Vol. 15, July, 2004.


M.S. Ashour; T.R. Elkhamisy*; M.A. Badar, H. Mansour** and M.F. Darweesh*

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University Cairo and Assiut*

Abassia Fever Hospital**

Salmonella is an important genus that causes a wide variety of dangerous infections including diarrheal syndromes and typhoid fever. In this work we have studied different methods for isolation and diagnosis of Salmonella infection. This study included 303 patients forming three groups: Group I: comprised of 53 patients admitted to Assiut Fever Hospital and clinically suspected to be typhoid fever cases. Patients of this group had not received antibiotics prior to admission to the hospital. Blood samples were taken from each patient for blood culture and for Widal and tubex serological tests. Blood culture was positive for 27 patients (51%), Widal test was positive for 28 patients of those 20 were positive by blood culture. Tubex test was positive for 28 patients of those 26 were positive for blood culture. The sensitivity of Widal and tubex versus blood culture was found 74% and 96.3%, while the specificity was 69.2% and 92.3% respectively. Group II: Comprised of 200 patients, suffering from repeated attacks of prolonged fever. Patients of this group had taken antibiotics before admission to the hospital. Blood culture, stool culture and Widal test were done for each patient. Blood culture was positive for 24 patients (12%), Widal test was positive for 77 patients (38.5%), while stool culture was positive for 21 patient (10.5%). The sensitivity and specificity of Widal test in group II versus blood culture was found to be 66.6% and 64.3% respectively, with a positive predictivity 20.7% and negative predictivity 93.2%. While the sensitivity and specificity of stool culture versus blood culture was found to be 33.3% and 92.5% respectively with a positive predictive value 38.1% and negative predictive value 90.9%. Group III: comprised of 50 patients admitted to Assiut Fever Hospital suffering from diarrhea. Stool culture was done for each patient and Salmonella was recovered from 11 cases (22%).



M.S. Ashour, T.R. Elkhamisy*, M.A. Badar, and M.T. Salim*

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University Cairo and Assiut*

Mycobacteria are responsible for considerable human morbidity and mortality worldwide. M. tuberculosis infects 1.7 billion people and causes 3 million death each year (Haas and Des Prez, 1995). The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has increased dramatically since 1986 following an earlier decline (Bloom and Murry, 1992), concomitantly a significant increase in the number of drug-resistant cases of TB has also been observed. Therefore it is essential to study the distribution of TB in the community of Assiut governorate. Also it is essential to study the susceptibility of the isolated strains to the different antituberculous drugs for proper therapy selection and for success of treatment. Clinical samples of sputum were taken and processed for Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining and cultivation on Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium. The samples were decontaminated according to Petroff’s sodium hydroxide method (Kent and Kubica 1985), and stained by acid-fast then, examined microscopically.The cultivation was done on LJ medium and incubated at 37 ºC and high carbon dioxide tension for a period of 8 weeks. The positive samples were collected and the isolated strains were tested for their susceptibility to five antituberculous drugs, isoniazid (INH), 0.2 ug/ml; rifampicin (Rif), 1ug/ml; streptomycin (SM), 2ug/ml; pyrazinamid (Pza), 25ug/ml and cycloserine, 30ug/ml. The susceptibility test was carried out according to the indirect method (Kent and Kubica 1985). In this study, we have obtained 56 acid-fast positive cases from a total number of 500 cases admitted to Assuit Chest Hospital suffering from chest infection. These positive cases were 11 female (19.6%) and 45 male (80.4%), with age ranging from 14-52 years old. Out of these 56 acid-fast positive cases, there were 50 positive cultures, of which 37 (74%) gave positive culture in a period of 3-4 weeks and 13 (26%) gave positive culture in a period more than 4 weeks. The percentage of resistance to SM, INH, Rif, Pza and cycloserine were forund to be 16%, 10%, 8%, 12% and 18% respectively. Finally, we concluded that acid-fast stain along with culture of TB are still important for isolation and identification in low-income countries, also, there was a considerable percent of resistant strains of TB in Assuit governorate.


M.S. Ashour; T.R. El-Khamissy*; K.A. El-Ghareeb and M.Y. Ali*

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University Cairo and Assiut

There is a growing dependence nowadays on infantile milk formula as breast feeding substitute also, there is growing consumption of baby foods and on the other hand the use of cows and buffaloes milk for infant feeding is not uncommon. Since infants are highly vulnerable to food-borne illness, assessment of microbial quality of these products is of extreme importance and should be of the first concern to bacteriologist. The objective of this study is to assess the incrimination of some pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria spp. in such food products. Different media have been used, such as Baird-parker, polymyxin-pyruvate-egg-yolk-mannitol-bromo thymol blue-agar (PEMBA) and listeria oxford agar for isolation of S. aureus, B. cereus and Listeria spp. respectively. From 148 various food samples a total number of 49 pathogenic isolates were isolated and identified. B. cereus strains were isolated from infantile milk formula at rate of 42% (21 out of 50 samples) and from other baby foods at isolation rate of 28.6% followed by S. aureus which was isolated from raw milk at rate of 24%, canned dried or liquid pasteurized milk at rate of 22% and from cheese samples at rate of 22%. Listeria spp. were isolated at low rate from raw milk (4%) and cheese (11%). From this study, we concluded that, special care should be made for various types of baby food to control pathogenic microbial contamination.

