Vol. 13, November, 2003.

maca viagra naturel avis          `1/13 EFFECTS OF PURE AND PARTIAL ANTIESTROGENS ON KI-67 IMMUNOSTAINING PATTERNS IN MCE-7 HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELL LINE

N.M. Al-Ajmi*, H.A. Al-Mukhazim**, M.A. Ramadan*, B.M.A. El-Falaha* and N.F. Bouzubar*

*Department of Medical Laboratory Technology.

College of Health Sciences, PAAET, Kuwait.

**Hormones Laboratory, Sabah Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Kuwait.

            Eight Ki-67 immunostaining patterns were identified using CAS 200 image analyzer. The staining pattern 1 corresponds to negatively stained nuclei. The staining patterns 2-8 correspond to an increase in staining intensity and increased DNA contents of the nuclei of MCF-7 cells. The pure antiestrogen ICI 164384 and partial antiestrogen 4-hydroxytamoxifen arrested MCF-7 cells in weak staining patterns 2 and 3 during the eight-days culture. However, the cell number and percentage of Ki-67 positive cells showed differences between the two antiestrogens. Estradiol at pharmacological concentrations increased the exponential growth of the cells and increased number of cells with staining patterns 4-8. It aided the recruitment of MCF-7 cells to cell cycle.

This article repesents the opinion of the author and does not reflect

the official policy of the Egyptian Journal of Biomedical Sciences.

 

ou on peut acheter viagra 2/13 REPORT

acheter du kamagra en belgique New Approach of Using Oxyquinol as a Spermicidal Vaginal Pessary

N.A. Elsayed

Director of Shatelah pharmacy, Ismailia Square, Cairo, Egypt

Oxiquinol is a known chemical material that is used as an antiseptic, fungicidal and keratolytic drug. A new application for this material is using it as a new generation of potent and non-detergent spermicidal agent. Two experiments, in vitro and in-vivo, have been carried out to prove the efficiency of using Oxiquinol as a spermicidal. In vivo Oxiquinol has been used in a solution form with different concentrations of the effective material added to human semen samples. The lowest concentration that can cause complete arrest for the sperm motility was chosen to be applied in the in-vivo experiment. In the in-vivo experiment, Oxiquinol has been used in the form of vaginal pessaries. Each pessary contains 150 mg of Oxiquinol in a water-soluble base. Two hundred married couples were tested to use this pessary. Fifty couples used it regularly for one year while 150 couples used it regularly for six months. A vaginal smear was taken before and after usage. No pregnancy had occurred in any case proving the efficiency of the preparation as a local contraceptive. By examining the vaginal smears after usage, no change in the tissues has been noticed proving the safety of that drug. Full analysis of preparation as a drug has been done in The Control and ResearchSection of an Egyptian Company. The results of analysis have been confirmed by The National Organization for Drug Control and Research.

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mode emploi du viagra 3/13 COMPOSITION AND BIOACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF TAXODIUM SPECIES GROWN IN EGYPT

M.S. Ahmed, F.S. El-Sakhawy, S.N. Soliman and D.M.R. Abou-Hussein

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University,

Kasr El Ainy Street, Cairo, Egypt.

The essential oils of the feminine cones, male cones and leaves of Taxodium mucronatum Ten. and those of the feminine cones and leaves of Taxodium distichum L. Rich. were separately prepared by hydrodistillation. The samples were analyzed by GC/MS techniques; they varied in yield and composition. The main constituent in the essential oil of the feminine cones of T. mucronatum Ten. was Thujopsene (26.96 %), Alpha Pinene in the essential oils of the male cones and leaves of T. mucronatum Ten. and the leaves of T. distichum L. Rich. (30.76 %, 29.45 % and 26.78 % respectively) and Caryophyllene oxide (22.46 %) in the essential oil of the leaves of T. distichum L. Rich. Certain of the isolated essential oils exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities as well as significant antitumor activity against Ehrlish ascites carcinoma.

4/13 EVALUATION OF SERUM LIPID PROFILES IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA (ALL)

A.A. Emam*; A.T. Moawad* and N.A. Elnashar**

* Childhood Studies Department, ** Clinical Pathology Department,

National Center for Radiation Research and Technology

ou acheter kamagra 100mg Background: Abnormal blood lipid profiles have been associated with cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency and clinical significance of altered lipid profiles in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). viagra tous les jours Methods: Fasting blood lipid profiles, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were obtained in 25 children with ALL at diagnosis, during L-asparaginase therapy in the intensification phase of treatment and during postasparaginase period. For comparison, lipid profiles were studied in 10 children disease-free survivors of the same previous ALL treatment protocol. Ten intrinsically healthy children were age and sex matched with other groups, served as a control. viagra pour femme lovegra Results: An altered blood lipid profile was observed at the time of diagnosis of ALL. Statistically significant values included elevated TG (245.4±108.78mg/dl), reduced HDL-C (31±5.26mg/dl). Significant therapy-related changes in lipid profiles were observed in children with ALL during combination therapy with L-asparaginase. The mean peak of TC increased to 205±36.58mg/dl with p<0.0001as compared to control. TG increased to 350±98.14mg/dl with p<0.0001. However, the levels of HDL-C 44.25±13.58 and LDL-C 65±15.78mg/dl showed no significant differences as compared to control. Fifteen patients (60%) had a TC level more than 200mg/dl but this percentage decreased in post-asparaginase phase to (28%) as 7 patients only still had TC higher than 200mg/dl. After completion of L-asparaginase therapy, it was noticed that TC decreased to 170 ±33.72mg/dl with statistically insignificant difference as compared to control. Considering TG, it decreased to 120 ±32.6mg/dl which was statistically significant less than at diagnosis and during therapy with P value p<0.0001 in both cases. On comparing to controls it was still significantly higher than them with p<0.001. HDL-C increased to be nearly at the same level of control with p>0.05.On the other hand, LDL-C increased to 103±32.16mg/dl. In spite of being within normal levels it was higher than that of control with P<0.05. Regarding survivors, their mean levels of TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C showed no significant differences on comparing to healthy controls. These data showed a striking temporal association between asparaginase therapy and hypertriglyceridemia. combien ├ža coute le viagra Conclusion: The lipid abnormalities observed at diagnosis in children with ALL may reflect altered nutritional states or altered lipid metabolism. Elevated TG levels suggested L-asparaginase specific alterations that may provide insight into the toxicity associated with this drug.

