Vol. 12, July, 2003.

viagra au plante 1/12 EFFECTS OF SOME ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS TO COLUMNARIS DISEASE IN OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS

S. El-Banna

Dept. Aquatic Animal Medicine, Agric. Res. Center.

Anim. Health. Res. Inst. Alex. Laboratory

Columnaris disease was a common bacterial disease infecting cialis 5 mg conditionnement Oreochromis niloticus, which considered the most popular fish in Egypt with an incidence of 30%. The disease appeared in cialis et dérivés nitrés Oreochromis niloticus reared in aquaculture at the Behera and Kafr – El- Sheik area of Egypt especially in the spring, summer and autumn months of 2001 – 2002. The naturally infected femme prend viagra Oreochromis niloticus clinically exhibited respiratory distress and gasping while grossly, necrotic fins, ulcerated gills, and round yellowish white skin swelling were commonly observed. Columnaris disease has been incriminated as the most common bacterial infection among fish and appears to be stress related. Hence, the cialis super active plus Oreochromis niloticus, which experimentally infected by ou acheter cialis serieux Flexibacter columnaris in presence of overcrowdness and high organic matter exhibited high mortality rates and morbidity rates. Histopathologically, necrotized gill inflammation, epidermal spongiosis and vacuolar degeneration, along with skin ulceration and muscular necrosis were observed.

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acheter du viagra à geneve 2/12 ANTI-HIV ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN EGYPTIAN FOLK MEDICINE

S. Abdel Wahab, N. El-Tanbouly, H. El-Hefnawy, M. Consentino* and K.H. Lee**

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El Aini, Cairo, Egypt.

*Research Laboratories, 3 Taft Court, Rockville , Maryland 20850, U.S.A.

**Natural Product Laboratory, Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products, School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, U.S.A.

The anti- HIV activity of the methanolic extracts of 15 Egyptian medicinal plants was evaluated . Five out of the tested extracts showed significant effects in vitro against HIV replication in H 9 Lymphocytes: femme qui prend du cialis Pluchea dioscorides L., Asteriscus pygmaeus DC (Coss), Ziziphus spina christi Willd, Cedrela odorata L. and Ficus sycomorus L. with EC 50 ranging from 17.9 – 58   mg /mL. The MeOH extract of each plant was fractionated into three fractions: hexane, dichloromethane and water. Each extract was tested in-vitro for anti-HIV activity. The dichloromethane extract of Ficus sycomorus L. showed the most higher effect against HIV with EC 50= 8 mg /mL. Bioassay guided fractionation of this extract afforded oleanolic acid (I), baurenol (II), umbelliferone (III), psoralen (IV), and cycloartenol acetate (V). Identification of the compounds was established using physical, chemical and spectroscopic methods.

 

 


3/12 PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTRACELLULAR LIPASE FROM A PATHOGENIC STRAIN OF CANDIDA ALBICANS

D.A. Sharaf El-Din, H.H. Radwan* and A.M. Hashem

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University and *Helwan University.

An extracellular lipase from a local isolated pathogenic strain of Candida albicans, was purified and characterized.(Sharaf El-Din, 2000). The enzyme was purified at 186.7-purification fold with 12.4% recovery by three-phase partitioning, anion exchange chromatography and hydroxylapatite chromatography. The purified enzyme had a monomeric molecular mass of 30.5 kDa as determined by (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme has an optimum activity at temperature range 45-55oC and at pH 6.0. Synthesis of lipase enzyme was repressed by glucose, which is similar to inhibition by actinomycin D. This might indicates that, catabolite repression of lipase formation in C. albicans may be regulated by transcriptional control. The lipase enzyme isolated from C. albicans has also dual esterase and lipase activities. The enzymatic activity was detected for monoesters such as Tween 80 and Span 80 and also the p-nitrophenyl ester of fatty acids with short and long chains (C4 to C16). The highest lipase activity was measured with triglycerides of middle chain fatty acids (C8-C12). The enzyme showed also moderate hydrolytic activity against olive and palm oils. EDTA decreases C. albicans lipase activity, whereas, Ca2+ increases its activity, indicating that the enzyme is dependent on metal cofactor. Diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate reduced the activity toward triolein and tributyrin almost to the same extent and with the same velocity. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) partially inhibited C. albicans lipase only when added during the hydrolytic reaction. Inhibition of the enzyme activity by serine specific inhibitor PMSF, was only observed when it was added during substrate hydrolysis. Dithiothreitol (DTT) moderately inactivated the enzyme, this indicates the presence of disulfide bond(s) in the enzyme molecule.