4/15 Microbiological And Molecular study on Staphylococci isolated from clinical samples collected from some hospitals in El-Minia governorate

G.F. M. Gad*, R.M. Abd El-Baki*, A.F. Abd El-Ghaffar***, M.S. E. Ashour**, and R.A. A. El-Domany*

Microbiology Departments, Faculty of Pharmacy, El-Minia University*, El-Azhar University **, and Faculty of Medicine, El-Minia University ***

In the present work 201 clinical staphylococcal strains were isolated and identified from 405 different clinical samples (49.6%) collected from patients attending some hospitals in El-Minia governorate. Staphylococcus aureus represented 35.8 % while Staphylococcus epidermidis represented 13.8 %. Susceptibility testing of the isolated Staphylococci to different antibiotics was carried out. The results revealed that Staphylococci are highly resistant to β-lactams where the resistance to penicillin was 89.6% in Staphylococcus aureus and 76.7% in Staphylococcus epidermidis. High resistance was also shown against Ampicillin where 80.7 % of Staphylococcus aureus and 69.6% of Staphylococcus epidermidis were resistant to ampicillin. Amikacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and gentamicin showed the highest activity where the resistance of the tested Staphylococcal strains against these antibiotics was 2, 6.2, 9, 10.3, and 12.4% respectively. Resistance to tetracycline, rifampicin, and vancomycin were 51.7%, 42.1%, and 13.2% respectively. Of the isolated Staphylococci, 22% were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and 17.9 % were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE).The resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis to vancomycin were 13.2 and 14.3% respectively. Β-lactamase detection was carried out and the results revealed that 56.4% of the tested Staphylococcus aureus and 64.1% of Staphylococcus epidermidis were Β-lactamase producers. Plasmid profile for Β-lactamase producing strains revealed that some of these strains were harbouring plasmids and others not. Curing experiments were carried out using ethidium bromide where plasmid encoded B-lactamases were cured and plasmidless B-lactamase producing isolates were not cured. Transfer of antibiotic resistance among Staphylococcus aureus strains in liquid culture was carried out through conjugation. The results showed that the resistance of penicillin was transferred from a Staphylococcus aureus strain (which was penicillin resistant- gentamicin sensitive – ciprofloxacin Sensitive) to another strain (which was resistant to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin but penicillin sensitive). The results indicate that the transfer of antibiotic resistance determinants among the tested strains is possible and this transfer might be occurred by conjugative plasmids or transposons. The resistance pattern of the transconjugants was similar to that of the recipient strains except that the transconjugants were resistant to penicillin


A.S. Awaad and G.A. Soliman*

Aromatic and Medicinal Plant Department Desert Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

*Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary, Cairo University, Egypt.

The phytochemical investigation of Casimiroa edulis Llave et Lex (Rotaceae), afforded three coumarins; scopoletin, esculetin and xanthotoxol and 3 flavonoids identified as quercetin, quercetin -3-O- rutinoside (Rutin), and quercetin -3-O-D-galactopyranosid (hyperesoide). The identification of these compounds was achieved by m.p., UV, EI-Mass, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, and co-chromatographed with authentic references. Quantitative estimation of the total flavonoids was carried out using spectrophotometric method. Essential oils were analysed by GLC, GC/MS, 60 components were identified, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons showed the major make up of the oil. The microbiological screening of the oil and plant successive fractions were carried out and showed activity against some microorganisms. Cytotoxic activity of the ethanolic extract against human tumour cell lines U251 and MCF7 (brain tumour and breast carcinoma cell lines, respectively) and pharmacological screening was carried out to determine the biological activity of the plant under investigation



W.A. Emam, D.A. Radwan, I. El-Maghawry, A.SE.EL Motayam*,

H.S. Abd-Rahman** and A.F. Zeid***

Departments of Biochemistry, *Neurology, **Internal Medicine and ***Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University

Leukoaraiosis (LA), a term that defines an abnormalappearance of the subcortical white matter of the brain on neuroimaging, but its clinical relevance and pathogenesis remain unclear. Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated esterase with a hypothesized role in the protection of low density lipoproteins (LDL) from oxidative stress, hence changing PON1 activity might contribute to accelerated development of atherosclerosis. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the significance of LA and the role of PON1 activity and its phenotype distribution in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The study included 120 unrelated AIS patients with a mean age of 52.6±13.2 years and twenty sex and age matched unrelated apparently healthy subjects served as controls. According to the results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the patients were divided into two subgroups: patients with LA (n=18), and those without (n=102). The enzyme activities were measured spectrophotometrically with paraoxon and phenylacetate as substrate for PON1and arylesterase, respectively with estimation of phenotype distribution within 48 hours from stroke onset. One month later, the functional status was measured using a 5 point scale and another determination of serum PON1activity for the living patients was done. The PON1 activity was significantly lower in AIS patients with LA than in AIS without LA (P<0.001), and in AIS patients without LA than in controls (p<0.001). The altered PON1 activity was not due to decrease in HDL or apolipoprotien A-1(Apo-A1) levels and not related to differences in phenotypic distribution. After one month PON1activity was significantly increased (p<0.05) in AIS patients with and without LA compared with the PON1 activity at the stroke onset, but it was lower than the control group. The outcome of the patients one month after stroke was influenced by the presence of LA. The incidence of severe disability (11.1%) and death (5.6%) were higher in the LA group than in those without and patients without LA had a better outcome as regards complete recovery (27.4%) and mild disability (40.2%) than in LA group. In Conclusion,   AIS Patients with LA had the worst prognosis. The reduced PON1 activity in these patients either at the onset of stroke or one month later may give rise to decreased HDL antioxidant capacity, LDL modification contributing to accelerated development of atherosclerosis, and small vessel related-leukoaraiosis. The low PON1 activity may be related to circulating inhibitors. Therefore, interventions that preserve or enhance PON1 activity may have a role in prevention of this disorder.


A.S. Gad* and A.M. Saad,

*Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Products Department,

Microbial Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki. Cairo, Egypt.

Six and 5-days old mycelium of Aspergillus parasiticus auxotorphs are very difficult to be digested even in the presence of 10 mg / ml lytic enzyme whereas 3days old mycelium yielded the highest amounts of protoplast. Data showed that 0.3M Ca Cl2 is the recommended osmoticum compared with both sucrose and KCl capable to enhance the yield of protoplast. Also, the best yield of protoplast was obtained using the comcentration of lytic engyme of 8my/ml after 40min. at 30°C. as well; 1M sorbitol was recommended as an efficient enhancer of protoplast regeneration.