5/13 EFFICIENCY OF BRONCHO-VAXOM OM-85 AS INTERFERON-gINDUCER IN IRRADIATED RATS

M.A.M. El Gawish, E. Noaman and M. Abdel Fattah

National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt.

This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of Broncho-Vaxom (OM-85 BV) as immunostimulator in rats subjected to 6.5 Gy of γ-irradiation. Albino rats were daily injected intraperitoneally with Broncho-Vaxom (2.5 mg/kg/day) for a period of 10 days before exposure to gamma-irradiation. IL-12 and IFN-g were determined in the sera of rats after one and seven days while IgG was assayed after 45 days post-irradiation. A significant decrease of IL-12 and IFN-g is recorded in the sera of irradiated rats (6.5 Gy) as well as IgG level. While daily administration of Broncho-Vaxom (2.5mg/kg/day) before gamma-irradiation exposure produced an improvement of the investigated parameters. It is postulated that Broncho-Vaxom, by regulating IL-12 and IFN-g and increasing serum IgG could play an important role in modifying radiation-induced disturbance in immune system.

 

6/13 ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND TOTAL PHENOLICS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF COMMONLY CONSUMED FRUITS IN YEMEN

A. AL-Meeri*, M. AL-Mamary, M. Al-Habori* and Y.M. Ashour**

Organic Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, *Clinical Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Sana’a, Sana’a, Yemen, **Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Sana’a University and

Al-Azhar University (Assuit), Egypt.

The total phenolic contents and the total antioxidant activities of 16 commonly consumed fruits in Yemen were determined using their juices at different levels (50 ml, 100ml, 200ml). The total phenolics were measured colorimetrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent with D-catechin as the standard and the antioxidant activities of fruits were assayed in vitro by the inhibition of liver homogenate oxidation mediated by FeSO4 /Ascorbate system. The results presented show pomegranate and guava to block the oxidation at all levels tested, and dates showed more than 80% antioxidant activity at 50 ml and blocked oxidation at the higher levels. Both Papaya and black grapes were comparable in term of their % antioxidant activity but differ in their phenolic contents. Other fruits examined in this study showed variable % antioxidant activities (9.94 - 78.42%) with all levels tested. The relationship between total phenolic content and % antioxidant activity of fruits showed a positive and significant correlation at 50 ml (R = 0.83; P <0.02) and at 100 ml (R = 0.75; P <0.001).

 

7/13 DETERMINATION OF THE ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY OF BACTERIA BY NITRATE REDUCTASE ASSAY

H.H. Radwan and M.M. Emara

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Helwan University

A rapid microdilution assay for determination of the antimicrobial susceptibility of different bacterial isolates was developed. This assay is based on the ability of the most of viable organisms to reduce nitrates to nitrites. The MIC or MBC could be determined by nitrate reductase assay only after 30 to 120 min of incubation, depending on the microbial growth behavior. Bacterial viability is detected by a positive nitrite reduction rather than visible turbidity. The nitrate reduction assay was compared with standard microassay using 672 isolates of different taxa against 30 antibiotics belonging to different classes. An excellent agreement of 92.3% was found between the two methods, and only 7.7% of 11290 trials showed difference in the determined MIC by two-dilution interval above or below the MIC determined by the turbidimetric method under the same test conditions. However, the nitrate reduction assay was more rapid and sensitive in detecting viable bacteria, and so established a more accurate estimate of the minimal inhibitory concentration. The nitrate reduction assay offers the additional advantage that it could be used to determine the minimal bactericidal concentration without having to subculture the broth. Furthermore, 623 cases of resistance were detected by nitrate reduction assay, which were not detectable by the traditional turbidimetric method. The accuracy and reproducibility of the developed method was tested in 8 different commonly used microbiological media, for susceptibility test and non of them interfered with the assay procedure.

8/13 HORMONAL OXIDATIVE BALANCE OF MODIFIED DIETS AND UNCONTROLLABLE CHOLESTEROL

A.I.S. Ahmed, * F.K.S. Abo Zeid* and A.A. El-Bagoury**

* Special Food & Nutr. FTRI, ARC, Cairo.** Home Econ. Dep., Fac. Specific Education, Tanta Univ.

Dietary therapy is effective in most cases of hyperlipoproteinemia. Modified food based on more supplementation of vitamins A, C, E, carotene and Se ion as ACES; i.e. full antioxidant formula, showed a great positive response in treating hypercholesterolemia. In another sort of food protein modification, plant protein with special administration, as a drug, was also effective in correcting hyperlipidemia as well as hyperglycemia. The two-rat animal experiments have established a concept of hormonal oxidative theory for diet and dietetics. Functional food or drug of natural origin is becoming an interesting scientific issue. This theory can provide with more than one answer in this matter. Further biochemical and nutritional studies on this theory should be continued in order to elucidate the medical potential of these food industries on health.

9/13 FOOD ADDITIVES AND ORGAN LONGEVITY RESPONSES

B. Hamza, F.K.S. Abo Zeid and A.I.S. Ahmed

Dept of Special Food and Nutr, FTRI, ARC, Cairo

The liver, as the main lipogenic organ in the body, was positively affected by antioxidant supplementation. This organ undergoes a great change in mass or size with changing food additives. Likewise, however, plant protein special administration, i.e. by injection rather than ingestion, rapidly responded in organ profile, specially the size and lipid content of liver. Spleen and liver masses have also been influenced by iron bioavailability that improved by the addition of orange juice as a source of vitamin C. In general, a simple correlation between normalized serum lipoprotein and organ longevity has been noticed. We are proposing organ detection with ultrasonic as a further quick nutritional way for assessment, or dietary biological evaluation in man, in addition to those medical tests for diagnosis, and anthropometerical measurements as well. It seems that relative small liver and heart of lower fat content coincendtally with relatively larger kidney and spleen are reflecting a good feeding pattern. Furthermore, a good organ mathematical correlation may be employed as a fast historical tool for nutritional, or even medical, assessment. The higher rate of both liver and kidney failures nowadays necessitates the observation of feeding patterns that helps in protecting them.

