Vol. 14, March, 2004.

1/14 EVALUATION OF UTERINE ARTERY DOPPLER VELOCIMETRY AND URINARY THROMBOXANE B2 (TXB2) AS PREDICTORS OF PRE-ECLAMPSIA (PE) AND THE POSSIBLE PROPHYLACTIC EFFECT OF LOW-DOSE ASPIRIN

I.B. Abd Rabou*, F.M. El-Sokkary*, A.M. Ramadan** and M.S. El-Shorbagy***

Obstetrics and Gynecology* and Diagnostic Radiology** Departments, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University, Cairo and Clinical Pathology Department***, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo

Hypertensive disoroders of pregnancy remain a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, yet there is still a struggle to understand the etiology, implement effective screening, offer prophylactic treatment or prevent its complications. The goal of this prospective study was to assess whether urinary TXB2 level and uterine artery Doppler velocimetry study can predict the development of PE in women at increased risk of PE and to assess the beneficial prophylactic effect of low dose aspirin in these women. Forty primigravidae were screened and investigated twice at 16-18 wks and 28-32 wks of gestation. They were divided into: a study group (30 women) at increased risk of PE (i.e. those with family history of hypertension, diabetes mellites, or smoking habit) and a control group (10 women, group III) at low risk of PE. The study group was subdivided into group I (15 women) given low dose aspirin (75 mg/day) from 16 wks to 32 wks of pregnancy and group II (15 women) not given any medications. Systolic/Diastolic (S/D) ratio, resistance index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) were measured. Urine samples were collected for TXB2 assay. Four women (13.3%) among the high risk women developed PE (mild): one (6.6%) from group I (aspirin) and 3 (20%) from group II (non-aspirin). Urinary TXB2 increased throughout pregnancy and was higher among women in group II than those of groups I and III. Pre-eclamptic women had urinary TXB2 (530 + 149.44 pg/ml) that far exceeded that of non-preeclamptic women (317.15 + 90.93 pg/ml) (P < 0.01). Doppler indices (S/D ratio and RI) were abnormal in the 3 groups at 16-18 wks. At 28-32 wk of gestation women in group II still had abnormal Doppler values (S/D ratio and RI) while women in group I and III have recovered normal Doppler indices. Women in group II with abnormal Doppler indices at 28-32 wks had higher urinary TXB2 concentrations than group I and III with statistically significant difference between the three groups (P < 0.05). It was concluded that uterine artery Doppler velocimetry and urinary TXB2 at 16-18 wks of pregnancy could not be used as predictors of PE in women at risk in whom low dose aspirin had a beneficial prophylactic effect.

2/14 MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION OF CERTAIN SAMPLES OF “EYE LINER” RETAILED IN JORDANIAN MARKETS

H.M. Hefni and *M.S. Mansy

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

*Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Zaytoonah University, Amman, Jordan.

            A total of 63 samples of eye liner collected from Jordanian provinces were investigated for their microbial contents. The results showed remarkable differences among the levels of microbial count of the tested eye liner samples. On sterility testing, more than 80% of eye liner samples were contaminated with bacteria and/or fungi. Among those samples 68% and 33% were contaminated with aerobic and anaerobic bacteria respectively. Quantitatively, 57.1% of the tested samples contained bacterial count from 0 < 102 cfu/g. Whereas, 31.7% of eye liner samples had bacterial count ranged from >102-103 cfu/g and the other remaining 11% of samples were heavily contaminated containing >103->104 cfu/g of bacteria. On the other hand 55.6% of the examined samples had fungal counts ranged from 0-102 cfu/g; while 19% of samples were contaminated with > 102-103, and the other remaining 25.4% were heavily contaminated containing > 103 - > 104 cfu/g. of fungi. Coliform bacteria in a number of 100 cfu/g or more were recovered from 20.6% of eye liner samples. Qualitative tests for the presence of hazardous microorganisms showed that B. cereus, B. subtilus, B. pumilus, B. stearothermophilus, B. megaterium, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, P. vulgaris, Ps. aeruginosa, other Pseudomonas spp. and Serratia marcescens were detected in 22.22%, 15.87%, 11.11%, 9.5%, 6.3%, 6.3%, 12.6%, 4.76%, 4.76%, 9.5% and 6.3% respectively. As well as, the fungal contaminants of eye liner were Aspergillus spp.; Penicillium; Mucor, Fusarium, Rhizopus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Helmanthosporium, Chactomium and Yeasts at frequencies 39.3%, 15.9%, 12.07%, 19%, 9.5%, 9.5%, 6.3%, 4.76%, 4.76% and 22.22% respectively. Among those types Aspergillus spp. were A. niger, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. terrus, A. clavatus, A. restrictus, A. leuknowsis, A. versicolor and A. parasiticus at frequencies of 12.69%, 11.11%, 4.76%, 4.76%, 1.58%, 1.58%, 1.58%, 1.58% and 1.58%. The hygienic implications of using eye liner by the public and the relationship between the detected level of microbial contamination in the tested samples with the proposed allowable international limits of contamination as well as the possible sources of contamination were discussed.