 

 

4/12 COMPARATIVE BIOAVAILABILITY OF TWO TABLET FORMULATIONS OF METRONIDAZOLE IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS: AN ASSESSMENT OF COLONIC TARGETING

*A.B. Yassin, D. Abdul-Rahman* and A.A. Kassem*

King Saud University, College of Pharmacy, Riyadh 11451, KSA.

* Al-Azhar University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

This study was carried out to indirectly evaluate the colonic targeting specifity of oral Metronidazole (MD) tablets by comparing its bioavailability in human volunteers with a commercial conventional tablets (Flagyl®). Six healthy volunteers participated in this study using 2X2 crossover design. MD plasma concentrations were determined in the collected blood samples taken from each volunteer at specific time intervals after oral administration of each of the treatments. Pharmacokinetic parameters including Cmax , tmax, t½el, Kel, AUC0-¥ and MRT were calculated and statistically analysed using ANOVA test. The obtained pharmacokinetic data for Flagyl® were: Cmax = 10.42 ± 0.82 μg/ml; tmax= 2.33 ± 0.82 h; Kel=0.118 ± 0.022 h-1; t½el= 6.086 ± 1.287 h; AUC0-¥= 136.70 ± 21.69 μg.h/ml; and MRT= 10.27 ± 2.72 h, while for the colonic tablets they were : Cmax = 1.23 ± 0.49 μg/ml; tmax= 14.00 ± 4.89 h; Kel=0.095 ± 0.03 h-1; t½el= 7.90 ± 2.97 h; AUC0-¥= 26.80 ± 11.60 μg.h/ml; and MRT= 17.68 ± 4.53 h. The relative bioavailability of the tested colonic tablets was only 24.20%. Except for the t½el, all the other pharmacokinetic parameters showed a statistical significant difference for both treatments at p ≤ 0.05. The tremendous delay in drug absorption reported with colonic tablets shows that the pectin coat successfully protected the core tablets during the gastrointestinal transit. The maximum absorption occurred after 14 h, i.e., inside the colon, however the low extent of absorption is attributed to the low MD colon permeability compared with its intestinal permeability. It is conclusive that the tested colonic MD delivery system has the potential of colon targeting specifity.

 

5/12 SANITARY CONDITION OF AIR, LITTER AND FEED IN SOME EGG LAYING FARMS

H.A. Samaha*, A.M. Byomi**, A.A. Draz*, A.M. Hassan*** and Y.N. Haggag*

*Dept. of Animal Hygiene and Zoonoses, Fac. Vet. Med., Alexandria University.

**Dept. of Animal Hygiene, Husbandry and Zoonoses, Fac. Vet. Med. Menoufia University.

***Dept. of Animal Hygiene and Zoonoses, Fac. Vet. Med., Suez Canal University.

The sanitary condition of air, litter and feed in some egg laying farms in Nile Delta was investigated. Each farm contained more than one unit (2-6 units) and birds were reared on deep litter system with stocking density ranged between (5-15 bird/m2). The light intensity inside the houses ranged between (3.8-7.25 watt/m2). The average measured values of ambient temperature and relative humidity were 27.8°C and 46.2% in farm I; 28°C and 47.2% in farm II; 25.4°C and 57.7% in farm III and 30.6°C and 47.2 in farm IV. The highest value of CO2 % (0.79) was detected in farm II, while the highest value of ammonia (59.4 ppm) was detected in farm IV. Moreover, the higher stocking density in the fourth farm (6-11 bird/ m2) was reflected on the total viable count of bacteria in air (6 x 104 cfu/l) and litter (60 x 1010 cfu/g) of this farm. This may indicate that layer houses in this farm were suffered from ill ventilation and bad hygienic conditions. The highest counts of coliforms in air samples were detected in the third farm (34.2 /l) followed by farm IV (32.6 /l). Concerning the litter samples, the highest coliform count was detected in the fourth farm (962 /g) followed by farm II (747 /g), while the highest fecal Streptococcal count (1128 /g) was also detected in farm IV but followed by farm I (880 /g). Isolation of pathogenic and potentially pathogenic bacteria from air, litter and feed samples in the examined farms can be considered as an evidence on the role of these environmental components in maintaining and transmitting these infectious agents. It was of interest to isolate Salmonella spp. from air, litter as well as feed samples from the examined farms. The hygienic significance of the isolated organisms was discussed.


6/12 CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SPREADABLE PROCESSED CHEESE THROUGH APPLICATION OF HAZARD ANALYSIS CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEM TO PRODUCE SAFE AND HIGH QUALITY PRODUCT.