H.M. El Kholy and M.A. Ahmed*

Department of Biochemislry, Department of General Surgery*

Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University

Breast cancer remains the most common cancer among women in many countries. Lack of symptoms in the early stage of disease results in consequent delay in diagnosis and results in poor overall survival. Approximately more than 700.000 breast cancer patients are diagnosed in the whole world annually and it remains the leading cause of death among women aged 40 to 50 years. A number of proto-oncogenes, activated oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, have been detected in epithelial tissues. Expression of proto-oncogene product may be useful in estimating prognosis or in providing target for noval therapy. HER-2/neu is an oncogene-encodes a transmembrane glycoprotein of 185 KD that contains extra-cellular ligand-building domain and intracellular tyrosine kinase activity that may function as receptor for growth regulating molecule of breast cancer. Amplification and over expression of HER­2/neu may have several important clinical implications such as a prognostic factor in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer as well as a predictive factor for resistance to endocrine therapy and in selecting the most appropriate adjuvant chemotherapy. Materials and Methods this study was performed on 2 groups of individuals: A group of breast cancer patients (n=29) presenting with different stages of disease and a group of normal healthy controls (n=15). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for the extracellular domain of HER-2/neu oncogene product was used to detect HER-2/neu over-expression in serum. Immunohistochemical technique was used to determine HER-2/neu over-expression in tissue. Results: The results obtained from both sera and tissue tumor marker were correlated with traditional diagnostic and prognostic markers for breast cancer as well as the possible risk factors. Our study confirmed HER-2/neu over expression in (41.4%) of cancer breast group. The serum level of HER-2/neu in this group (+ve c-erbβ-2) increased significantly than (-ve c-erbβ-2) group. This showed the role of blood tumour marker measurement as an easy and non invasive method for early diagnosis of breast cancer. Serum HER-2/neu increased significantly in breast cancer group than control group. There is no significant correlation between HER-2/neu immunopositivity and age in breast cancer group. There is a significant correlation between HER-2/neu and lymph node metastasis with no marked correlation with tumor grade. There is also a significant correlation between HER-2/neu over expression in serum and menopausal status. Conclusion: HER-2/neu could be considered as a good marker and a reliable prognostic factor which would be highly useful in predicting the long term outcome of patients and for a better planning of adjuvant chemotherapy regimen.


A.E.M. Khaleel

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr Elainy street, Cairo 11562,Egypt.

The hydrodistilled volatiles of the flowers of Carum carvi L., Coriandrum sativum L. and Pimpinella anisum L. were analyzed by GC/MS. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were released in relatively high proportions (51.9%) from the flowers of C. carvi L. followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (39.38%) with limonene (37.64%), γ-cadinene (30.1%), β-selinene (10.59%) and β-elemene (6.74%) as main components. The aliphatic oxygenated compounds totally dominated the volatiles of C. sativum L., (94.37%); the aldehydes being the major (66.18%), followed by esters (9.58%), acids (9.05%) and alcohols (7.99%). Among detected aldehydes cis-2-decenal was the major (33.83 %), followed by 2-dodecenal (10.68%), 2-tetradecenal (7.29%) and n-decanal (5.35%). On the other hand trans-anethole (94.74%) represented the major constituent of the volatiles of P. anisum L.. The hydrodistillates of the flowers of Carum carvi L., Coriandrum sativum L. and Pimpinella anisum L. showed 100% inhibition of cell viability of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma at all tested concentrations (100, 50 and 25 μg/ml). In addition, they exerted a cytotoxic activity on the two tested human tumor cell lines. The volatile oil of Pimpinella anisum L. was the most effective against U251 (brain tumor cell line) and that of Coriandrum sativum L. against Hepg2 (liver carcinoma cell line).


R.F.J. Al-Thani#, R.R. Amin, A.M. Al-Marri* and I.S. Al-Naimi

#Agricultural Sciences Unit, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Qatar, Doha, Qatar

*Qatar Petrochemical for Additives (QAFAC), Doha, P.O.Box 22700, Qatar

A series of thiosemicarbazide derivatives were synthesized and tested for antibacterial activities against Gram negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa species and gram-positive Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The new synthesized compounds were characterized using the spectral methods of analysis. The results indicate that the chlorinated compounds of bis-thiosemicarbazide showed a good antibacterial effect.

11/15 Effect of Aminoguanidine on Lipid peroxidation and Reduced glutathione in hepatic and renal Tissues of Mice

H.A. El-Beshbishy, A.D. Mariee, M.M. El-Shafey and M.A. Mansour

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (Boys), Al-Azhar University,

Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

The present investigation focused on the effects of oral administration of different doses of aminoguanidine (AG) on lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione content in hepatic and renal tissues of normal mice. The animals were divided at random into 6 groups of 10 animals each. All animals, except the control group, received AG in drinking water, with different doses (50, 100, 150, 200 and 300 mg/kg/day p.o.), for 5 successive days. The first three treated groups, produced significant reduction of lipid peroxides, that was measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in hepatic and renal tissue homogenates. However, the selected doses of AG did not influenced reduced glutathione content in hepatic and renal tissues. Our data may explain at least partly the reported beneficial in vivo protective effects of AG through its antioxidant properties.



A.A. Abd-ElBary, A.M.A. Makky and A. Khames

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) were utilized to investigate the compatibility between the calcium channel blocker, amlodipine besylate (AM) and fifteen tablet and capsule excipients as part of a preformulation study. The physical mixtures of drug/excipients in 1:1 ratio were prepared and tested. AM was found to be compatible with Ac-Di-Sol®, maize starch, sodium starch glycolate, Sta-Rx 1500®, magnesium stearate and talc powder. The drug proved incompatible with polyvinyl pyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30). Aerosil®, PVP K90, Avicel® PH 101 and Ludipress® could be considered compatible with the drug with reservation. On the other hand, it is better to avoid formulation of AM with Tablettose® and dibasic calcium phosphate until further conclusive studies are performed.



S.A. Nour, S.Y. Amin, A.M. Makky and H.K. Ibrahim.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Casein-gelatin microspheres of pyridostigmine bromide (PDB) were prepared by the emulsification extraction method and cross-linked after microspheres isolation. Post-synthesis cross-linking was achieved both chemically and physically. Three casein to gelatin (w/w) ratios namely, one to nine, two to eight and three to seven were tried at a fixed drug to polymer ratio of one to one. The higher the casein concentration, the lower the microspheres percentage yield, drug content and drug release rate. Statistical analysis of the particle size data revealed that increasing the casein concentration increased the mean particle size. The drug loading efficiencies were in the range of (85.4-93.5) percent. Uncross-linked casein-gelatin microspheres released one hundred percent of their drug loading within one hour. Chemical cross-linking with aqueous glutaraldehyde solution decreased the drug release rate markedly regardless of its concentration. Physical cross-linking in a microwave oven was able to control the drug release reasonably. The prepared microspheres were able to mask the bitter taste of the drug and to stabilize it against moisture uptake on storage under stress conditions for six months.