10/13 IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF PLURONIC F-127 GEL AS A VEHICLE FOR TOPICAL ADMINISTRATION OF TOLMETIN

A. Ismail, K.I. Saleh and S. Abd El-Rasoul

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy,Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt.

Thermally reversible gels of poly (oxyethylene)-poly (oxypropylene)–poly (oxyethylene)-triblock copolymer, pluronic F-127, was evaluated as a vehicle for topical administration of tolmetin as a model of NSAIDs. The effects of temperature, concentration of pluronic F-127 and drug loading on the release profile were investigated by means of an in-vitro release method using a cellulosic dialyser membrane. It was noticed that upon increasing concentration of pluronic F-127 in the vehicle, a corresponding decrease in the apparent release rate of tolmetin was observed. The study proved that the increase in drug concentration resulted in an increase in the drug release rate. The solubility of tolmetin was significantly increased as a linear function of pluronic F-127 concentration at 25, 37 and 44oC. The effects of some enhancers e.g. dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), urea and propylene glycol (PG) in a concentration of 5 and 10% w/w on the drug release profile were also evaluated. The pluronic F-127 gels appeared to have a good potential for use in topical drug delivery systems since they exhibit reverse thermal gelation behavior and have a good drug release properties and low toxicity.

11/13 PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDY OF CASSIA TORA L. ROOTS AND LEAVES GROWN IN EGYPT

M.M. Shabana, M.H. Gonaid, W.T. Islam and *A.A. Sleem

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University,               Kasr El-Ainy, Cairo, 11562, Egypt.

* National Research Center, Pharmacology Department, Cairo, Egypt.

From Cassia toraL. roots, five anthraquinones viz: chrysophanol 1, physcion 2, obtusifolin 3, emodin 4, and obtusin 5 have been isolated alongside with two flavonoids: kaempferol 6 and quercetin 7 as well as two triterpenes: α-amyrin 8 and oleanolic acid 9, β-sitosterol 10 and its 3-0- glucopyranoside 11. The leaves afforded the following additional compounds: four anthraquinones: aloe-emodin 12, rhein 13, obtusifolin-β-glucoside 14, emodin-β-glucoside 15, and three flavonoids: rhamnetin 16, quercetin3-0-rhamnoside 17 and quercetin3-0-rutinoside 18. The identification of the isolated compounds was carried out using different physico-chemical and spectral analyses (UV, MS, 1H-NMR and /or13C-NMR) as well as comparison with the available reference samples. Medium lethal dose (LD50), hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory activities were carried out, significant results were obtained.

 

12/13 DESIGN AND SYNTHESIS OF SOME NEW DERIVATIVES OF 2(3H)-SULFANLBENZOXAZOLE FOR TESTING AS ANTICONVULSANT

(PART I)

M.A. El-Zahabi; A.A. El-Helby; M.A. Amin; M.K. Ibrahim and K. El-Adl.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Some new derivatives of 2-(substituted sulfanyl)-5-methyl/chloro/nitro and unsubstituted-(3H)benzoxazole were synthesized through the reaction of the later or their potassium salts with different chloroacetates and chloro-3-propionates esters to afford alkyl 2-(5-substituted-benzoxazol–2-ylsulfanyl) acetates and propionate esters IIIa-c. Other condensation reaction with chloroacetamides or chloro-3-propionamides gave 2[alkyl/cycloalkyl/substituted aryl(5-substituted-benzoxazol-2-ylsulfanyl)] acetamides and or propion-amidesIVa-d. Some of the synthesized compounds were evaluated for anticonvulsant activity, some of them showed promising anticonvulsant activity against PTZ in mice using phenobarbitone as reference compound.

13/13 THE UTILITY OF SERUM SOLUBLE TRANSFERRIN RECEPTORS AS A MARKER OF IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA IN RHEUMATOID ARTHITIS PATIENTS

M. El-Tahhan, M. El-Sayed*, H. Seliem** and A. Hamam***

Departments of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University and Assiut Branch of Al-Azhar University*, Internal Medicine** and Orthopedics*** Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University.

Introduction: A relative moderate grade of anaemia characterized by reduced serum iron and normal or increased tissue iron store is the most common extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis. Although the pathogenesis of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been the subject of numerous studies, the exact pathogenetic mechanism remains unclear. Objectives To investigate if determination of serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) , which should not be influenced by chronic inflammation , is useful for detecting IDA in patients with RA. Methods: sTfR concentrations were measured , using automated immunoturbidimetric method, in 34 patients of RA. Different biochemical and hematological parameters of iron status evaluations were done.10 healthy volunteers were studied as controls. Results: patients were divided into 2 groups , group A (n=22) in whom the diagnostic criteria of IDA were fulfilled. group B (n=12) did not fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of IDA . Mean sTfR was significantly elevated in group A ( P < 0.001) compared with control and group B. It was correlated inversely with HB , mean corpuscular volume , mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.008), p < 0.009, P < 0.001) respectively, and positively correlated with sedimentation rate (p < 0.001). No correlations were observed with neither other biochemical parameters of iron status namely iron, ferritin , total iron binding capacity(TIBC) nor with the clinical picture of rheumatoid arthitis( duration , age , number of joints affected). sTfR showed low sensitivity (27.6%). however its sensitivity improves when the cut-off point of sTfR was selected as > 6.3 ug/L, or in combination with ferritin measurements (sTfR / F ratio),68.9% and 81.3%, respectively. Conclusion: The combination of sTfR and ferritin measurements provides the highest sensitivity and specificity. It may be predicted that these measurements are likely to replace the conventional parameters of iron status, i.e., serum iron, transferrin, and ferritin alone, in clinical laboratories. They are especially useful at outpatient clinics, where bone marrow examinations are unavailable or regarded as an invasive mean of identifying patients with depleted iron stores.