 

 

3/14 FLUORESCENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION ASSAY USING NUCLEIC ACID PROBES FOR DETECTION OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS IN LUNG TISSUE SPECIMENS

H.M. Abu shady

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University

In the present investigation rapid and accurate method for identification and characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using DNA Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) probes in respiratory specimens obtained by bronchoscopy has been investigated. The expression of protein antigen Pab gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in tuberculosis granulomas in lung tissue sections from tuberculosis patients was detected. Twenty bronchoscopy specimens from lung tissue were included in this study. The specimens were prospectively analyzed by the usual reference laboratory procedures as well as Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH). All of the specimens were given positive cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, out of the 20 patients only 16 were positive for acid fast bacilli as determined by Zeil – Nelseen stain on sputum specimens. The fluorescent hybridization assay showed that only fifteen specimens gave a positive result with Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific probes. A positive mycobacterium specific probe results but negative Zeil – Nelseen results were considered to have true positive results. These data suggests that In Situ Hybridization assay is suitable, easy, rapid and accurate method for detection and identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and could be applied directly to DNA in lung tissues or extracted from Zeil-Nelseen positive smears as well.

 

4/14 ZERO ORDER AND DERIVATIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRY FOR DETERMINATION OF A MIXTURE OF AMINO ACIDS

M.M.F. Metwally and M. Elbolkiney

Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University,

Zagazig, Egypt

Tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine in a mixture were analysed by zero-derivative as well as first derivative spectroscopy in a range of 1.0 x 10-4 – 1.0 x 10-6 mole-litre-1 for each amino acid. Tryptophan is calculated at wavelength 290nm zero-order absorption spectrophotometry using equation A290 total = Î290.b. Ctr and results show 95.4 + 0.55 (X + S.D.) and by first order absorption spectrophotometry at l288 nm using the equation dA/dl288 = Î288.b. Ctr and results show (X + S.D.) 95.6 + 0.55 and by second derivative absorption using equation C = 7.445A + 0.112 at 289nm.Tyrosine is calculated by first order absorption spectrophotometry at l280 nm using equation dA/dl280 (total) = Î280.b. Cty. + Î280.b.Ctr. and results show X + S.D. = 99.48 + 3.02. phenylalanine is calculated at 210 nm by zero-order spectrophotometry using equation A210 (total) = Î210.b.Cty. + Î210.b.Ctr. + Î210.b.Cph. and results show X + S.D. = 99.48 + 1.52.

 

5/14 EFFECT OF BETA CAROTENE COMBINED WITH IONIZING RADIATION ON THE LIVER OF ADULT ALBINO RAT

O. Solimen*, A. Abd El Maguid** and R.F. El Gharib**

* Radiation Biology Dept., National center for radiation Research

and Technology, Cairo, Egypt.

**Dept. of Health Radiation research. National Center for Radiation Research

and Technology, Cairo, Egypt.

The damaging effects of ionizing radiations are mostly mediated by reactive free radicals. The influence of protection on rats with B-carotene (30 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days against free radicals production was studied on rat's liver exposed to radiation at (4 Gy single dose). Both histological and histochemical techniques were performed. The radiation induced cytoplasmic vacuolization, nuclear pyknosis, cellular degeneration, congested blood vessels and decrease in both mucopolysaccharides content as well as succinic dehydrogenase enzyme activity. It was noticed that rats treated with B-carotene before and during radiation showed noticeable amelioration in the changes induced by irradiation, which indicates beneficial radio-protective role of B-carotene as a natural antioxidant agent.

 

6/14 PASSIVE SMOKING; ITS EFFECTS ON THYROID AND THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONES AND GONADOTROPHIC AND PROLACTIN HORMONES

O.A. Al-Sougair, A.M. Abdul-Rahman and M.W.A. Al-Bakry

Medical Microbiology Department, Faculty Of Science, King Saud

University (Al-Qassim Branch)

The effect of passive smoking on the serum levels of the thyroid-stimulating, gonadotrophic (FSH & LH) and prolactin hormones in male and female albino rats was studied.There was a significant increase in the serum level of the tetraiodothyronine (T4), no statistical significance in the tri-iodothyronine (T3) and a significant decrease in the thyroid-stimulating hormones.There was a significance increase in both the gonadotrophic hormones and the prolactin hormone. This might be due to the inhibitory effect on both the thyroid gland tissues and ovarian follicles.

 

 

7/14 PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF HEDERA HELIX AND ITS MOLLUSCICIDAL ACTIVITY

H.A. El-Nahas and E.A. El-Wakil

Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute

Molluscicidal screening of some extracts of leaves and stems of   Hedera helix var marginata Hort ( Family Araliaceae) against Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Egypt exhibited that the methanol extract has high activity ( LC90= 65 ppm) after 24 hours exposure. Therefore phytochemical examination of the aqueous methanolic extract of this plant was carried out in order to isolate and identify its chemical constituents. Four bidesmosidic triterpenoidal saponins and one flavonoid glycoside have been isolated . Their structures were elucidated using chemical and spectroscopic methods as 3-O- α-L- rhamnopyranosyl (1® 2)- α-L- arabinopyranosyl oleanolic acid- 28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (I) , 3-O-β-D- glucopyranosyl- (1 ® 3)- β-D- glucuronopyranosyl quillaic acid- 28- O – α-L- rhamnopyranoside (II), 3-O- β-D- xylopyranosyl- (1 ®6)- β-D- glucopyranosyl- (1 ®2)- α-L-   arabinopyranosyl oleanolic acid - 28- O- β-D-   glucopyranoside (III) , 3-O-β-D- xylopyranosyl (1®2)-[β-D- xylopyranosyl- (1®3)] - α-L- rhamnopyranosyl hederagenin 28-O- β-D- glucopyranoside (IV) and quercetin 3- rutinoside (V). Alkaline hydrolysis of saponins III and IV gave two prosapogenins A and B which have monodesmosidic triterpenoidal structures. Also, the isolated compounds from H. helix were tested against   B. alexandrina snails. The   results revealed that the two prosapogenins A and B have high activities (LC90 = 5 and 8 ppm) after 24 hours exposure whereas the other compounds did not show any activity up to 50 ppm .