N.D. Mortada, G.A. Awad and R.O. Ahmed

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

In the present work, the factorial design was applied as a tool for choosing suitable excipients for formulating the antihistaminic drug, loratadine, in hard gelatin capsules. The influence of the diluents (Avicel PH-101® and Lactose Fast Flo®), disintegrants (crospovidone and Explotab®) and lubricants (Aerosil® and magnesium stearate) was investigated using a 23 factorial design. The studied parameters were the tapped density, Hausner’s ratio, Carr’s index and the angle of repose of the prepared powder mixtures as well as the extent of dissolution of the prepared hard gelatin capsules in McIlvaine citrate buffer (pH 2.6). The similarity factor was used for the statistical analysis of the dissolution profiles of the different formulae in 0.1N HCl (pH 1.2). The results showed that for the preparation of loratadine hard gelatin capsules, the use of Lactose Fast Flo® as a diluent with Aerosil® as a lubricant in combination with either crospovidone or Explotab® as disintegrant offers a formula which possesses good flow properties and acceptable dissolution characteristics.



R.M. Milyani and R.A. Mahfouz*

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz

University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and *Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

The aerobic and anaerobic microbial flora of the nasopharynx of 94 patients suffering from acute otitis media was investigated in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. The ear discharge of the same patients was simultaneously cultured to correlate between the isolated microorganisms from both sites. The patients were divided into five groups according to age and sex. 17 aerobic species and 3 anaerobic species were isolated from the study group in different percent in relation to age and sex. Some of the organisms that were simultaneously isolated from nasopharynx and ear discharge were Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli (100%), followed by Haemophilus influenzae (94.1%) Staphylococcus aureus (86.9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (85.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Moraxella catarrhalis (75%), non-hemolytic streptococci (72.7%), Acinetobacter sp. (66.7%), Streptococcus pyogenes (61.5%) and Candida albicans (44.4%). On the other hand the most prevalent organisms encountered among the two years old breast fed infants were coagulase negative staphylococci (27.3%) in both sites, viridans streptococci (27.3%) from the nasopharynx and 9.1% form the ear discharge; Haemophilus influenzae (18.2%); Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans (9.1%) from both sites respectively where as 22.2% of the bottle fed infants yielded Staphylococcus aureus from both sites; 22.2% Streptococcus pneumoniae and Acinetobacter sp. From ear discharge and 22.2% yielded Candida albicans form nasopharynx only. Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae were detected in both sites (27.3% and 6.1% respectively) among age 2–5 years. Interestingly Staphylococcus aureus predominated among 5-15 old children in both nasopharynx and ear discharge (26.7% and 20%) while Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were isolated from both sites with proportion of 13.3 % and 6.7%. In adults various percentage of the different isolates from both sites were observed. These results might indicate an endogenous infection that has been originated from the nasopharyngeal microbial flora. Other organisms were either present in different percents or totally absent. Surprisingly, Nocardia sp. was noted from middle ear discharge in one child only, indicating an exogenous infection. Bacteroids sp. and other anaerobic bacteria were rarely encountered.


D.M. Abdallah

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

The cytoprotective properties of L-arginine, the nitric oxide (NO) precursor, and quercetin, an antioxidant natural flavonoid, in gastric mucosal injury induced by indomethacin has been investigated. In this experimental model the pathogenesis of the lesions has been related to production of reactive oxygen species and alterations in NO synthesis. Thus, in this study, the antioxidant defense factors (glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, mucus, NO), the lesion-inducing effects of the generated oxygen free radicals (vascular permeability, lipid peroxidation) and gastric ulceration (ulcer index) in Wistar rats treated orally with indomethacin (20 mg/kg) were examined. L-arginine (300 mg/kg, p.o.) and quercetin (200 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered 1 h and 2 h, respectively, prior to ulcer induction. Both pretreatments produced antiulcerogenic activity associated with reduced lesive effects accompanied by increases in antioxidant defense factors. Howerver, quercetin did not alter mucus content significantly, as compared to indomethacin. Therefore, this study shows a cytoprotective effect of L-arginine and quercetin against indomethacin-induced ulceration. This could be mediated by scavenging of oxygen derived free radicals and elevation of NO.


S.S. Hafez

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University,

44519, Zagazig, Egypt

The flavonol glycosides; kaempferol-7-O-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferetrin and kaempferol-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside-7-O-a-L-rhamnopyranoside were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Reseda alba L. The structure of these compounds was elucidated by different spectroscopic methods, including IR, UV, FAB MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR spectral analysis. Also, thio-derivatives namely, n-butylisothiocyanate, 4-hydroxybutylisothiocycanate and 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione were identified for the first time from the natural autolysis of the fresh inflorescence, thus suggesting the presence of the corresponding glucosinolates; n-butylglucosinolate, 4-hydroxybutylglucosinolate and 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropylglucosinolate, respectively. Only 4-phenylbutylcyanide was detected as autolytic product of the unripe seeds, indicating the presence of 4-phenylbutylglucosinolate. Their identity was deduced by GC/MS, tR and comparison with the published data. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate and butanol extracts as well as kaempferetrin was investigated. Butanol fraction and kaempferetrin showed marked antioxidant activity in comparison with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). In addition, the different extracts of R. alba L., and the isolated kaempferetrin exhibited antimicrobial activity especially against Bacillus subtilis.


H.M. El.Kholy, W.M. Abdel-Fattah, S.A.H. Meneizaa*

Department of Biochemisty and Pediatric*, Faculty of Medicine, for Girls

Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo Egypt.