14/13 BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY OF MANGANESE (IV) COMPLEX OF 2-METHYLAMINOPYRIDINE AGAINST STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

S.A. El-Masry, M. Lotfy, M. El-Shahat, S.A. Ali,W.A.Nasif,

M.F. Abouel-Nour* and I.H. El-Sayed

Molecular Biology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Minufyia University, Sadat City, Egypt.*Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

The bactericidal activity of manganese (IV) complex of 2-methylamino-pyridine against Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was investigated. The inhibitory effect of the complex was studied by turbidity measurement and on the molecular level. Treatment of bacteria was carried out using 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 mmol of complex per ml of culture media. The results showed that the growth of S. pyogenes was rapidly decreased with increase of the complex concentrations. In contrast, the S. aureus showed no significant decrease in growth rate. The molecular level studies showed that four protein bands with an apparent molecular weights of 19, 23, 30, and 54 Kda were increased in the protein pattern of S. pyogenes extract after complex treatment using silver stained polyacrylamide gels, under reducing condition. But there is no detectable change in the protein pattern of S. aureus extract after complex treatment. No DNA damage was detected using agarose gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining in both types of bacteria. In conclusion, manganese (IV) complex of 2-methylaminopyridine showed an apparent antibacterial inhibitory effect against S. pyogenes but S. aureus was resistant.

15/13 IDENTIFICATION AND PURIFICATION OF RECOMBINANT SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI Smp40; A MAJOR EGG ANTIGEN

M.F. Abouel-Nour, S.H. Hassan, M. Lotfy*, C.H.Schein**, A.M. Attalah***

and B.L. Doughty****

Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt. *Molecular Biology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Minufiya University, Sadat City, Minufiya, Egypt. ***Biotechnology Research Center, New Damietta, Egypt. **Human Biological Chemistry & Genetics Department and ****Pathology Research, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston (UTMB), Galveston, Texas 77555-0609, USA.

Schistosoma mansoni Smp40 gene was cloned and the protein was expressed in pGEX-2T vector. Protein purification was carried out using glutathione-S-transferase (GST) affinity chromatography. Reduced glutathione dissolved in NaCl used on a diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) column was carried out by using several concentrations of NaCl after running on the affinity chromatography column (GST) for further purification. It was found that the GST column chromatography is partially purifying the fusion protein. Combined GST-DEAE column chromatography was satisfactory for purification and generation of a good Smp40 yield. Identification of Smp40 was performed using Western blotting with anti-Smp40 monoclonal antibody. It was found that Smp40 reacts specifically with that antibody on the nitrocellulose paper. The similarities of the amino acid sequence of the Smp40 protein with other proteins was performed using BLAST and FASTA programs, and there were some similarities with one of the heat shock proteins (HSP) and by the alignment of the sequence of the 2 proteins from protein database format which aligned the amino acid sequence, it was reliable with next search programs that were used later in designing and preparing the three dimensional structure. It was figured out that the C-terminal amino acid sequence of the Smp40 protein (residues 130 onward) contains 2 alpha crystallin domains. These domains have some internal homology and both domains can be aligned with other members of the a-Crystallin /SHS protein family. The model of Smp40 that have been obtained using the residues 121-228 using the small heat shock protein (HSP) coded in the protein data base (PDB) as 1SHS as a template. The fold consists of eight beta strands sandwiched in two sheets forming Greek key. The model was generated using EXDIS-DIAMOD-FANTOM suite of programs.

16/13 PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OFNAPROXEN SOLID DISPERSIONS WITH DIFFERENT HYDROPHILIC CARRIERS

A. Ismail, K.I. Saleh and S. Khalaf

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy,

Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut, Egypt.

Naproxen is a member of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which is usedin the treatment of several rheumatic disorders. The studies showed variable absorption of the drug due to its poor solubility. In order to improve the dissolution of naproxen, solid dispersions were prepared using polyethylene glycols (PEG 4000,PEG 6000 and a blend of both grades 50:50) and polyvinyl pyrrolidones (PVP K25, PVP K30 and PVP K90). Dispersions with these polymers were prepared by co-evaporation method, whereas physical mixtures were prepared by simple mixing. The physicochemical properties of the drug alone and in the binary systems were investigated using infrared spectroscopy (IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and x-ray diffraction analysis (x-ray). Interactions in the solution were studied by phase solubility analysis and dissolution experiments. No chemical interaction between naproxen and the studied polymers was observed, either in solution or in solid state. On the other hand an increase of drug dissolution rate from its binary systems with investigated polymers occurred. The results indicated complete transformation of drug from crystalline state to amorphous one in case of PVP K30 and to a lesser extent with the other polymers. No influence of polymer molecular weight was noticed in case of PEGs. On the other hand, increasing of PVPs molecular weight from K25 (30.000) to PVP K30 (40.000) led to improving dissolution properties but further increase to PVP K90 (360.000) led to reduced dissolution characteristics.              

17/13 LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF DICOFOL ACARICIDE IN ADULT MALE ALBINO RATS

*A.A.I. El-Kashoury, **M.M. Thakeb and **N.A. Rahmy

*Central Agricultural Pesticides Laboratory and ** Animal Health Research Institute

Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

The acute, subacute and subchronic toxicities of dicofol, an organochlorine acaricide, were studied in rats. The median lethal dose (LD50) was determined. Animals dosed PO subacutely and subchronically with dicofol at high- and low-dose (1/4th, 1/8th LD50) for 15 and 45 days respectively. The effects of dicofol exposure on some enzymatic activities, blood constituents and histopathological examination were investigated. Thyroxin (T4) was significantly decreased, while, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholesterol and creatinine significantly increased in both high- and low-dose groups. Moreover, similar increase in total protein (TP), albumin, urea and uric acid was observed only in the high-dose groups on the contrary, the low-dose group indicated a significant decrease. On the other hand, TP and tri-iodothyronine (T3) levels were not affected in low-dose group. Pathological changes were in agreement with biochemical findings. The main pathological changes of liver were fatty change and necrobiotic changes in the hepatocytes associated with hypertrophy of Kuppfer cells. Concerning the kidney, hyperemia was noticed in the cortical blood vessels associated with extravasation of red blood cells in between the renal tubules. Also, cystic dilatation was observed in the lumen of proximal and distal renal tubules in chronic case. The pathological changes of lungs were hyperplasia of lining epithelium of the bronchi associated with peribronchiolar lymphoid proliferation in acute cases accompanied with collapse in the air alveoli in chronic cases. Concerning the thyroid gland, the acini were degenerated with periacinar hyperemic blood capillaries in acute cases associated with cystic dilatation with appearance of colloid in the acinar lumen. All these observations were associated with increase weight of liver, kidney and lungs and increase in mortalities.