 

8/14 flavone - C- glucosides FROM SEQUOIA SEMPERVERINS LEAVES CULTIVATED IN EGYPT.

A.A. El-Hela and L.D. Ismail

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University,

From the leaves of Sequoia sempervirens (D.Don) Endll Taxodiaceae, cultivated in Egypt,the following C- flavonoides (iso-orientin, vitexin and isovitexin) were isolated and identified by the chemical and spectroscopic methods .

9/14 EXTRACTIVE SPECTROPHOTO METRIC DETERMINATION OF CERTAIN DOPAMINE ANTAGONISTS

USING SOME ACID DYES

K.A. Attia

Pharmaceutical Chemistry Dept., Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University

Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

Three acid dye reagents (bromocresol green “BCG”, bromophenol blue “BPB” and bromothymol blue “BTB”) have been utilized for spectrophotometric determination of three substituted benzamides, namely: sulpiride [I], tiapride [II] and veralipride [III]. These dyes “BCG, BPB and BTB” form a chloroform-soluble coloured ion association complexes with [I], [II] & [III], at pH 2.6, 2.4 and 2.8 respectively. The formed complexes could be extracted and measured spectrophotometrically at 419, 416 and 411 nm with BCG, BPB & BTB for the three drugs respectively. Optimal conditions for the reaction were studied regarding pH, buffer volume, dye concentration, extractive solvent, shaking time and stability of colour. Good agreement with Beer’s law was found in ranges of 4-32, 2-16 & 2-14 µg ml-1 for [I], [II] & [III] with BCG respectively, 5-35, 3-21 & 3-24 µg ml-1 for [I], [II] & [III] with BPB respectively, and in the ranges of 3-24, 2-14 & 2-16 µg ml-1 for [I], [II] & [III] with BTB respectively. Results obtained by using the proposed procedure were statistically analysed and compared with those obtained by reported method.

 

 

10/14 SYNTHESIS OF HETEROBICYCLIC NITROGENEOUS   SYSTEMS BEARING THE QUINOLINE MOIETY AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT

A.S.S. Salman and R.E. El-Atawy*

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of science, Girl’s Branch, Al-Azhar university, Nasr city, Cairo, A. R. Egypt.

*Department of Chemistry, Girl’s Education College, Tabouk, Saudi Arabia.

         Reaction of 4-methyl–2-quinolinone 1 with some reagents such as phenyl isothiocyanate, o-aminothiophenol, chloroacetamide and ethyl chloroacetate afforded the corresponding N-alkylsubstituted quinolin-2-ones 2 - 5 respectively. Treatment of 5 with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol afforded acid hydrazides 7. Treatment of 7 with different aldehydes , phenyl isothiocyanate, phthalic anhydride and carbon disulphide produced different hetero-cyclic compounds containing quinoline moiety .The structures of the new compounds confirmed by elemental analyses, spectroscopic measurements and chemical reactions. Some of the newly synthesized compounds showed interesting antibacterial and antifungal activities in vitro.

 

 

11/14 INCIDENCE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION ASSESSED BY FOUR DIFFERENT METHODS IN MAKKAH CITY (SAUDI ARABIA)

R.M. Milyani and A.A. Barhameen

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdalaziz University. Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

Data upon the incidence of infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are scanty and did not include Makkah Almukarramah city. The latter was hence determined among 289 patients living in Makkah city and complaining of different gastric abnormalities. The incidence of H. pylori infection was assessed by four diagnostic methods: culturing the gastric biopsy, serological test, rapid urease test and histopathological examination. Among the study group 102 gastric biopsies revealed positive cultures (35.29%), 241 blood samples revealed positive serology (83.39%), 169 biopsies revealed positive urease test (58.48%) and167 biopsies revealed positive by histopathology (57.79%). Significant differences were noted among most of the different methods used, in which serological test showed the highest incidence. In contrast, the same results were obtained when urease test was compared to histopathology (41.52% and 42.21%) respectively. On the other hand, there was significant difference between males and females where the prevalence of H. pylori was higher in males than females.

 

 

12/14 C-GLYCOSYL FLAVONE O-GLYCOSIDES OF CLERODENDRUM SPLENDENS g. Don. AND ANTI-OXIDANT ACTIVITY in schistosome- infected mice

M.F. Yousif* and N.S. El-Regal**

*Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, and **Medicinal Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

Two C-glycosyl flavone O-glycosides (I & II) were isolated for the first time from the leaves of Clerodendrum splendens G. Don. (Family Labiatae) cultivated in Egypt. These were identified as isovitexin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(I) and vitexin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(II). Identification of the isolated compounds was achieved by physicochemical and spectroscopic analyses, viz.: m.p., UV, 1H-NMR, and EI-MS. The aqueous fraction of the alcoholic extract as well as the flavone-containing fraction were found to possess antioxidant activity in schistosome-infected mice as was clear in restoring the value of lipid peroxides, reduced glutathione, levels of vitamins C and E and catalase activity to normal in the mice treated with the tested fractions.