There are several small molecules that play an important rule in antioxidant defense systemes particularly in extracellular space, where antioxidant enzymes are absent or present in small quantities only. These small molecules represented by several vitamins as vitamin E, beta carotene and vitamin C. This Study was done for the detection of some antioxidants which are Tocopherol, tocopherol acetate, vitamin A(retinol), total bilirubin and uric acid at full term normal infants and at high risk infants such as premature and asphyxic infants. This detection could help in protection of neonates from many diseases. The study was carried out on 45 newborn infants classified into the following groups: group 1 (15 newborn full term infants with mean age of 40 weeks), group II: (15 newborn premature infants with mean age of 32 weeks),group III: (15 newborn full term infants with mean age of 40 weeks and suffering from asphyxia). Revealed the following: In premature infants, significant decrease of retinol, - µ tocopherol and tocopherol acetate were detected. Significant increase in total bilirubin with non significant decrease of uric acid were also detected. In asphyxic infants: significant decrease of Retinol, µ- tocopherol and tocopherol actate were observed with significant increase in total bilirubin. Non significant decrease of uric acid was also observed. Antioxidant defence system (related to vitamins as vitamin A and E) is markedly affected in neonates especially high risk infants. Supplementation with vitamins (especially vitamin E and A) is beneficial to counter increased, free radicals in high risk infants.


W. El-Tayab, S. Radwan and A. Al-Sharif

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy (Girls), Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

Honey has been used as medicine since ancient times in many countries and it was found by some workers that honey possess antibacterial activity where antibiotics were ineffective. The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of seven honey samples from different floral sources against certain multidrug resistant strains isolated from clinical specimens. The flavenoids and phenolic components of each honey sample were also determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).It was observed that the seven honey samples showed different levels of antimicrobial activity. The HPLC results showed the presence of two important classes of inhibines in honey. They are flavenoids and phenolic acids. The seven honey samples showed qualitative and quantitative differences in their flavenoid and phenolic acids constituents. There was a highly significant variation in the inhibine value of the examined honey samples. It was noticed that honey collected from wild floral origin showed the highest antimicrobial activity value and HPLC showed that it contained the highest ferulic acid content and the highest number of phenolic acids.


M.M.F. Metwally.

Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University,

Zagazig, Egypt

Three different spectroscopic methods were developed for determination of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) and salicylic acid (SA) and compared statistically. The first method is a colorimetric method and shows X + S.D. = 99.87 + 4.05, with finducial limits = 99.87 + 5.17 for concentration range 1 x 10-4 – 1 x 10-3 mole in litre. for Beer’s law verification. The second method involve a pmr method for determination of aspirin through the ester group the method shows X + S.D. = 100.03 + 3.47 with finucial limits = 100.03 + 4.31 for concentration range of 10 – 80 mg aspirin.The third method is an infra red method for determination of aspirin through the ester group the method shows X + S.D. = 101.3 + 2.36 with fiducial limit = 101.3 + 3.27 for concentration range on solid 5-24 mg of aspirin.


           M.M. El-Sherei, F.S. El-Sakhawy, H.A. Kassem, K.M. Meselhy

and A.A. Sleem*

             Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Egypt.

* Pharmacology Department, National Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

The flavonoid, total tannin and proanthocyanidin contents of the different organs of Pelargonium denticulatum Jacq. were spectrophotometrically and gravimetrically determined. The highest flavonoid content was recorded in the leaves 0.24 g%, while those of tannins and proanthocyanidins were the highest in the aerial parts 8.44g% and 9.22 g%, respectively. Seven phenolics were, for the first time, isolated from the leaves and/or aerial parts of the plant. Chrysin (1) was identified as the main leaf flavonoid exudate. Compounds (2-6) were obtained via chromatographic fractionation of the 70% ethanol extract of the defatted aerial parts; they were respectively identified as Rutin (Quercetin-3-O-α-L- rhamnosyl (1→6) β-D-glucoside), Astragalin (Kaempferol-3-O –β–D-glucoside), Quercetrin (Quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside), Chlorogenic acid (3-O-Caffeoyl quinic acid) and Kaempferol. Furthermore, Catechin (7) constituted the major component of the tannin fraction. The structure of the compounds was established on the basis of physicochemical data, UV spectral data with different shift reagents, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR , CIMS and EIMS. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of aerial parts exhibited a significant anticonvulsant and a powerful antioxidant activities, while methanolic extract demonstrated antisickling activity. The ethanolic extract and fractions (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol) exhibited a remarkable antifungal activity against representative yeasts and mycelial fungi.


Z.A. Teleb; K.M. Maamoun; M.M. Ahmed and N.Z. Ahmed

Molecular Biology Department, National Organization for Drug Control and Research “NODCAR”

The effect of recombinant human Erythropoietin “r.h.EPO”, Genotropin or Nordtropin “r.h. GH” and r.h. Insulin on protein, DNA and RNA were examined in rat liver. Two therapeutic doses of each drug were used “100 & 250 IU/kg b.w” for r.h. EPO; “0.005 IU & 0.015 IU/kg b.w.” for r.h. G.H and “0.05 IU & 0.125 IU/Kg b.w” for r.h. Insulin. Rats, were injected subcutanously for one week, then, the livers were isolated. Blood samples were collected and serum separated. Protein and nucleic acid concentrations were determined and the purity of the nucleic acid was performed. Genomic DNA was extracted and purified for blotting on agarose 1%. Also, RNA was extracted and purified for isolating on agarose 1.3%. In addition, proteins were isolated on SDS/PAGE and stained by coomassie Brilliant blue R.250 to compare the different bands against marker protein. These biotechnology products were isolated on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis against standard proteins to limit the molecular weight of each drug. The activity of liver enzymes “AST, ALT, and gGT” was determined at the end of the experiment. The results revealed that, the genomic DNA isolated from rat liver after one-week injection by the three biotechnology drugs under investigation did not alter. In addition, RNA isolated from rat liver after drug treatments for one week exerted no changes in bands of agarose 1.3%. On the other hand, no alterations in protein bands on acrylamide 12.5% against marker proteins were observed. The enzyme activity of AST, ALT, and g-GT was changed under the effect of these drugs. Also the total protein of rat liver was affected. PCR amplification technique was performed on the purified genomic DNA isolated from rat liver after drug treatments by the two therapeutic doses for one week. The data were analyzed and discussed.