18/13 THE CARBON SOURCE AS AN ESSENTIAL INTERMEDIATE FOR LIPID AND FATTY ACID METABOLISM IN YEAST.

Sh. Sharaf El-Deen and Y.M. Ahmed.

Microbial Genetics Dept. and Microbial Biotechnology, Genetic Eng. Div.

National Research Centre, Dokky, Egypt.

In studying of the different carbon sources for eight strains of yeast cultures on the formation of lipids and fatty acids. These cultures were grown in different media in order to find the effect of these media on the lipids and fatty acid formation. The following media were found to be most effective on yeast growth: Yeast peptone dextrose, and Molasses. In concern of the lipid and fatty acid content, the S.cerevisiae strain was the highest when grown on both Molasses and Yeast peptone dextrose. In the same time it was observed that GT; S.cerevisiae had higher intracellular content on the Molasses medium. Mean while the Iso-2; S.cerevisiae was higher on the Yeast peptone dextrose, but LBC; S.cerevisiae was higher in the iodine number. TLC was used undetermined the lipid and fatty acid content for all strains. GC was used to determine lipids and fatty acids in some selected strains. It can be concluded that the increase of glucose as a carbon source in the growth medium was of great help in the formation of lipids and fatty acids in; S.cerevisiae, C.lipolytica and Sch.jabonica.

 

 

19/13 BIOACTIVITY AND CONSTITUENTS OF THE SEEDS OF CRYPTOSTEGIA GRANDIFLORA R.Br. CULTIVATED IN EGYPT

S.M. El Zalabani, E. Abdel-Sattar , F.I. Fathy, N.G. Shehab and E.A. Mohamed*

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

* Pharmacology Department, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Guiza, Egypt

Pharmacological and toxicological studies on the seeds of Cryptostegia grandiflora R.Br. were performed. LD50 of the alcohol extract and its fractions (light-petroleum, chloroform and n-butanol) ranged from 2420 to 4125 mg/kg.b.wt. The examined extracts inhibited both intestinal and uterine contractions. The chloroform fraction was found to be a potent stimulator of cardiac contractions as compared with the other samples. Administration of the alcohol extract to experimental animals reduced both the urine output and Na+ level,while that of its chloroform fraction produced diuretic and hypertensive effects. The effect of prolonged administration of the alcohol extract on serum enzymatic activities, as well as, gross and histopathological features of the vital organs (heart, liver and kidney) of experimental animals was studied. A significant increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was observed. Chromatographic analyses (TLC and GLC) of the lipoidal content of the light-petroleum fraction resulted in the identification of lauric, palmitic and capric acids, as well as, cholesterol, b-sitosterol, stigmasterol, n-octacosane and n-dotriacontane as the major constituents. Biologically guided fractionation of the light-petroleum extract for cytotoxic constituents leads to isolation of b-sitosterol, its 3-O-b-D-glucoside, a-amyrin and b–amyrin. The chloroform fraction was investigated for cardioactive constituents. Oleandrigenin, gitoxigenin and 16-propionyl gitoxigenin-3-O-a L-rhamnoside were isolated and identified through their physical, chemical and spectral data. The percentage of cardenolides in the different organs of the plant was colorimetrically determined using both Baljet’s and Kedde’s reagents, the seeds showed the highest content 1.08% and 1.00% by the two methods, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the study of the seeds of the titled plant.

20/13 MYCOTOXINS PREVALENCE IN MEAT PRODUCTS COLLECTED FROM EGYPTIAN MARKETS

S.K. Saleh* and M.K. Abu El-Magd**

* Food Hygiene Department, ** Chemistry and Food Deficiency Department

Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki.

A total of 100 random samples of meat by-product (minced meat, beef burger, kofta, sausage and hot dog) 30each, were collected from different shops and supermarkets at Giza Governorate. These samples were examined for detection of aflatoxin, ochratoxin A and zearalenone residues. The results revealed the presence of various contamination levels of mycotoxins in tested samples. The positive samples for mycotoxin residues were 60%, 50%, 80%, 80% and 40% in minced meat, beef burger, kofta, sausage and hot dog, respectively.

 

21/13 ZEARALENONE TOXICITY IN THE LAYING HENS

M.Sh. Taha, E.Sh. Laz and M.K. Abou-Elmagd.

Biochemistry Department, Animal Health Research Institute.

Sever outbreaks occurred in a flock of laying hens in a private farm in Kalubia Governorate. Serum samples were collected from 40 affected hens, suffering from decrease feed intake, growth depression and cloacal bleeding and prolapse drop in egg production rate with high mortality, as well as apparently healthy hens for estimation of estrogenic profile (calcium, phosphorus and cholesterol concentration) which revealed significant increase in their levels. Estimation of the performance of the birds revealed decrease in body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and egg production %.Detection of zearalenone residue in internal organs (liver, gizzard, kidney, spleen, heart and muscles) revealed no detectable amount in all internal organs with exception of liver and gizzard. Ration analysis indicates presence of zearalenone toxin at a level of 500 ppm. The ration was suggested to be the real cause of the problem as it contaminated with zearalenone which resulted in alteration blood constituents, body performance and egg production which finally led to great economic losses in the flock. The symptoms were subsided when the ration was replaced by a new one.

 


221/13 EFFECTS OF VACCINATION OF MICE AGAINST S. MANSONI BY IRRADIATED CERCARIAE WITH ADJUVANT: HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND ELECTROMICROSCOPICAL STUDIES

M.A. Moawad

Research and Health Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt.