13/14 CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF DURANTA REPENS L. GROWING IN EGYPT

A.H. Shehata and M.F. Yousif

   Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Egypt

Compounds I to VII were isolated from the alcoholic extract of the root bark of Duranta repens L. These were identified as β-sitosterol I, ursolic acid II, cinnamic acid III, p-methoxycinnamic acid IV and p-coumaric acid V. A quaternary base, namely choline VI wasisolated from the aqueous extract of the same plant. Moreover, a flavonoidal compound was isolated from the methanol extract of the flowers of Duranta repens L. It was identified as apigenin VII. Identification of the aforementioned compounds was carried out on bases of physicochemical characters and spectroscopic analyses, viz.: m.p., UV, EI-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Screening of antimicrobial as well as antitumor effect of alcoholic extracts of both organs was carried out.

 

14/14 LIPIDS AND COUMARINS OF FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL.AND F. DULCE DC.

F.M. Soliman, A.H. Shehata, A.E. Khaleel and S.M. Ezzat

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El-Ainy, Cairo, 11562, Egypt.

Four triterpenes and sterols namely:α-amyrin, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol-3-O-β-D-glucoside were isolated from the n-hexane extracts of the different organs of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and F. dulce DC. (Fam. Apiaceae) grown in Egypt. GLC analyses of the unsaponifiable matters of the different organs of F. vulgare Mill. and F. dulce DC. were carried out. n-Tetracosane was the major hydrocarbon in the fruits of F. vulgare Mill.(79.09 %), while n-decosane was the major hydrocarbon in both flowers (20.4 %) and leaves (39.15 %) of the same plant. n-Tetracosane, n-octacosane, n-eicosane and n-decosane, were the major hydrocarbons in the fruits (48.8 %), flowers (19.4 %), leaves (26.83%) and enlarged leaf bases (19.02 %) of F. dulce DC., respectively. Concerning the sterols, cholesterol was the major in the flowers, leaves and enlarged leaf bases of F. dulce DC. as well as flowers of F. vulgare Mill. It constituted 3.9, 14.2, 9.8 and 6.7 % of the unsaponifiable matter of the aforementioned samples, respectively. Meanwhile, stigmasterol was detected in the fruits, flowers and leaves of both plants, from which it was isolated in both free and glycosidic forms. Moreover, stigmasterol was the major sterol in the fruits of F. dulce DC., and fruits and leaves of F. vulgare Mill. It constituted 2.04, 0.69 and 3.21 %, respectively. On the other hand, β-sitosterol was detected in all the investigated organs of both plants with the highest percentage in the enlarged leaf bases of F. dulce DC. (9.74%), from which it was isolated in the free form. Comparative GLC analysis of the methylated fatty acid fractions revealed the highest percentage of unsaturated fatty acids in the fruits of F. vulgare Mill. reaching (74.6%) followed by leaves of F. vulgare Mill. (61.5 %) and leaves of F. dulce DC. (60.9 %). Meanwhile, it was relatively low reaching (32.7-36.8%) in the flowers of F. vulgare Mill., fruits, flowers and enlarged leaf bases of F. dulce DC.   It could be noticed that, caprioleic acid was the major fatty acid in the leaves of F. vulgare Mill. (35.5 %), while laurioleic acid (58.1%) and myristic acid (31.1 %) were the major in the fruits and flowers respectively. Concerning F. dulce DC., myristic acid was found the major fatty acid of the fruits (55.2 %) and flowers (21.4 %), caprioleic acid in the leaves (37.2%) and laurioleic acid in the enlarged leaf bases (25.2 %). Finally, the coumarin scopoletin was isolated for the first time from the chloroformic extracts of the leaves and flowers of F. vulgare Mill and roots of F. dulce DC.

 

15/14 PRODUCTION OF ERGOLINE ALKALOIDS IN RIVEA CORYMBOSA L. PLANT (CONVOLVULACEAE)

BY

N.S. Hassan, E. Hashem, G.H.Amine, Y. Hussein*,Y.A. El-Zawahry

and E. Leistner*

FROM

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt.

* Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology, Bonn University, Germany.

Ergoline alkaloids (EAs) were detected by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) in the endophytic fungi, which were isolated from Rivea corymbosa L. (Convolvulaceae) plants. Eight endophytic fungi were isolated from R. corymbosa leaves and stems, while the seeds (germinated on aseptic condition) were free from endophytic fungi. Ergometrine has been detected in the mycelium of Rcrf-03, Rcrs-06, and Penicillium brevicompactum and in fermentation broth of a submerged culture of Rcrf-03 only. The ergometrine content of Penicillium brevicompactum submerged culture increased markedly over that of Rcrf-03 and Rcrs-06. Lysergic acid amide (LSA) has been detected in the fermentation broth of submerged culture of Penicillium brevicompactum only. In contrast, CE results of other endophytic fungi (Rcrf-01, Rcrf-02, Rcrf-04, Rcrf-05 and Rcrs-07) show that no EAs have been detected in the mycelium or fermentation broth of their submerged cultures. It is suggested that there is a close association between the presence of endophytic fungi and the production of ergoline alkaloids in R. corymbosa plant.

 

16/14 MOLLUSCICIDAL ACTIVITY OF SYNADENIUM GRANTII (EUPHORBIACEAE) AGAINST BIOMPHALARIA ALEXANDRINA AND BULINUS TRUNCATUS THE INTERMEDIATE HOST SNAILS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN EGYPT AND THEIR INFECTIVITY WITH THE PARASITE

A.A. Tantawy, B.B. Mostafa and A.T. Sharaf El-Din

Environmental Researches and Medical Malacology Dep., Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, P.O. Box 30 Imbaba, Egypt.