M.A. Shatat; A.H. Abdel-Tawab; M.E. Ghanam and M.A. Abdelrahem

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University,

Assuit Branch, Egypt

Diarrhea is among the great killers of infants and children in Egypt and many other developing countries, it accounts for 25-30% of deaths among infants and children. 254 samples of diarrheic patients were collected and the age of examined patients varied from 6-14years. 203 from those patients were immunocompetent and 51 were immunocompromised. Stool culture and Zeihl Nelson stain was done to all samples before microscopic examination.67 (27%) out of 254 samples were found to be harboring parasites, 51(66.2%) of them were immunocompetent and 26 (37.8%) immunocompromised. Giardia lamblia was found in 20(7.7%) patients, 13 (65%) were immunocompetent patients and 7 (35%) were immunocompromised. E.histolytica infection was found in 28 (11%) patients, most of them were dysentery, 19(67.8%) found in immunocompetent state and 9 (32.2%) in immunocompromised patients. Cryptosporidium was found in 12 (4.7%) patients, 2 (16.6%) of them were immunocompetent and 10(83.4%) immunocompromised. The aim of our research is to detect the parasite causing diarrhea among children and infants and to estimate the prevalence of such parasites. It is also aimed to find out the relation between the presence of such parasites and the consistency of stool, age and the state of immunity


M.A. Shatat, A.H. Abdel-Tawab, M.E. Ghanam and M.A. Abdelrahem

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University,

Assuit Branch, Egypt

300 individual were examined for different parasites; urine and stool were collected from outpatient clinics and inpatients at Sohag University hospital. Stool was examined by direct smear and by formol ether technique. NIH swab was done also. Positive cases for S.haematobium were given a dose of 40mg/kg praziquantel while positive cases for H.nana, T.saginata, E. Vermicularis, A.doudenal and A.lumbricoides were given a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight of the drug. Also infecting 10 laboratory mice with 200 human H.nana eggs for each did evaluation the effect of praziquantel on laboratory mice infected with H.nana. Most common parasite was E. vermicularis (14.3%), S.haematobium (7.6%), H.nana (2.6%), A.doudenal (2%), A.lumbricoides (1.6%) and T. Saginata (1%). For each parasite, the incidence of infection in different age groups (5-15, >15-25 and >25-40 years) was studied. Moreover, incidences in different sexes were also estimated. The efficacy of praziquantel on human infection with H.nana was 100% and 87% in case of S. haematobium while its effect on experimental animals leads to appearance of the adult worm in large intestine after one hour of administration of the drug and after 24 hours no worms could be detected in the intestine or stool. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of praziquantel on different helminthes that infect human in Sohag Governorate and on experimental mice infected with H.nana.  


N. Abdel-Raouf, I.B.M. Ibraheem, O. Hammouda and N. Abdel-Wahab

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University (Beni-Suef Branch),

Beni-Suef, Egypt.

The algal community was monitored in desert soil samples collected from different sites along a distance of 31.5 Km of Wadi-Sannur (Eastern-Desert, Egypt). A total of one handred and two microalgal taxa were identified in the investigated sites. The procaryotic algae were frequently encountered constituting 50 % of total algal populations at all soil samples of the studied sites, as cyanobacteria were the most predominant group & represented by 51 taxa. This was followed by Bacillariophyta (28 spp.), whereas, 21 spp. were identified as Chlorophyta, and two species belonging to Euglenophyta. The data revealed that the quantity and quality of algal taxa were governed by the edaphic factors and physico-chemical characters of the soil.


S.S. Hafez

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University,

44519, Zagazig, Egypt

The flavonol glycosides; kaempferol-7-O-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferetrin and kaempferol-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside-7-O-a-L-rhamnopyranoside were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Reseda alba L. The structure of these compounds was elucidated by different spectroscopic methods, including IR, UV, FAB MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR spectral analysis. Also, thio-derivatives namely, n-butylisothiocyanate, 4-hydroxybutylisothiocycanate and 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione were identified for the first time from the natural autolysis of the fresh inflorescence, thus suggesting the presence of the corresponding glucosinolates; n-butylglucosinolate, 4-hydroxybutylglucosinolate and 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropylglucosinolate, respectively. Only 4-phenylbutylcyanide was detected as autolytic product of the unripe seeds, indicating the presence of 4-phenylbutylglucosinolate. Their identity was deduced by GC/MS, tR and comparison with the published data. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate and butanol extracts as well as kaempferetrin was investigated. Butanol fraction and kaempferetrin showed marked antioxidant activity in comparison with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). In addition, the different extracts of R. alba L., and the isolated kaempferetrin exhibited antimicrobial activity especially against Bacillus subtilis.


Neveen   Abdel-Raouf

Botany Dept., Fac. of Sci., Cairo Univ. (Beni-Suef Branch), Beni-Suef, Egypt.

Culture filtrate of the green alga Chlorella vulgaris was screened for its antimicrobial activity against 6 Gram positive and 3 Gram negative bacterial species, unicellular fungus Candida albicans and 17 filamentous fungal species. This culture filtrate exhibited a significant inhibition activity against all tested microorganisms. Further in vitro studies on the culture filtrate of C. vulgaris were conducted to optimize its optimum growth conditions and to enhance its productivity. The data revealed that pH 7, light/dark period of 16/8h and 6000 Lux of light intensity were the most required growth conditions. In vivo studies of the culture filtrate was tested against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp lycopersici and Rhizoctonia solani which causes rot root disease in tomato plant (Lycopersicum esculentum mill CV. Marmand). It was found that a significant stimulatory effects in the tomato plant to resist the infection of both phytopathogens as well as increasing fresh weight, shoot and root length, chlorophyll contents and free amino acids of tomato plant. TLC analysis of the bioactive compounds of culture filtrate was done. It was recorded that, fraction numbers 18 and 20 were the most effective fractions against both phytopathogens.