Mice were vaccinated with Schistsoma mansoni irradiated cercariae with and without IL-12 as adjuvant. After challenging with live cercariae, histopathological changes in the tissues of infected mice were studied (liver, lung and spleen) to see the effect of immunization on these tissues. A variety of histological changes have been observed as granuloma formation, which marked reduced in the tissues. Also, it was found that sensitization with irradiated cercariae plus IL-12 partly inhibits granuloma formation and dramatically reduces the tissue fibrosis induced by natural infection with Schistsoma mansoni worms. The worms formed in the infected mice after immunize by vaccination by irradiated cercariae with and without IL-12 as adjuvant were examined by using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) to study the changes in the ultra-structure of these worms. The changes observed were in the form of loss of spines from tegumental tubercles, in addition to mild blebbing and slight vesiculation in subtegumental tissues  

 

 

23/13 AEROBIC BACTERIAL SPECIES CAUSING BURN AND SURGICAL WOUND INFECTIONS IN SOME EGYPTIAN HOSPITALS

M.S.E. Ashour, M.A.B. Gamal, M.S. Mancy and A.M. El-Sherbeny

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

Five hundred thirty burn and surgical wound specimens were collected from patients admitted to El-Hussein University Hospital (EHUH), Kasr El-Aini University Hospital (KEAUH), and Mansoura University Hospital (MUH). Out of forty two cases (30 postoperative surgical wounds andd 212 burn) from EHUH developed 36 (85.7%) infections; comprising 26 out of 30 (86.7%) postoperative surgical wounds and 10 out of 12 (83.3%) burn. In addition, 46 post-burn infections out of 335 (13.7%) from KEAUH and 94 surgical wounds infections out of 153 (61.4%) from MUH, were developed. The frequency rate of burn infections was higher in females (25% of total number of infected patients ) than in males (6.9%), while in surgical wound infections there was no significant difference between females (34.7%) and males (33.5%). Prevalence of single infection was 95% and 57.2% among surgical and burned patients, while prevalence of mixed infection was 5% and 42.8% respectively. Two hundred and eleven isolates were recovered from 176 burn and surgical wound infections comprising: 61 isolates Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 58 Staphylococcus aureus, 30 Proteus mirabilis, 26 Escherichia coli, 22 Klebsiella pneumonia, 7 Staphylococcus epidermidis, 4 Proteus vulgaris and 3 isolates of Enterococcus spp. Antimicrobial susceptibility of different bacterial isolates showed increased resistance to the commonly used β-lactams (amoxycillin, amoxicillin /clavulonic acid, carbenicillin, cefaclor, cefadroxil, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cephtazideme) and less resistance to imipenem and ciprofloxacin. Eight isolates of multiple antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and another antibiotic susceptible isolates were subjected to plasmid profile aanalysis. It revealed that all tested organisms harbor the same pattern and so not responsible for their behavior towards antibiotic resistance.

24/13 antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of Isoflavones from Soybeans

M. Hosny, H. Ammar and E. Moustafa

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University,

Cairo, Egypt.

The EtOAc and n-BuOH-soluble fractions obtained from the root part of Glycine max L. Merr, showed a strong radical quenching properties. Seven known isoflavones, genistein (1), daidzein (2), biochanin A (3), formononetin (4), genistin (5), daidzin (6), and glycitin (7), and a new isoflavone glucoside, biochanin A-7-O-a-D-glucoside (8) were isolated from these fractions. They were identified by spectral data using a combination of extensive NMR (DEPT, HMBC, and HMQC) studies combined with standard 1D NMR and chemical degradation. Among these compounds, 1, 2, 5 and 8 exhibited strong free radical scavenging activities on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). We further studied the effects of these compounds on the lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes induced by non enzymatic method. As expected, 1, 2, 5 and 8 exhibited significant inhibition on Fe3-ADP in the presence of NADPH induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes as measured by the intensity of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). Cytotoxic activities (ED50) of various extracts and isoflavonoids (1-8) were measured against human stomach carcinoma (Hs 740.T, Hs 756 T, HSC 45 M2), breast adenocarcinoma (Hs 578 T, Hs 742.T, MCF) and prostate carcinoma (LNCaP, DU 145, PC-3) cell lines. Isoflavonoids 1, 2, 5 and 6 were more active than 3, 4, 7 and 8 versus at least one of the three cell lines examined, indicating the importance of the 5- and 4`-OH groups in cytotoxicity.

 

 

25/13 STUDIES ON RESISTANCE OF FRESH WATER BACTERIAL ISOLATES TO HEAVY METALS

S.A. Selim

Department of Botany, Microbiology Section, Faculty of science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

The study monitored two drainge pumps on Ismailia sweet water canal. Investigation of bacterial and heavy metals contaminates of water samples from five localities within these systems were achieved including the before and after pump. Counts of total viable bacteria, total coliform, faecal coliform, feacal Steptococci, Salmonella & Shigella, Vibrio and Aeromonas were focused on the most reliable bacterial parameters for water contaminants. A total of 10 species belong to 9 genera were identified in this study. Bacillus subtilis comprised 38% of the total identified isolates followed by Satphylococcus aureus 20%, Escherichia coli 16%, Corynebacterium aquaticum 10% and Aeromonas hydrophila 5%. The remainder 11% belonged to the other five identified species. The tolerance of the 10 bacterial isolates toward heavy fine metals was examined and only results relative to copper and mercury (the most tolerated and the most toxic metals) were reported. Experiments in liquid culture were conducted to determine the precise concentrations of the five heavy metals (Cu, Hg, Cd, Zn and Co) at which the species could grow.

 

 

26/13 PHYTOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL STUDY OF CUPRESSUS MACROCARPAHartweg

S.H. Tadros* and A.A. Sleem**

*Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University,

** Pharmacology Department, National Research Center, Dokki,Giza.

The essential oil from the fresh aerial parts of Cupressus macrocarpa Hartweg was prepared by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty-five components were identified in the oil representing 98.09%. About 58.60% was identified as hydrocarbons; 30.77% as alcohols; 5.08% as ketones and 1.97% as aldehydes. The major component was β-thujene (37.58%). The lipoidal matter, fatty acid methyl esters and unsaponifiable fractions were identified and estimated by GLC analysis. β-amyrin and phytosterols (β sitosterol, stigmasterol and cholesterol) were detected in the unsaponifiable fraction and a series of hydrocarbons (C6-C31). GLC analysis of the fatty acids methyl esters revealed the presence of lignoceric acid (11.80%) as a major component. The oil exhibited significant antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anthelmintic activities.