The molluscicidal activity of aqueous suspension of the dry powdered leaves of Synadenium grantii (Euphorbiaceae) plant on Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus snails after 24 hours of exposure was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The results obtained indicated that the LC50 values for this plant were 56 ppm and 44 ppm and LC90 values were 88 ppm and 76 ppm for B. alexandrina and B. truncatus respectively. Sublethal concentrations of LC0, LC10 and LC25 were 5.6,17.5 and 30.0 ppm for B. alexandrina and 4.4, 16.8 and 28.8 ppm, for B. truncatus. Continuous maintaining of snails in the above sublethal concentrations (LC0, LC10 and LC25) of S. grantii led to an increase in mortality rate of the snails which was significantly higher than that of the control group. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), pyruvate kinase (PK) and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the hemolymph of treated Biomphalaria snails showed a highly significant reduction when compared to their levels in the control group and the the magnitude of the reduction increased with the increase of the concentration of the plant suspension. Hatchability of both snail species eggs exposed to sublethal concentrations of was decreased by increasing its concentrations and also by their age after laying. The effect of the tested sublethal concentrations of S. grantii on infection of B. alexandrina with S. mansoni miracidia was studied. The infection rate was significantly lower than that of control snails with reduction rates of 23.5%, 35.1% and 66.9% for snails exposed to LC0, LC10 and LC25, respectively. Prepatent period of exposed snails to LC0, LC10 and LC25 of Synadenium was prolonged to be 30.2 + 2.4, 32.4 + 2.1 and 34.6 + 3.1 days compared to 28.6 + 3.6 days for the control group. Meanwhile, the duration of cercarial shedding was significantly shortened, being 22.8 + 4.4, 18.3 + 4.9 and 10.5 + 3.8 days for LC0, LC10 and LC25, respectively, compared with 44.2 + 4.8 days for the control snails. Highly significant reductions of total cercarial production per snails and per stimulant were also detected in experimental snails in comparison with the control group.

17/14 INCIDENCE OF SALMONELLA SPP IN EGYPTIAN COMMERCIAL CHICKEN LUNCHEON.

U.M. Abdul-Raouf

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assuit 71524, Egypt.

From July to September 2003, the occurrence of Salmonella spp. was evaluated in 56 samples of commercial chicken luncheon produced by four-manufacturer in Egypt. Salmonella spp. were detected in 10 samples (17.85%) of the total collected samples. The Salmonella serotypes isolated from chicken luncheon were Salmonella virchow, Salmonella infantis and Salmonella enteritids. All Salmonellae isolates showed multiple antibiotics resistance patterns and were resistant to penicillin and vancomycin. One strain of Salmonella virchow showed resistance to 11 antibiotics used in this study. Because the incidence in the present study is based on only a small fraction number of chicken meat products samples at Assuit city, efforts should be directed toward implementation of hazard analysis and critical control points to reduce the incidence of Salmonella in such kind of foods, e.g luncheon, without relying on testing Salmonella. spp.

18/14 EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF BLACK SEEDS (FENNEL FLOWER) ON BLOOD GLUCOSE

CONCENTRATION IN RATS

S. Kotb*, A. Taher, A. Abou-Seif and E.A. Zaki

*Department of Pharmacognosy Faculty of Pharmacy (Boys), Al-Azhar University and Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine (Boys) Al-Azhar University

This ethnomedically-driven approach was used to evaluate the ability of different fractions isolated from the black seeds to lower plasma glucose concentration in alloxan-treated diabetic male rats. The results indicated that oral administration of the different ingredients of the plant (oil, saponin and alkaloid) in two dose levels produced significant fall in plasma glucose concentration when compared to control group. Also, oral administration of the powder seeds in two dose levels caused decline in plasma glucose concentration. The decline in plasma glucose concentration following black seeds treatment in diabetic rats was achieved without any change in plasma insulin concentration. These data raised the possibility that black seeds or even its different fractions represent a new approach to the pharmacological treatment of type II diabetes. From the present study and others, it can be suggested that the antihyperglycaemic effect of drugs from natural origin act through potentiation of the actions of insulin whether endogenous or even exogenous and not through stimulating its release from the pancreas.

 

19/14 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF SENECIO MIKANOIDES

O.D. El-Gindi – A.L. Kansoh*

Pharmacognosy Dept. Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University

* Microbial Chemistry Dept. National Research Center.

The chemical composition of the volatile constituents obtained from Senecio mikanoides Otto by hydrodistillation of were studied. The volatile oil was analyzed by GC-MS. The major components were identified as α-terpinolene, piperitone, Jasmone and Linalóol oxide. The investigation of the antimicrobial activities of the oil proved to be effective on Gram positive and gram negative bacteria, yeast and fungi.

 

 

20/14 SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI ADULT WORM ANTIGEN (SAWA) FRACTIONS RECOGNIZED BY LYMPHOCYTES OF INFECTED AND IMMUNIZED BABOONS

N. El-Gengihi, M.A. El-Demellawy*

FROM

VACSERA, Cairo, Egypt;

* Medial Biotechnology Department, Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology Research Institute (GEBRI), Mubarak City for Scientific Research & Technology Applications (MuCSAT)2, Alexandria, Egypt

Schistosomiasis is a complicated disease that affects more than 200 million people living in 76 tropical and subtropical countries. In spite of the important information provided by the intensive studies of murine model of schistosomiasis over the last three decades, no direct applicability of human infection was gained. The need for non human primate other than murine model to act as mirror to human situation became essential. It was reported that baboons are natural hosts for S. mansoni in East Africa. In the present study we aimed to identify soluble adult worm antigens (SAWA) fractions recognized by lymphocytes of infected and immunized baboons. The SAWA band of molecular mass (m) 62-60 kDa evokes a significant proliferative T cell response in out-bred and inbred mice immunized with irradiated cercariae of S. mansoni. In an attempt to confirm and extend this finding, the proliferative responses of baboons immunized with irradiated cercariae were tested against electro-separated SAWA proteins in T cell western assays. The array of SAWA bands eliciting proliferative responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was highly variable among different baboons. However, the band of m 62-60 kDa was found to induce significant proliferative responses in PBMC from the majority of immunized baboons. These results encourage us to further study the protective capacity of the 62-60 kDa schistosome molecule.