M. El-Halwagy* and A. Gawish**


* Pesticide central Lab. (Agriculture Research Center)

** Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University

Hepatic injury is recorded as a result of intoxication with 1/10&1/20LD50 alpha cypermethrin insecticide. In this study phospholipids, vitamin E, selenium and N- acetyl cystiene are the major constituents of hepatocure drug that was used in the treatment of liver injury. Animals were classified into 6 groups ,group1 served as control, group 2,3 rats were intoxicated with 1/10&1/20LD50 of alpha cypermethrin insecticide for 28 days, group 4 served as (+ve control) group administrated hepatocure drug only, group 5&6 rats were intoxicated with 1/10&1/20 LD50 alpha cypermethrin for 14 days and combined hepatocure drug for another 14 days . Data showed that; significant increase in lipid peroxidation represented as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) decrease in glutathion-s-transferase (GST) enzyme activity and insignificant changes in total glutathion (GSH) content in rat liver homogenate, fluctuation in plasma liver enzymes and histopathological changes in liver tissues were recorded, coadministration of hepatocure drug to these animals induced some but not complete amelioration in;liver tissues, liver function and detoxifying enzyme.


A.L. Kansoh* and O.D. El-Gindi

*Microbial Chemistry Dept. National Research Centre

Pharmacognosy Dept. Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University

Various isolates from Egyptian soil were tested for their ability to produce antimicrobial activities. Of all these isolates, an isolate NR2 was the most active one. From various morphological, physiological and antagonistic properties, this isolate was found to be belonging to Streptomyces sp. This strain is capable of producing a broad spectrum antimicrobial activities. The nutritional requirements were investigated and the optimum production period was achieved after 5 days of incubation on a rotary shaker (180 rpm) at 30°C and initial pH 7.0. Two biologically active compounds were isolated and purified on silica gel and sephadex LH-20. These compounds showed inhibitory effects against Gram +ve and Gram –ve bacteria, yeasts and fungi. These two compounds were proven to have cytotoxic activities against liver and lung human carcinoma cell lines. The compounds were identified as isocoumarin (mellein and hydroxy mellein) by spectral data.


D.M. Abdallah and N.I. Eid

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

A close correlation exists between ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced insult and the release of free radicals. Lecithin is a polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine which corresponds to the body’s own phosphatidylcholine molecule. Phosphatidylcholines are high energy functional and structural elements of all biologic membranes. a-Tocopherol is the major lipid-soluble chain-breaking antioxidant in the body tissues and effectively protects against neuronal damage. Therefore, we studied the effect of lecithin (250 mg/kg, p.o., 14 days) and α-tocopherol (200 mg/kg, p.o., 14 days), alone or in combination, on the brain redox state during I/R. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to global ischemia by the occlusion of the two carotid arteries 24 h after the last dose of drug administration. Reperfusion was carried out 1 h after induction of ischemia and lasted for another hour. Brain lipid peroxides (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) contents, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were assessed. The results showed that I/R elevated brain lipid peroxides content which was accompanied by a reduction in both antioxidant enzyme activities, however, brain GSH level remained unaltered. Lecithin, α-tocopherol and their combination restored MDA content, as well as SOD and CAT activities. We conclude that lecithin has a neuroprotective effect partly through its antioxidant action which is comparable to that of α-tocopherol.


S.H. Tadros, H.H. Eid, C.G. Michel and A.A. Sleem*
Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University.

*Pharmacology Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza.

The floral volatiles of Quisqualis indica L. obtained by n-hexane extraction, were analyzed by GC/MS. The identified constituents (24) amounted to 74.88% of the total composition. The major make-up of the oil consisted of hydrocarbons (61.38 %) among which α-Pinene (10.87%) was the major terpenoid and 1-ethyl-1-phenyl decane (8.13 %) was the dominating aromatic. The lipoid, amino acids and carbohydrate contents of the leaves were investigated. GC analysis of the petroleum ether extract revealed that palmitic acid (27.73%) was the major component of the saponifiable fraction and β-amyrin (11.41%) of the unsaponifiable one. Furthermore, β-amyrin, β-sitosterol and its glucoside were isolated from the same extract and identified through comparison with reference samples. The crude protein content was determined 2.06%. The free and combined amino acids composition was analyzed by HPLC (6.78 and 8.43 mg/100g respectively). Dihydro-quisqualic acid, an unusual amino acid, was for the first time isolated as its potassium salt and its identification was established through IR, MS and 1HNMR spectral analysis. The carbohydrate content was investigated by PC and HPLC. Galactose, glucose, arabinose and L-rhamnose were identified as free sugars. Analysis of the mucilage hydrolysate revealed, in addition to the previous sugars galacturonic and glucuronic acids were found. The petroleum ether and alcoholic extracts of the leaves, as well as, the isolated mucilage and potassium dihydro-quisqualate were subjected to pharmacological evaluation and compared to standard drugs. The alcoholic extract showed remarkable anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticonvulsant and antipyretic effects. The isolated mucilage exhibited a significant anti-hyperglycemic activity. The petroleum ether extract showed a marked cytotoxic activity on human brain tumour cell line (U251). The 70 % alcoholic extract and the potassium dihydro-quisqualate exerted a powerful anthelmintic effect. Furthermore, the antimicrobial testing of the floral volatiles and the different extracts of the leaves (alcoholic, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts) showed pronounced activities against most of the tested micro-organisms.


S.A. Abdel Tawab

Botany Department, Faculty of Girls, Ain Shams University,Cell biology Lab.

Experiments were carried out to investigate the potential of Withania obtusifolia water extract for suppressing mitotic activities. Allium cepa L. meristem was used as a bioassay system in this investigation. First experiment was carried out to scrutinize the general impact of W. obtusifolia water extract. The drug has inhibitory effect and was dose and time exposure-dependent. Second experiment was carried out to corroborate   the inhibitory effect of W. obtusifolia water extract even after stimulating the meristematic cells with two different drugs and water extract having different mode of action. Withania water extract evinces an inhibiting action on all stimulated mitotic process and was time exposure dependent. Further studies involved pattern of gene expression was studied following treatments.