 

27/13 ENDOTHELIN, NITRIC OXIDE AND VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR : ROLES AFTER ACUTE CEREBROVASCULAR ISCHAEMIA

I. El-Maghawry*, W.A. Emam* and E.A. Emam**

Medical Biochemistry* Internal Medicine Departments**

Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University

Background: Alteration in the release and action of endothelium-derived vaso-active factors is responsible for changes in vascular reactivity early in the course of vascular diseases. These factors include endothelin-1 (ET-1), nitric oxide (NO), and von Willebrand factor (vWF). Study objective: To explore the relation of these vasoactive substances to ischaemic stroke and its clinical features. Methods: The levels of ET-1, NO and vWF were assessed in blood and CSF of twenty acute stroke patients and ten controls. Enzyme immunoassay technique was employed for the measurement of both ET-1 and vWF whileNO was measured calorimetrically using Griess reaction. Results: There were increased levels of NO and vWF in blood and ET-1 in CSF in post-stroke period in comparison to controls. There was positive correlation between the increase in blood ET-1 and NO. The levels of the three measured substances were in positive correlation with the age of the involved subjects. The blood levels of NO and vWF were higher in patients with associated cardiovascular disorders than other patients. No significant relation was detected between the obtained levels and diabetes. Comatose patients in this work showed significantly higher levels of ET-1 , and NO in their blood than controls. Conclusion: We conclude that there was a relation between the endothelium-derived vasoactive factors and the acute cerebrovascular stroke and its clinical picture.


28/13 MULTIRESISTANT ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM WOMEN WITH COMMUNITY ACQUIRED URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN GAZA STRIP, PALESTINE

S.A. Abdallah, M.I. Fahd, F.A. Sharif* andZ. Astal**

Botany Department, Faculty of Girls for Arts, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Egypt,

*Medical Technology Department, Islamic University of Gaza,

**Khan Younis Hospital Laboratory, Khan Younis, Gaza-Palestinian Authority

This study describes the antimicrobial resistance patterns of 300 Escherichia coli strains to twelve antimicrobial agents. The strains were isolated from community acquired urinary tract infections female patients referring to various Gaza Strip hospitals. Resistance of E. coli was most common to amoxycillin (73.7%), followed by cotrimoxazole (63%) and tetracycline (59%). Most isolates, however, were sensitive to amikacin (99.7%) and to nitrofurantoin (99.3%). The MICs of amoxycillin resistance ranged from 32 to 256 μg/ml with a mean of 252.9μg/ml. Where, 98.2% of the resistant isolates had a high resistance range and clustered around a single value (256μg/ml). A total of 16% of the isolates were sensitive to all the antimicrobial agents tested. The remaining 84% isolates were associated with 9 different resistance patterns.Strains which exhibited multiple resistance (resistant to 3 antimicrobial agents constituted 50% of the isolates. The highest resistance was to three antimicrobials (31.0%). The present study also emphasizes that, preceding antimicrobials use, prior hospitalization and previous UTI are important contributing factors to emergence of drug resistance.Knowledge of the most likely causative organisms and the prevalence of resistant pathogens to antimicrobial agents is essential to select antibiotics, to establish guidelines for the empirical treatment of UTI and to rapidly implement any modification necessary for appropriate antimicrobial treatment.


29/13 BACTERIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PIGEON CARCASSES WITH A TRIAL TO IMPROVE THEIR SANITARY STATUS

E.A. Eldaly*; O.O. Lotfy** and K. El-Dsoky**

*Dept. of Food Control, Fac. Vet. Med. Zagazig Univ., Zagazig, Egypt.

**Vet. Clinic, Fac. Vet. Medicine, Zagazig Univ., Zagazig, Egypt.

A total of 160 swab samples (20each of cloacae, pre-eviscerated and post-eviscerated pigeon carcasses, holding cages, preparation tables, rinsing water in addition to treated and untreated carcasses with 2% lactic acid) were collected from 20 pigeons after being manually slaughtered, scalded, defeathered then eviscerated and finished. Collected samples were bacteriologically examined to throw a light on the bacterial contents as well as the prevalence of some food borne pathogens especially Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. on the dressed pigeon carcass surfaces. In addition, a trial was carried out to improve the hygienic status of pigeon surfaces through the application of a solution containing 2% lactic acid. The obtained results revealed that mean count of aerobic plate count, enterobacteriaceae count, most probable number of coliforms and total enterococci count on the surface of pre-eviscerated pigeon carcasses were 38x105,21x104, 27x103 and 23x103 cfu/cm2 respectively. Such values were increased after carcasses evisceration to 28x106,82x105, 38x104 and 22x104 cfu/cm2 respectively , meanwhile such numbers were again decreased after rinsing of pigeon carcasses with clean tape water to reach 8x105, 33x104, 35x103 and 27x102 cfu/cm2 of the carcass surface respectively. Concerning the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp.on some equipments and rinse water, the obtained results declared that the cloacae, the surface each of pre-eviscerated and post- eviscerated carcasses, holding cages, surface of preparation tables and rinsing water samples were positive for Salmonella with a percentage of 3(15%), 0, 2(10%), 0, 1(5%) and 1(5%) respectively, while 7(35%), 3(15%) , 4(20%),1(5%) , 2(10%) and 2(10%) of the same examined samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. respectively. Regarding to the improving the hygienic status of the examined carcass surfaces, the obtained results showed that the mean reduction count and percentage of the aerobic plate count, enterobacteriaceae count, most probable number of coliforms and Total enterococci count were 6.6x104 (82.5%) , 2.1x104 (72.4%), 18x103 (84.8%) and 13x102(72.2%) respectively for treated carcasses with 2% lactic acid from untreated (control) one. The present study illustrate that neglected hygienic measures during evisceration and preparation of such type of food increases the microbial populations as well as the incidence of food borne pathogens on the carcass surfaces, such microbial populations were decreased after their rinsing with water beside the effectiveness of 2% lactic acid as decontaminant.