 

21/14 THE ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF TRICHODERMA HARAZIANUM AGAINST SOME PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI

M.S. El-Katatny

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, El-Minia University 61519, Egypt

The possible biological control of some phytopathogenic fungi by Trichoderma species was investigated in vitro. In dual cultures of different Trichoderma spp. against phytopathogenic fungi, T. harzianum (T24) exhibited the greatest biocontrol activity. Culture filtrates of Trichoderma spp. were inhibitory against Sclerotium rolfsii whereas no inhibitory effect was detected on Fusarium oxysporum. The degree of inhibition against S. rolfsii was, however, dependent on the carbon source incorporated into the medium. The higest inhibitory effect of T. harazianum culture filterate was obtained when chitin was used as carbon source. S. rolfsii daily growth rate was inhibited (25.8%) by the culture filtrate of T. harzianum grown on culture medium containing chitin as a sole carbon source (0.5 %). However, the addition of glucose together with chitin, reduced the inhibitory effect by 50%. When chitin or laminarin was used as a carbon source T. harzianum (T24) produced high concentrations of antifungal metabolites in liquid medium at 25oC. However, the concentrations of these metabolites decreased with the increase of incubation temperature. Moreover, the concentrations of the antifungal metabolites increased with incubation time. Filtrates from shaken cultures of T. harzianum had more inhibitory effect on the growth rate of S. rolfsii than those from still cultures. Concentrated filtrates (5X) of culture filtrate precipitated by (NH4)2SO4 (75%) produced more inhibitory effect (61.8 %) against S. rolfsii compared with crude culture filtrate. However, when the concentrated sample was heated the inhibitory effect was reduced to 45%. Daily growth rate of F. oxysporum was inhibited (15-24%) by the same concentrated sample of T. harzianum culture filterate. On the other hand, the daily growth rate of T. harazianum was not affected by its culture filtrate.

 

 

22/14 TRANSFUSION-TRANSMITTED VIRUS (TTV) IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LIVER DISEASE

A.M. El Said, E.A. Abdelaziz* and G.H. Bashat**

Tropical Medicine, *Pediatrics and **Clinical Pathology Departments,

Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University

Egypt is an area of high endemicity for viral hepatitis. Transfusion transmitted virus (TTV) is transfusion-transmissible but its involvement in post-transfusion hepatitis is uncertain. This study was done to investigate the potential association of TTV with hepatitis B and C related chronic liver disease, and to assess the correlation between TTV viremia and hepatic damage. The present study included 75 patients with chronic liver disease, and 45 healthy blood donors as a control group. Blood samples for virological and routine biochemical tests were drawn from all patients and controls. The chronic liver disease group included 64 patients with hepatitis C, 11 with hepatitis B. Patients were classified according to Child Pugh grading into grade A (42 patients), B (20 patients), and C (13 patients). Liver biopsy was done in 23 (30%) patients. Presence of TTV DNA was detected using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results showed that TTV DNA was detected in 35 (46%) patients with chronic liver disease and 11 (24%) healthy blood donors (p < 0. 01). Six of the 11 (54%) patients with hepatitis B, 29 of 64 (45%) of those with hepatitis C-related chronic liver disease were positive for TTV DNA. No significant increase in serum ALT or AST was detected in the TTV positive compared with TTV negative healthy blood donors or patients with chronic liver disease. Also there was no significant differences in the rate of TTV infection among patients with Child B (45%) or C (46%) compared to those with Child A (45%) P>0.05, and   the histological features of the liver biopsy among patients who were positive or negative for TTV infection P>0.05. These observations suggested that there was no significant association between TTV infection and hepatic injury. We concluded that TTV was more frequently found in patients with HCV and HBV related chronic liver disease Than in healthy blood donors. However, there was no significant association between TTV infection and liver injury.

 

 

23/14 ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF THE PETROLEUM ETHER CONTENT OF CITRUS RETICULATA SEEDS GROWING IN EGYPT

M.H. Hetta*, O.D. El-Gindi** and M.M. Ali***

* Pharmaceutical Industries Research Division, Chemistry of Natural Products Department, National Research Centre, 12622 Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

** Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, El Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

*** Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, Biochemistry Department,National Research Centre, 12622 Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

Determination of the effect of the petroleum ether (P.E.) content of Citrus reticulata Blanco cuv.baladi on solid tumor development, on ascites tumor model, on Autochthonous mammary carcinoma, on cervix (Hela) and breast (MCF-7) human cancer cell lines showed reduction in tumor volume of Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) or Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) cells. The plant extract increased the percentage in life span (%ILS) of ascites tumor harboring mice and has growth inhibitory effect against Hela and MCF-7cell lines.It causes also reduction in the volume of Autochthonous mammary carcinoma. Five major compounds of the petroleum ether extract were isolated and identified. Three limonoids: limonin, isolimonexic acid methyl ether and the third limonoid (Hortiolide B), was tentavively identified. And two steroids: β-sitosteryl-3-O-glucoside and stigmast-7-en-3-ol.