B.A.O. Alomar

Department of Public Administration, College of Administrative Sciences, P.O. Box 2459, Riyadh 11451

            The main objective of providing health care services is to help patients getting better, yet such services can cause damage to patients; some of the damages are preventable adverse events. In addition, healthcare intervention may involve the unavoidable risk of adverse events. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System," made patient safety a hot issue (in USA) among providers, patients, purchasers, payers, decision makers, and the media; the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) has recently approved 2003 National Patient Safety Goals (Hansen et al., 2003). There has been a considerable interest in improving patient safety since the release of some major reports in the USA (Kohn et al., 1999 and Wilson et al., 2001), the UK, and Australia (Runciman et al., 2002). To address this issue, healthcare providers and professionals must collaborate in identifying the factors risking patient safety in Saudi health hospitals for the sake of increasing the level of patient safety. Because most of the current evidence on adverse events comes from hospitals (risks associated with hospital services are high), this study aims at achieving the following objectives: (1) Determining to what extent Saudi Hospitals implement patient safety requirements, and to what extent the implementation of patient safety requirements differ among the hospitals of the four health sectors included in this study (MOH, military, teaching, and private, and (2) Determining to what extent socio-demographic variables of the respondents influence their opinion in regards to the implementation of patient safety requirements in their hospitals. (3) To draw useful recommendations that can help improving hospital care.


A. Ismail, K.I. Saleh and M.M. Ahmed

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Al-Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt.

The use of polymeric carriers in formulation of therapeutic drug delivery systems has gained a wide spread application, due to their advantage of being biodegradable and biocompatible. Among the microparticulate systems, microcapsules have a special importance since it is possible to target drugs and provide controlled release. Diclofenac sodium, a potent non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with pronounced analgesic properties, is usually used in the long term treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, oesteoarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. The objective of this study was to prepare microcapsule formulations of diclofenac sodium using a natural biodegradable polymer (sodium alginate) as a carrier for oral adminstration. The effect of three factors, namely, sodium alginate concentration, calcium chloride concentration and drug to polymer ratio (D:P) on the microcapsuls production was studied.The mean particle size, microcapsule yield, drug content and drug loading efficiency of microcapsules production were also studied. The obtained results proved that the increase in sodium alginate concentration from 1.5 to2.5 % increased the microspheres yield and drug loading efficiency, while it has no effect on the particle size of microcapsules. Drug:polymer ratio also has no effect on particle size of microcapsules, whereas the increase in drug:polymer ratio from 1:1 to 1:2 decreases the drug loading efficiency. The obtained results proved that calcium chloride concentration has no effect on the mean particle size of microcapsules and their loading efficiency ,while the increase in calcium chloride concentration from 0.1 to 0.4 M decreased the microcapsule yeild. The release profile of diclofenac sodium was extended with alginate coated microcapsules. Also, it was found that the release rate of diclofenac sodium from alginate microcapsules was affected by the pH of the release medium, drug:polymer ratio and calcium chloride concentration. The release of drug from alginate microcapsules takes place by diffusion at pH 1.2. However, the release was due to the erosion mechanisms at pH 7.4.


A.A. Kasem, E.A. Ibrahim, M.A. Marzouk, *R.A. Taha and D.A. Osman

Pharmaceutics Department, *Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

In this work, microspheres prepared by an emulsion-solvent evaporation technique were used for controlling the release of Diclofenac sodium (DS) using two different polymers Ethyl cellulose and Eudragit L 100. The determination of the drug content, encapsulation efficiency, and micromeritic properties of the prepared DS microspheres, in addition to preformulation studies like electron microscopic scanning, X-Ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopic studies, were done. In-Vitro release studies of DS from the prepared microspheres were achieved, using Sorensen’s phosphate buffer of pH 7.2, for 8 hrs. The kinetic data were estimated using different kinetic orders or models. The accelerated stability of DS capsules was also studied. The anti-inflammatory activity of DS capsules containing microspheres of Ethyl cellulose polymer (FEC1), was evaluated and compared with that of the commercial product (Olfen 100), using rat paw oedema technique. Results showed that FEC1 had the best flowable characteristics, extended release effect and somewhat comparable anti-inflammatory activity to Olfen.


M.I. Mohamed and A.M.A. Makky

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

In this study, microenvironmental pH control has been used to modify the dissolution of a poorly soluble acidic drug, flurbiprofen (FP), from its tablet formulations. Six different basic buffering agents were used for this purpose; two insoluble ones namely calcium carbonate and dibasic calcium phosphate and four freely soluble ones namely sodium citrate, potassium citrate and di- and tribasic sodium phosphates. An acidic buffering agent, monobasic sodium phosphate, was also used for comparison. A drug dissolution enhancing effect was observed and have been correlated with the changes in the pH of the diffusion layer brought about by the buffering agents. This buffer-induced dissolution enhancement was seen not only in the intestinal condition (pH 7), but also in the stomach condition (pH 1.2) where acidic drugs remain in their poorly soluble form upon dissolution. No correlation was observed between the solubility of the buffering agent and its dissolution enhancing effect. The results also revealed that the dissolution enhancing effect did not increase with an increase in the buffering agent content in the tablet formulations. The ulcerogenic effect of both buffered and unbuffered FP, either in its therapeutic or toxic doses, was tested in comparison to indomethacin through determination of ulcer index in rats. The results proved that FP buffered with tribasic sodium phosphate had the least ulcerogenic effect.


S.S.El-Hawary, H.M.A.El-Gohary, M.H.Gonaid, R.S.El-Sayed and *A.A.Sleem

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University

*Pharmacology Department, National Research Center, Guiza.

GLC analysis for both the unsaponifiable matter and the fatty acid methyl esters of Pyrus calleryana Decne.   revealed the presence of β- sitosterol as the major sterol in all organs under investigation , n-hexacosane, n-decosane, n-octadecane and n-octacosane were found to be the major hydrocarbons present . Linoleic acid was the major fatty acid present in both the stem and fruits while palmitic and myrestic were found to be the major acids in the leaves and bark respectively. Gravimetric determination of tannin content   showed that the stem is the richest organ followed by the leaves ,fruits and bark respectively. HPLC determination of both vitamins A and C revealed that the fruits of the plant is rich in vitamin C with traces of vitamin A.The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the different organs showed a significant hypolipidemic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and diuretic effects. Moreover, antimicrobial and antifungal effects for the alcoholic extract were also performed; and significant results were obtained. Macro and micro-morphological characters of the flowers were studied in order to facilitate the identification of the plant in both entire and powdered form.

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