E .M.E Abd El Hafiez and Y.S.Y. Abd El Shaheed

Animal Health Research Institute Alexandria Branch

The chemical and microbiological evaluation of spreadable processed cheese were carried out in One dairy plant in Egypt through The application of [HACCP] System principles and required tasks to produce safe and high quality product. Random samples were taken during monitoring and for verification purpose from raw material [30 samples from each of cheddar cheese, butter, skimmed milk powder, and white cheese curd] .As well as 30 samples were taken during monitoring the processing line resembling 30 batchs. In addition 30 samples from the final product were examined. The samples were examined chemically and microbiologically, and the results revealed that The chemical and microbiological examination of raw materials were all within the acceptable limits. The results of monitoring the processing line revealed that the line was well controlled and within the limits of prescribed HACCP plan, and the final products were within the required quality and safety. The point to improve the safety and quality of spreadable processed cheese were discussed.

7/12 ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF POLYPHENOLS IN SOME CONSUMED BEVERAGES IN EGYPT

H.M. Abdou

Biochemistry Department, National Research Center, Tahrir st., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

The total polyphenols have been measured in ten highly consumed beverages in Egypt (black tea, green tea, coffee, carob, doum, anise, liquorice, sweet margoran, cinnamon and fenugreek). Phenols were measured colorimetrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent with gallic acid as a standard. The total polyphenol content in the ten beverages were ranged from 1.75-20.95 g/100 g dry weight. Addition of milk to these bezerages were not affected on total polyphenol. b-carotene bleaching and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrythydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. Total antioxidant activity of the ten beverages determined by the b-carotene - linoleic acid were ranged from 38.22-95.23%. Green tea showed the highest antioxidant activity while sweet margoran showed the lowest one. The radical scavenging of the ten beverages ranged from 7.26-55.59%. The five elements (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe and Ca) were determined in the ten beverages ash by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

 

8/12 FLAVONOIDS AND ANTIHEPATOTOXIC ACTIVITY

OF INULA CRITHMOIDES L. GROWING IN EGYPT

M.A. Selim, H.M. El-Hefnawy, T.A. Ibrahim and A.A. Sleem*

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, 11562 Kasr-El Aini, Cairo.

*Department of Pharmacology, National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt.

The aerial parts of Inula crithmoides L. were chemically and biologically investigated. The biologically active methanolic extract of the aerial parts was fractionated to chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions. The total flavonoid content was determined using colourimetric method and found to be 1.52% calculated as isorhamnetin 3-glucoside. The chloroform extract afforded two methoxylated flavonoid aglycones: cirsimaritin and nepetin, while from the ethyl acetate fraction two flavonoid glycosides were isolated and identified as isorhamnetin-3-glucoside and inucrithmin-3,5-dimethyl-7-glucoside. The structures of the isolated compounds have been determined on the basis of spectroscopic methods (UV,1H-NMR and MS) and comparison with published data. The methanol extract of the aerial parts of the plant was evaluated for hepatoprotective activity in rats by inducing acute liver damage by CCl4. Also the extract was evaluated for hepatocurative effect after its administration for 60 days following CCl4 injection. The extract exhibited a significant protective, as well as, curative effect against hepatotoxicity detected by lowering the level of serum transferases and alkaline phosphatase enzymes.

9/12 Formulation and Evaluation of Prepared Indomethacin Tablets and capsules with Two Lipophilic Materials

A.A. Alsughayer and A.G. Eshra

Public Authority for Applied Education and Training (PAAET), Collage of Health Sciences, Pharmaceutical Sciences Department, Kuwait.

Two fatty materials (glyceryl palmitostearate and glyceryl behenate) were used for the preparation of prolonged-release indomethacin tablets and capsules. The drug release from the different tablet and capsule formulations was studied using dissolution apparatus type II (USP XXII). The release mechanism of the drug from the different formulations was also elucidated. The two tested lipophilic polymers seemed suitable as release controlling fillers for the development of indomethacin formulations. Tablet preparations were superior to capsule ones.

