence of fragments was scored, and the number of DNA fragments for each single set of primer was also determined. The size of the resulted DNA fragments was determined by using 100 bp DNA ladder. A phylogenetic relationship was deduced by using UPGMA analysis. The results reflects the value of the technique that allows a rapid, relatively simple analysis of a large portion of a microbial genome, providing information about the species and its phylogenetic relationship to other microbes. Based upon the identified AFLP banding pattern, comparison to the genomes of other species can be easily accomplished.

18/10 MARINE AND BRACKISH WATER FISH AS A SOURCE OF SOME FUNGAL AND PARASITIC DISEASES TO MAN

H.A. Samaha, A.A. Draz, Y.N. Haggag and N. Mahfouz*

Dept. of Animal Hygiene and Zoonoses, Fac. Vet. Med., Alexandria University

*Dept. of Poultry and Fish Diseases, Fac. Vet. Med. Tanta University

A total of 843 fish samples including 331 marine fish and 512 brackish water fish were subjected for mycological and parasitological examination. Mycological examination revealed the isolation of Aspergillus flavus, Asp. niger, Asp. fumigatus, Fusarium spp., Alternaria spp., Penicillium spp., Mucor spp., Candida albicans, Cryptococcus spp. and Rodotorulla spp. from different sites of examined fish with various percentage. In addition, parasitological examination revealed the presence of various types of encysted metacercaria at a percentage of 63.8, 73.1, 65.0, 46.7 and 29.2% in the examined Mugil cephalus, Oreochomis niloticus, Clarias lazera, Sebastes marinus and Boops boops respectively. Also, the average number of encysted metacercariae per gram were determined in infested fish. The types of encysted metacercariae detected in infested fish were identified as Heterophyidae, Haplorchidae and Echinostomatidae metacercariae. The zoonotic importance of each isolated pathogens were discussed.

 

19/10 EFFECT OF SOME CHEMICAL DISINFECTANTS

ON SOME FUNGI

H.A. Samaha, A.A. Draz, Y.N. Haggag and A.M. Byomi*

Dept of Animal Hygiene and Zoonoses, Fac. Vet. Med., Alexandria University

* Dept of Animal Hygiene and Zoonoses, Fac. Vet. Med., Menoufia University

Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluates the effectiveness of four commercial disinfectants (Cidixin, Iodophor 200, Lysoformin 3000 and TH4+), in absence and presence of organic matter, against some fungi (Aspergillus niger, Asp. flavus, Penicillium and Candida albicans). The obtained results revealed Cidixin at a concentration of 2.5% had a lethal effect against examined fungi after exposure time 5, 10, 10 and 5 minutes respectively, at a concentration of 2% had a lethal effect after exposure time 10, 20, 20 and 10 minutes respectively, and at a concentration of 1.66% was lethal after exposure times 20, 30, 30 and 20 minutes respectively. In addition, Iodophor 200 at a concentration of 0.66% and 0.5%, was lethal against examined fungi after exposure times 20, 20, 30, 20 and 30, 30, 40, 30 minutes respectively, while at a concentration of 0.4% and 0.33% had lethal effect after 40 minutes. Also, Lysoformin 3000 had a lethal effect against examined mycotic strains after exposure times 5 minutes at a concentration of 1%, 0.5 and, 0.33%, while at a concentration of 0.24% and 0.20% was lethal after exposure times 10 and 20 minutes respectively. Moreover, TH4+ was lethal to examined fungi at a concentration of 2%, 1%, 0.5%, 0.33% and0.25% after exposure times 5, 5, 5, 20 and 30 minutes respectively. Cidixin, Lysoformin and TH4+ in the presence of source of organic matter the lethal effect were not greatly affected, while lethal effect of Iodophor 200 was reduced in the presence of organic matter.

20/10 HYGIENIC CONDITIONS OF SOME GROUND WATER SOURCES IN ALEXANDRIA AND BEHERA GOVERNORATES

H.A. Samaha, A.M. Byomi* and A. Hassan**

Dept. Animal Hygiene and Zoonoses, Fac. Vet. Med., Alexandria University

*Dept. Animal Hygiene, Husbandry and Zoonoses, Fac. Vet. Med., Sadat City, Menoufia University

** Dept. Animal Hygiene, Fac. Vet. Med., Suez Canal University

The hygienic condition of some ground water sources in Alexandria and Behera Governorates was studied and compared. One hundred water samples were collected from different localities in both Governorates and examined physically, chemically and bacteriologically. The physical examination of ground water samples revealed that the mean value of turbidity units in water samples collected from different localities in Alexandria Governorate was higher than that of samples collected from Behera Governorate and also higher than the permissible limit of turbidity units in water. The chemical examination of ground water samples from both Governorates included detection of the pH, organic matter content, ammonia, nitrites, nitrates, chlorides, phosphates, sulfates and total hardness. Concerning the chemical parameters, the mean values of the pH and organic matter content of ground water samples collected from Alexandria Governorate were higher than those of samples collected from Behera Governorate and both were below the permissible limits. The presence of relatively high content of organic matter in samples from both Governorates can be taken as a reliable index of fecal pollution. Ammonia, nitrites and nitrates were detected in ground water samples from both Governorates but were below the permissible limits. The mean values of chlorides in ground water samples from both Governorates were lower than the permissible limit, although some samples possessed higher contents. Comparing the mean values of sulfates in ground water samples collected from different localities in Alexandria and Behera Governorates it was found that samples of Alexandria Governorate attained higher values that also exceeded the permissible limits. In spite of that some ground water samples from both Governorates exceeded the permissible limit of total hardness especially in samples obtained from Alexandria Governorate, the mean values of both were below the permissible limit. The bacteriological examination revealed that the mean value of total bacterial count of water samples collected from Behera Governorate (30.04 ± 1.1 X 10 4 /ml) was higher than that of water samples collected from Alexandria Governorate (20.0 ± 0.6 X 10 4 /ml). Comparing the mean values of total coliform count (M.P.N./100ml) in ground water from both Governorates, samples collected from different localities in Alexandria Governorate possessed higher value (180.2 ± 8.5) than those collected from different localities in Behera Governorate (154.4 ± 10.2). The results of fecal Streptococci count (M.P.N. /100ml) of the examined ground water samples revealed a slight variation between both Governorates. Ground water samples collected from Alexandria Governorate showed higher mean value of total fungal count/ml (36.4± 1.2 X103) when compared with ground water samples collected from Behera Governorate (4.4 ± 0.15 X103). The hygienic significance of the bacteriological data and their public health importance as well as the sanitary measures suggested for prevention of pollution of ground water supplies was discussed.