30/13 SCREENING OF BLOOD CHOLESTEROL CONTENTS FOR MALE AND FEMALE INDIVIDUALS OF DIFFERENT AGES IN GAZA-PALESTINE.

A. Thabet, R. Al-Mobayed, R. Deeb

Biochemistry Section, Faculty of Science, Islamic University.

In the present study blood samples were collected from persons at different ages (Females and males) from different areas of Gaza-Palestine. Cholesterol levels were determined and compared with that of other countries. Results showed that females at age between 17 and 30 years have less cholesterol levels than males. At older ages, however, (30 to 60 and 60-80 years) females have higher cholesterol levels than males. In general, blood cholesterol levels for Palestinian people are lower than that of corresponding age for those in USA and   Europe. The levels are very close to that of Asians and of Japanese persons. The lower levels may be due to the dietary habits and life style of Palestinians.

31/13 ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF NARROW-BAND UVB RADIATION AND ITS CLINICAL CORRELATION IN ATOPIC DERMATITIS

I.M. Shaheen, A.M. Abdel-Aal, A. Desouky° and A.A. Mohamed*

Department of Dermatology and Venereology and Medical Microbiology°, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University and Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University*

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease which often begins in infancy and runs a course of remission and exacerbation. The skin of patients with AD exhibits a susceptibility to colonization with aerobic bacterial flora and strikingly to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). This trial is to investigate whether NB-UVB has in-vivo germicidal effect in the treatment of AD and, if so, is there a correlation between this property and clinical improvement ? Twenty two patients were included in this study; 13 females and 9 males, with an age ranging from 5 – 34 years. They were treated by narrow-band UVB (NB-UVB) settings 3 times / week for 8 weeks. Treatment effect was evaluated with SCORAD at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks on treatment and 8 weeks after stopping the therapy. Bacterial culture samples were collected by Williamson and Kligman scrub method from all patients before the start of phototherapy (0 week), 2, 4, 6 weeks and after termination of therapy (8 weeks). Cultures were performed 30 minutes after phototherapy setting. Samples were recovered from lesional and non-lesional skin. After incubation, colonies forming units (CFU) of skin sample of different morphological types were counted and calculated. Bacteria were identified by standard bacteriological methods described by Stockes. Our results have shown that 8/22 patients were classified as severe AD (SCORAD > 50 scores) and 14 as a mild to moderate dermatitis (SCORAD < 50 scores). Nineteen patients out of 22 (86.4%) showed a moderate to excellent response at the end of study. There was a marked significant increase of Staph. aureus count in dermatitic skin (mean number 4.26/103; 79%) when compared to the clinically normal skin of atopic patients (mean number 1.6/103; 42%, p<0.01). Patients with AD showed a progressive increasing of S. aureus count with increasing severity of dermatitis (p< 0.01). The effect of NB-UVB therapy on lesional skin was limited regarding the total bacterial count, while more pronounced on S. aureus, which showed a significant decrease of the mean number of CFU from 4.26/103 (pretreatment) to 1.2/103 (after 8 weeks of therapy) (p<0.01). The mean number of S. aureus was decreased during the study and parallel to the decrease of SCORAD index by NB-UVB exposure. It can be concluded that NB-UVB phototherapy possess in-vivo anti-staphylococcal properties which are paralleled by the clinical cure.

 

 

32/13 DETECTION OF METABOLICALLY ACTIVE H.INFLUENZAE IN STERILE CHRONIC PEDIATRIC MIDDLE EAR EFFUSIONS

A. Desouki*, S.E. Said** and K.A. Amro***

* Microbiology & Immunology, ** E.N.T, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

***Molecular Genetic Unit Research Center K.F.S.H., RIYADH, K.S.A.

            Otiits media with effusions (OME) can lead to significant hearing loss in children. Although previous studies have shown that bacterial DNA is present in a significant percentage of effusions sterile by culture, the question is whether this DNA represents viable organisms or "fossil” remains. The aim of this study was determine if bacterial messenger RNA (mRNA) is present in chronic pediatric middle ear effusions that are sterile by standard cultural methods. Bacterial mRNAs have a half life measured in seconds to minutes; therefore, detection of bacteria-specific mRNAs would be evidence that metabolically active organisms are present. Detection of bacterial mRNA was carried out using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase –chain reaction (RT-PCR). A total of 93 effusions from pediatric outpatients seen for myringotomy and tube placement for chronic OME (aged from 2 to 8 years) with duration > 3 months of OME. Eleven (11.8%) Of the specimens were positive by both culture and RT-PCR for H. influenzae. A total of 29specimens (31.2%) were negative by culture but positive by RT-PCR for H. influenzae specific mRNA.   In conclusions, the RT-PCR-based assay system can detect the presence of H.influenzae mRNA in a significant percentage of sterile middle ear effusions, establishing the presence of viable, metabolically active, intact organisms in some culture-negative OME.

 

33/13 EFFECT OF COOKING (BAKERY) TEMPERATURE, MICROWAVE ANDg-RADIATION ONAFLATOXIN CONTENTS OF CORN AND FLOUR IN BAKERY PRODUCTS

*A.I. Atia, ** M.S. Abdel Lattif and ***H.M. El-Kabbani

*Natural Pr oducts Dept. National &*** Radiation Health Research Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority Cairo, Egypt

**Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University.

There are increasingrate on human cancer for some organs Liver, Kidney, Colon and Liver disorders. Aflatoxin is the main hepatocarcinogen in human through the last years in Egypt. Bread is the main food for Egyptians. Previous studies indicated that Egyptian white corn is contaminated with Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus which produced mycotoxins. The aim of this work is to explain a method for aflatoxins destruction and lower it’s concentration and reduce its biological hazards by treating corn and flour product by physical methods, heating and irradiation (Microwave andγ-rays). The results showed that, effective treatment was by microwave for 15 min. exposure for both corn and flour lower the aflatoxin concentration and toxicity index. The biological studies proved that, contaminated corn and flour treated and non-treated had hazard. Effects, decreased by microwave 15 min andγ-ray (20 KGy) treatments on the liver and kidney functions and relative organ weights during 8 weeks of feeding experiment.   We recommend that the ideal method for aflatoxins destruction by using microwave irradiation.

 

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