 

10/12 STUDY OF FORMULATION PARAMETERS BY FACTORIAL DESIGN IN VERAPAMIL HYDROCHLORIDE LOADED MICROSPHERES

M.A. Marzouk and A.A. Ammar

Pharmaceutics Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, El-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

The statistical optimization of sustained release ethyl cellulose microspheres of Verapamil Hydrochloride (VRP HCl) was evaluated using 23 factorial design, for three independent variables: stirring speed of (500 rpm and 1000 rpm), drug to polymer ratio (1:1 and 1:2), and concentration of span 80, used as stabilizer (1% and 2%). While the percent of VRP HCl released from ethylcellulose microspheres after 8 hours, was selected as the response variable. The microspheres prepared are evaluated for their encapsulation efficiency, and micromeretic properties like bulk, and tapped densities, Hauser ratio, and compressibility percent. The influence of formulation variables on the percentages of drug released after 8 hours from the ethylcellulose microspheres were evaluated. The dissolution profiles of the different formulae were studied in 0.1 N HCl, the results fit with Higuchi’s model, as indicated by the highest correlation coefficient (r) of this model. The main effects, and interactions, calculated according to Yates, of the eight studied formulae on VRP HCl released after 8 hrs, were also investigated. The results were statistically analyzed using Yates analysis of variance, which demonstrated that the effects of the three factors studied on the release of drug after 8 hrs were statistically significant. The optimal formulation parameters to prepare sustained release VRP HCl microspheres are: (500 rpm stirring speed, 1:2 drug to polymer ratio and 2% concentration of span 80).

 

11/12 THE EFFECT OF ADHERENCE OF SOME ORAL BACTERIA TO DENTAL MATERIALS ON ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

K. Tawfik, H.H. Radwan* and H. El-Sarnagawy**

Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University,

*Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University.

**Dentist in Students Hospital Helwan University.

A total of 58 isolates were isolated from 23 patients with infected socket. The microorganisms were identified and were found to belong to different species of microbial oral flora and pathogens. Of these isolates, 34 were gram positive and 24 were gram negative. The aerobic organisms were 26 while the anaerobic were 32. Eight isolates of these isolated microorganisms were used to test their capacity to adhere to some dental materials, which were used either for long period or for permanent application. All tested organisms showed strong adhesion ability on the tested dental materials. All dental materials tested showed alone no antimicrobial activity, but all have high immobilization capacity for different microorganisms. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of penicillin G, erythromycin ethyl succinate and vancomycin hydrochloride were determined in presence and absence of the tested dental materials. The addition of dental material suspension during the determination of the MBCs of the three antibiotics tested resulted in increase the MBCs by 1 up to 3 log2 concentration-fold. The results indicate that the presence of the dental materials may hinder the bactericidal action of the tested antibiotics.

 

 

12/12- DERIVATIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOME SELECTED ANTIHYPERTENSIVE COMBINATIONS

M.M. Mabrouk*, H. Salem**, M.F. Radwan and T.S. Kaood***

*Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

** Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University, Minia, Egypt.

*** Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mina University, Minia, Egypt.

Two and three components mixtures of certain antihypertensive drugs (atenolol and chlorthalidone (Mix. I), enalapril maleate and hydrochlorothiazide (Mix. II), amiloride hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide (Mix. III), atenolol, chlorthalidone and amiloride hydrochloride (Mix. IV) and atenolol, hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride hydrochloride (V)) were assayed by first derivative (1D), second derivative (2D) and fourth derivative (4D) spectrophotometric methods, applying “Zero-Crossing” technique of measurement. The methods were proved appropriate by assaying prepared mixtures. The utility of the methods for the assay of dosage forms was also verified.

13/12 Colonic targeting using chitosan and chitosan/pectin mixtures: an in vitro evaluation.

A.B. Yassin

College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O.Box 2457,

Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The advantages of targeting drugs to the colon include the topical treatment of colonic diseases, the potential of gaining oral delivery of peptides and other labile drugs and the improvement of therapy of diseases susceptible to diurnal rhythm such as asthma. This study was carried out to investigate the suitability of chitosan and chitosan/pectin mixtures in designing colonic drug delivery systems. Different compression-coated tablet batches were prepared using chitosan alone with different coat thicknesses and variable concentrations of chitosan/pectin mixtures using metronidazole (MD) as a model drug. In-vitro drug release evaluation was achieved by studying the dissolution profile of MD from the coated tablets in conditions mimicking mouth-to-colon transit and in phosphate buffer pH 7.2 using USP dissolution tester. The intra-colon release profile of MD was estimated for highly resistant batches by monitoring MD release in phosphate buffer saline containing 1.25%W/V rat caecal contents. It was found that only chitosan coated tablets with coat weights of 300 mg/tablet showed complete protection indicated by negligible release of MD during the 5-hours GI conditions, while lower coat weights showed only partial protection. Comparing the release profile in GI conditions with the intestinal conditions indicated that contact of chitosan coats with the acidic gastric medium is important for their performances in protecting the drug from pre-colon release. It was seen that as the ratio of chitosan/pectin decreases, the rate of MD release increases reaching values higher than 40% in the case of batch X (3/7). All the tested batches showed significant increase in the total amount of MD released in presence of rat caecal contents compared to the control tablet. It was found that the MD release exhibited faster rate with the increase in pectin concentration in the coat. Chitosan/pectin mixtures coats containing low concentration of pectin (10-30%) proven better than pure chitosan with regard to their higher inter-colon release rates and maintaining good protection abilities.