 

21/10 EVALUATION OF SOME CHEMICAL DISINFECTANTS AGAINST SOME BACTERIAL PATHOGENS

H.A. Samaha, A.A. Draz, Y.N. Haggag and A. Hassan*

Dept of Animal Hygiene and Zoonoses, Fac. Vet. Med., Alexandria University

* Dept of Animal Hygiene, Fac. Vet. Med., Suez Canal University

This study was carried out to evaluate the laboratory bactericidal of some chemical disinfectants (Cidixin, Iodophor 200, Lysoformin 3000 and TH4+), in absence and presence of organic matter, for control of some bacterial pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus fecalis. Escherichia coli O78, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The obtained results revealed Cidixin at a concentration of 2.5% had a bactericidal effect 100% against examined bacteria after exposure time 20, 10, 10 and 20 minutes respectively, at a concentration of 2% had a lethal effect after exposure time 30, 20, 20 and 30 minutes respectively, and at a concentration of 1.66% was lethal after exposure times 40, 30, 30 and 40 minutes respectively. In addition, Iodophor 200 at a concentration of 0.66% had a bactericidal effect 100% against examined bacterial species after exposure times 10, 5, 5, and 10 minutes respectively, at a concentration of 0.5%, was lethal against examined bacteria after exposure times 20, 10, 10, and 20 minutes respectively, while at a concentration of 0.4% and 0.33% had lethal effect after 30, 20, 20, 30 and 40, 30, 30, 40 minutes respectively. Also, Lysoformin 3000 had a bactericidal effect 100% on examined bacterial strains after exposure times 5 minutes at a concentration of 1%, while at a concentration of 0.5 and 0.33% had a lethal effect after exposure times 10, 5, 5, 10 and 10, 10, 10 20 minutes respectively, also, at a concentration of 0.25% and 0.20% was lethal after exposure times 20, 10, 20, 30 and 30, 20, 20, 40 minutes respectively. Moreover, TH4+ was lethal to examined bacterial strains at a concentration of 2% after exposure times 5 minutes, at a concentration of 1% had a bactericidal effect 100% against examined bacteria within exposure times 10, 5, 5,and 10 minutes respectively, while at a concentration of 0.5% and 0.33% had a lethal effect after exposure times 20, 10, 10, 20 and 30, 20, 20, 30 minutes respectively, moreover, TH4+ at a concentration of 0.25% had bactericidal effect 100% after exposure times 40, 30, 30 and 40 minutes respectively. Cidixin, Lysoformin and TH4+ in the presence of organic matter the lethal effect were not greatly affected, while lethal effect of Iodophor 200 was reduced in the presence of organic matter.


22/10 EFFECT OF ZINC DEFICIENCY AND ZINC REPLETION ON THYROID GLAND OF MALE ALBINO RATS

N.E. El-Ashmawy, E.M. El-Bindary*, S.A. El-Sawy*, M.M. Attia**

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, *Department of Physiology, **Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

Zinc is a component of over 200 metalloenzymes. It is an essential element in mammals and plays an indispensable role in number of body functions, including growth and thyroid function. Since thyroid cells die in absence of growth factors, we examined the effect of zinc deficiency on thyroid function and thyroid apoptosis in rats. This experimental study was conducted using two groups of male albino rats. Group I was zinc adequate control group (ZnA, 52.4mg Zn/Kg diet, for two months). Group II was zinc deficient group (ZnD, 1.03mg Zn/Kg diet). Group II was further divided into five subgroups; (a) rats received ZnD diet for 20 days, (b) rats received ZnD diet for 30 days, (c) rats recived ZnD diet for 45 days, (d) rats received ZnD diet for 60 days, (e) rats received Zn repleted diet (ZnR, 100mg Zn/Kg diet) over a period of 15 days after 45 days ZnD diet. Samples of blood and thyroid gland were taken for carrying out the biochemical and histological investigations. Starting from 20 days onwards, ZnD rats showed a significant decrease in both serum zinc and serum superoxide dismutase activity, the marker of zinc status. Thyroid weight, tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were significantly decreased at 30 days ZnD onwards, accompanied by a significant increase in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), when compared to Zn adequate control group. Thyroid tissue showed a significant increase in the apoptotic index, as detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine-5-triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL), starting from 30 days ZnD onwards. This finding was associated with a significant increase in caspase-3 activity of thyroid tissue indicating stimulation of thyroid apoptosis. In addition, light microscopy revealed that in ZnD group the apoptotic thyrocytes became detatched from the follicular epithelium and later underwent cellular degeneration in the follicular lumen. On the other hand, Zn-repleted group showed a significant improvement in thyroid function and suppression of apoptosis, when compared to ZnD at 60 days. It can be concluded that zinc deficiency produces thyroid degeneration, which may be, at least in part, through inducing thyroid apoptosis.

 

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