 

24/14 LIPID CONTENT AND CYTOTOXIC DITERPENES FROM TAXODIUM SPECIES GROWN IN EGYPT

M.S. Ahmed, F.S. El-Sakhawy, S.N. Soliman and D.M.R. Abou-Hussein

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University,

Kasr El-Ainy, Cairo, 11562, Egypt.

GLC analysis of the petroleum ether extract of the feminine cones of Taxodium mucronatum Ten. and Taxodium distichum L. Rich. revealed that the unsaponifiable matter contains a series of hydrocarbons (98.77% and 92.85 %, respectively), cholesterol (0.62% and 1.91%, respectively) and β-amyrin (0.61% and 5.24%, respectively) while the saponifiable fraction contains a mixture of saturated (27.08% and 26.72%, respectively) and unsaturated fatty acids (72.92% and 73.72%, respectively). The extracts of both species exhibited a high activity in vitro against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. Three diterpenes viz. taxodione, ferruginol and sugiol have been isolated from the petroleum ether extract of the feminine cones of T. mucronatum Ten. and proved a significant activity in vitro against the same tumor cell line. Taxodione with the highest activity on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, was tested in vitro against two human cell lines: hepatocellular carcinoma and breast carcinoma cell lines and produced a significant activity.

 


25/14 BONELIKE APATITE FORMATION INDUCED ON CERAMIC COMPOSITE BY BIOMIMETIC PROCESS

H.H. Beheri

National Research Center, Ceramics Depart. , Dokki. Cairo, Egypt

Much worldwide research activities are focused on the improvement of the in-vivo stability of ceramic biomaterials to yield longer lifetimes in the human body for a variety of bioengineering devices applications including hip and dental prostheses. The objective of the present study is to investigate the degradation of SiO2/hydroxyapatite composites in the growth media and study the bone bonding ability by forming hydroxyl-carbonate apatite layer (bonelike apatite) on surface of composites. Hydroxyapatite, containing 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt % of SiO2, were prepared by solid state reaction. The composites were soaked in the growth media for 1, 2, 3, 4and 5 days. The kinetics of dissolution of calcium and phosphorus ions in growth media were measured by atomic absorption. The changes of the structure of composites after soaking were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The morphology of a non-stoichiometric apatite on the surface of composites, soaked for 5 days, was also examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDAX. The results prove that the surface reactions for hydroxyapatite low SiO2 content were slower than those for high SiO2 content in the same growth media. Dissolution of Ca and P ions from composites containing SiO2 and β- tricalcium phosphate is higher than their values in the hydroxyapatite composites. From the FT-IR and SEM results the formation of hydroxy-carbonate apatite thin layer (bonelike apatite) was observed on the surface of composites.

26/14 PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CALCIUM PHOSPHATE CERAMICS FOR BIOMEDICAL USES

H. Beheri

National Research Center, Ceramics Dept., Dokki. Cairo, Egypt

Calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate) bioceramics closely resemble in chemical composition, those found in vivo in human bones. Pure calcium hydroxyapatite (HA,(Ca10 (PO4)6 (OH)2) and beta-tricalcium phosphate, beta-TCP,Ca3 (PO4)2 bioceramic powders have been synthesized via chemical precipitation techniques. Compositions with a Ca/P molar ratios between 1.667 and 1.5 were synthesized and subjected to a thermal treatment up to 1250ºC. Powder characterization was assessed by XRD, FTIR ,TEM and SEM. The hydroxyapatite and β-triclcium phosphate produced submicron particles from the same starting materials by wet method. The hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate produced submicron particles from the same starting materials by wet method.

 

27/14 ASSESSMENT OF LIPID PEROXIDE AND SOME PROTECTIVE ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

A.T. Moawad*, N.A. El-Nashar** and E.M. Nassar*

Pediatrics Research Unit* and Clinical Pathology Research Unit**

Health Radiation Research Department

   National Center for Radiation Research and Technology

Leukemia is a clonal disturbance of hematopiotic cells characterized by disturbance in antioxidant defense mechanisms resulting in increased lipid peroxidation. Blood picture, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and erythrocytic glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) were studied in25 children ( 17males and 8 females) with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), at both diagnosis and remission stages .They were diagnosed in the Hematology-Oncology Unit, Children's Hospital Ain-Shams University. Their ages varied between 3-14 years with mean of 6.9 + 2.5 years. Fifteen healthy control subjects matched in age and sex served as controls. The results revealed a highly significant decrease in hemoglobin at diagnosis compared to the control group, but at remission, the mean level of Hb was significantly increased (10.74 ± 1.14 g/dL ) than that of the active phase (8.22±2.28 g/dL) and significantly less than control value (12.8 ± 1.17 g/dL). the mean value of total leukocytic counts (TLC ) at diagnosis showed a very highly significant increase (24.23 ± 11.53 ×109 / L) when compared to control subject (6.30 ± 1.14 ×109 / L). Although the difference in the mean TLC was not significant at remission stage compared to controls, it was significantly lower than that of patients at diagnosis stage (P<0.05). Regarding MDA the mean value at diagnosis was significantly higher (P< 0.001) than both values of control and remission. However, the difference between remission and controls children was not significant. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase recorded very high significant decrease (SOD: 744.80 ± 164.33 U/g Hb, GSH-PX: 33.50 ± 12.12 U/g Hb) at diagnosis stage when compared to control (SOD:1358.33 ± 253.31 U/g Hb , GSH-PX:61.25 ± 16.84 U/g Hb ), At remission, the mean Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase values were significantly higher than the values at diagnosis. While, there were no significant changes comparing to the control group. Also, there were significant positive correlations between TLC and MDA, and significant negative correlations between TLC and SOD, GSH-PX at diagnosis and remission stages. In conclusion, estimation of the level of MDA and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GSH-PX) in ALL children before and during treatment could be of help in early detection of disease activity, response of treatment and to predict the chance of relapse