 

14/12 FORMATION OF AUTODIPLOID ASPERGILLUS NIGER STRAINS BY COLCHICINE TREATMENT AND THEIR APPLICATION TO CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION FROM BEET MOLASSES

K.A. Mohamed* and N.Z. Adham**

* Genetics and Cytology Department

** Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Product Department

National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

Fifteen autodiploid strains were isolated from Aspergillus niger EMCCIII by colchicine treatment. Genetic and morphological variants in growth rate, pellet size and hyphal growth were observed among the colchicine-produced strains. Conidia of four representative of these strains were randomly selected and analyzed. Conidia of colchicine-produced strains were 1.2 times greater in diameter and possessed a DNA content approximately twice that of the parental strain per conidium. When molasses was used as a low cost raw substrate, the autodiploid strain A-C1 produced 124 g/l of citric acid which represent 1.6 times as much as that produced by the original parental strain. During several subcultivation on both minimal and complete agar media, the autodiploid strains were genetically stable since they formed diploid conidia in their uniform colonies. When autodiploid strains were treated with benomyl as a haploidizing agent, they formed sectors of haploid segregants. The properties of the haploid strains were similar in morphology, DNA content, mean conidial diameter and citric acid productivity to those of the parental strain. It was considered that formation of autodiploid A. niger strains by colchicine treatment were effective in citric acid production from beet molasses.

 

 

15/12 COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF CERTAIN DOPAMINE ANTAGONISTS IN PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS

K.A. Attia, H.H. Abou-Seada and M.W. I. Nassar

Pharmaceutical Chemistry Dept., Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University,

Cairo, Egypt

Two simple and sensitive spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of three substituted benzamides, namely: sulpiride [I], tiapride [II] and veralipride [III] in pure forms and pharmaceutical preparations. Method (A) is based on the reduction of Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent (F.C.) by the cited drugs and the reduced species produced possesses a characteristic intense blue colour λmax 748, 739 & 740 nm for the three drugs respectively. Method (B) is based on the reaction of [I] and [III] with ninhydrin in presence of pyridine. They form a bluish violet colour complex has two absorption maxima at 403 & 568 nm with [I] and 402 & 568 nm with [III]. Regression analysis of a Beer’s plot showed good correlation in the concentration ranges of 5-30, 10-80 and 5-40 μg ml-1 for the three drugs of method (A) respectively, 10-50 and 10-70 μg ml-1 (at λmax 403 & 568 nm) for [I], and 10-60 and 10-80 μg ml-1 (at λmax 402&568 nm) respectively for [II]. No interference was observed from additives and the applicability of methods was tested by analysis of pharmaceutical preparations. Recoveries were 99.10-99.89%.

 

16/12 COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF THYROXINE IN PURE FORM AND TABLETS

M.W. I. Nassar

Pharmaceutical Chemistry Dept., Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University,

Cairo, Egypt

Three simple and sensitive spectrophotometric methods (A-C) for the determination of thyroxine in pure forms and tablets are described. Method (A) is based on the reaction of the drug with ninhydrin in presence of pyridine, the bluish violet colour formed has two absorption maxima, at 403 and 566 nm. Method (B) is based on the reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) by the drug which forms a coloured complex (lmax 510nm) with 1,10-Phenanthroline (PHEN). Method (C) is based on converting the drug into the corresponding quinone-imine in ammonia buffer (pH10) in the presence of an oxidant, which in turn reacts with 4-aminoantipyrine to give a red coloured N-substituted quinone-imine (lmax 532 nm, 1993). Linearity was obtained using concentration ranges of 5-35 mg ml-1at 403 nm and 5-45 mg ml-1 at 566 nm of method A, 5-35mg ml–1 in method (B) and 4-36 mg ml–1 for method (C). All variables in these methods are optimized. No interferences were observed from tablets additives and the applicability of the methods was examined by analyzing tablets containing thyroxine. Recoveries were 99.00-100.40%.

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