 

 

28/14 STERILIZATION AND BIOACTIVITY STUDY OF BIOCERAMIC AFTER EXPOSURE TO GAMMA IRRADIATION

H.H. Beheri; O.S. Desouky* and H.A. Farrag**

Ceramic Department , National Research Center .

*Physics Radiation Department, 3Drug Radiation Research Department . Lab. of Microbiology, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology. Cairo, Egypt.

Since the use of the bioactive ceramics as implant in the body, is associated with a risk of bacterial colonization of these materials and subsequent failure of the implant. The aim of the work herein is to the study the microbial decontamination by gamma irradiation and antimicrobial activity of the composite to use as antimicrobial drug. Also, examination of the effect of gamma radiation on the formation of bone like apatite of immersed samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) after the exposure to gamma irradiation was investigated. This was carried out by using Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For microbial decontamination of composite was obtained by gamma radiation and microbial activity was tested for samples before and after irradiation . The analysis of the surface showed that changes in the structure and shape of the bone like apatite after irradiation especially at higher dose. The results of microbial study, showed that a dose of 75 Gary., is being sufficient to eliminate all types of microorganisms contaminate the tested samples.

 

29/14 PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF STRENGTHENED CALCIUM PHOSPHATE FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICA TIONS.

H.H. Beheri and N.M. Khalil

National Research Centre, Ceramic Depart., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

Hydroxyapatite has been heavily studied and extensively applied in orthopedic applications owing to its biocompatibility and bioactivity which allow the tissue to grow and attach onto its surface. There is a great need to produce materials with bioactivity, biocompatibility and higher mechanical properties than sintered hydroxyapatite. The aim of this work is creating a new composites of SiO2/ HA with improvement of mechanical properties and bioactivity. The improvement of mechanical properties of HA with reinforcement of 5 to 20 wt % of silica with firing temperature, were studied. The developed phase was performed by XRD and SEM before immersion in human serum. The study of the bioactivity of selected composites after immersion in human serum, were performed by measuring the Ca, P and total protein. The bone like apatite was obtained on the surface using scanning electron microscopy. The SiO2 additive to hydroxyapatite has been tested in order to enhance the mechanical and bioactivity properties. The SiO2 could be incorporated in the microstructure of composites by liquid phase process which causes higher densification, recentralization and accelerates the transformation of hydroxyapatite to tricalcium phosphate at 1000ºC. The bioactivity is improved by adding the SiO2 to HA by formation of bone like apatite on their surface, especially for high SiO2content

 

 

30/14 PROTECTION & TREATMENT BY TAURINE AGAINST THE ACTION OF FOOD ADDITIVE (MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE) ADMINISTRATION IN FEMALE RATS.

A. Abd El-Maguid.

Dept. of Health Radiation Research. National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo, Egypt.

The present work has been carried out to detect some histological and histochemical changes in kidney of rats after oral administration of the food additive monosodium glutamate (20mg/100gm.b.wt./d).The possible ameliorative effect of taurine orally administered (20mg/100gm. b.wt./d) was evaluated by its administration to rats before and after receiving monosodium glutamate. The results revealed that oral administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG) to adult female rats caused necrotic changes of the renal tubules with intralumenal cellular cast, dilatation of Bowmans capsule with albuminous materials, focal mononuclear cells aggregation, congestion of blood vessels, necrosis of the epithelial lining of renal pelvis with mononuclear cell infiltration in lamina propria and decrease in PAS and succinic dehydrogenase enzyme activity. The group of rats protected with taurine (20mg/100gm b.wt./d) before receiving MSG (20mg/100gm b.wt/d) exerted marked amelioration of the histopathological and histochemical changes indicating a beneficial role of taurine in hindering the side toxic effect of monosodium glutamate. Taurine administered orally (20mg/100gm b.wt/d) after receiving monosodium glutamate (20gm/100gm B.wt/d) showed less improvement in the histopathological and histochemical changes in the kidney.

 

 

31/14 THE HISTOPATHOLOGICAL DAMAGE IN DONKEY’S STOMACH DUE TO INFESTATION OF GASTEROPHILUS INTESTINALIS

A. Abd El Maguid* and A. Osman**

*National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt.

**Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Pathology Department, Cairo University.

Serious histopathological changes were observed in the stomach of donkeys caused by the parasite Gasterophilus intestinalis. The larval stage of this insect species remains attached to the donkey’s stomach wall for a long period of time, (eight to nine months). Donkeys and horses are of extremely great economic importance. They are often subjected to parasitic infestation, e.g. by nematodes, protozoa or endoparasitic insects. In the present work, the histological investigation of the donkeys stomach showed clearly that the parasite caused serious histopathological damage to the stomach as hydropic degeneration, hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, necrosis and ulceration of gastric epithelium, also inflammation of lamina propria which became highly vascular and infiltrated with inflammatory cells such as eosinphils, lymphocytes and macrophages.

 

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