Vol. 17, March, 2005.

cialis 20 mg et hypertension 1/17 EFFECT OF NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND MUCOLYTIC AGENTS ON THE ADHERENCE OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

M. Yassien and S. Ansari*

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Faculty of Pharmacy and *Faculty of Medicine, King Abdul Aziz Universaity, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

The effect of different non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (salicylate, acetylsalicylic acid, diclofenac) and mucolytic agents (N-acetylcysteine, ambroxol, and bromohexine), on the adherence and biofilm formation of prendre demi viagra Pseudomonas aeruginosa and viagra cialis vendre montreal Staphylococcus aureus (each 12 clinical isolates) to plastic surfaces was studied. The presence of salicylate and N-acetylcysteine at concentration 0.5-4.0 mg/ml caused significant reduction in the adherence and biofilm formation of the tested strains to plastic surfaces, while other agents have no significant effect. The presence of salicylate reduced the optical density of the adherent cells of prix sildenafil sandoz 50 mg P. aeruginosa and medicament identique au viagra S. aureus to a range of 95-74% and 94-71%, respectively, while, the presence of N-acetylcysteine reduced the optical density to 82-55% and 76-47%, respectively. The antiadherent activity of both salicylate and N-acetylcysteine was also detected during studying their affects on the bacterial adherence to the surface of vascular catheter segments by using static adhesion technique and in-vitro model of vascular catheter colonization. On studying the effect of these agents on the initial bacterial adherence to the surface of the human lung epithelial A549 cells, it was found that salicylates, N-acetylcysteine, ambroxol and bromohexine (10-40 µg/ml) significantly reduced the number of the adherent bacterial cells, while, the other agents have no significant effect. An attempt was carried out to clarify the mechanism by which these agents prevent the initial bacterial adherence to the surface of A549 cells. The results showed that the antiadherent activity of the mucolytic agents (N-acetylcysteine, ambroxol and bromohexine) may depends on blocking the glycosaminoglycan receptor sites that present on the surface of these epithelial cells. The data obtained from the present study showed that both salicylates and N-acetylcysteine have the ability to reduce the adherence of ou se procurer du viagra P. aeruginosa and viagra pour femme tefina S. aureus to the surfaces of plastics, vascular catheters, and A549 cells. In addition, ambroxol and bromohexine have the ability to reduce the initial adherence of the tested strains to the surface of A549 cells.

comment utiliser le cialis 2/17 NOVEL CIPROFLOXACIN ION MEMBRANE SENSORS BASED ON commander du viagra generique β - CYCLODEXTRIN

N.M.H. Rizk* and A.M. El-Kosasy **

*Environmental Biotechnology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

Research Institute (GEBRI), Minufiya University, Sadat City, Egypt

**Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

Ciprofloxacin (CF) is sensitively detected in pharmaceuticals and human serum by potentiometric method. The proposed method based on the use of   β–cyclodextrin (βCD)as ionophore, o-nitrophenyl octyl ether as plasticizer and potassium tetraphenyl-fluoromethylborate as a cationic additive, in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) matrix for the fabrication and construction of ciprofloxacin sensors. The conventional and microsized coated wire types are prepared, characterized compared and applied. The proposed sensors exhibit linear response in the range of 1x10-1–1x10-4 M ciprofloxacin with cationic slopes of 30.2 ± 0.5 and 29.3 ± 0.6 mV decade-1 at 25°C over the pH range 4-6 for conventional and microsized coated wire, respectively. Ciprofloxacin electrodes show reasonable selectivity towards some related compounds, amino acids, common organic and inorganic cations. The investigated procedures are successfully applied to the determination of ciprofloxacin in bulk powder, pharmaceutical products and human serum. Results with mean accuracy 99.8±0.6 % and 99.6±0.7 % for the nominal concentrations were obtained for conventional and microsized coated wire, respectively, which compare well with data obtained using spectrophotometric (UV-Vis) method.

3/17 SERUM IRON, ZINC, AND COPPER LEVELS AND LIPID PEROXIDATION IN CHILDREN WITH INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTION

A. Abdel Latif

Health Radiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

Intestinal parasitosis remains an important public health concern because of the high frequency reached in several countries as well as its consequences. While extensive studies established the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in Egypt, fewer studies have addressed its nutritional and pathophysiological consequences. The present study aimed at investigating the levels of serum iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) and their demolishing effects against peroxidation of lipids in children infected with Giardia Lamblia (G. Lamblia) and Enterobius vermicularis (E. vermicularis). The present work was conducted on 45 children, their ages ranged from 2 to 14 years. Thirty out of them were referred to the Pediatric Clinic of Mataria Teaching Hospital with gastrointestinal complaints and 15 of them were diagnosed as having giardiasis and another 15 children were diagnosed as having enterobiasis by stool analysis and peri-anal swabs. They had past history of recurrent attacks of these infections. The control group consisted of 15 age and sex-matched healthy children had negative stool, urine and peri-anal swabs. Serum levels of Zn, Cu and Fe were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The activities of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (E-SOD) and the concentration of plasma malondialdehyde (Pl. MDA) were determined as indices of lipid peroxidation. This study showed that chronic giardiasis and enterobiasis have adversely affected anthropometric and nutritional indices of patients as compared to controls. Patients exhibited significant lower levels of serum Fe, Zn and E-SOD. On the other hand, Pl. MDA level is significantly higher in all patients versus controls. Regarding Cu levels, it increased in giardiasis group. Consequently, it is possible to speculate that the increased production of reactive oxgen species may depend on the decreased E-SOD activity, which is likely to be affected by the Zn deficiency. It was concluded that the oxidant-antioxidant balance might tilt towards the oxidative side due to weakness of the antioxidant system in these patients. This supports the opportunity to detect and treat early each case of intestinal parasitic infestation.

4/17 ISOLATION OF SOME CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS FROM THE GREEN ALGA ENTEROMORPHA FLEXUOSA (WULFEN) J. AGARDH FROM THE EGYPTIAN RED SEA.

R.A. Salah El Din; H.S.M. Soliman*; I.I. Mahmoud*; R. El-Dib* and G.A. Ebead*

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls Branch), Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

* Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University. P.O.B.11795 Ain Helwan, Cairo, Egypt.

The Methanol and the ethyl acetate extracts of the green alga Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulfen) J. Agardh (Order Ulvales, Family Ulvaceae) was subjected to antimicrobial test. Only the ethyl acetate fraction showed activity against Bacillus subtilis. Ethyl acetate extract was fractionated and purified, resulting in the isolation of 5 compounds (15). Structure elucidation of these compounds have been carried out using modern spectroscopic techniques including HR-EIMS, EI-MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR-DEPT as well as 2D-NMR techniques like 1H-1H COSY, HMQC and HMBC. These compounds were identified as: n-hexadecanoic acid (1), cholesterol-7-one (2), lanosterol (3), ß-sitosterol (4) and 1, 2 –benzene dicarboxylic acid diisooctyl ester (5).

5/17 ENHANCEMENT OF THE IN-VITRO DISSOLUTION OF PIROXICAM VIA LIQUISOLID COMPACTS

I.I. Soliman

Department of pharmaceutics, Faculty of pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

Liquisolid compacts of piroxicam were prepared using Avicel PH 102 or starch as a carrier and Aerosil 200 or calcium silicate as a coating material. The phi-value (Ф), corresponding to an angle of slide of 33˚, representing the flowable liquid retention potential of the carriers as well as the coating materials were calculated. It was found to be 0.03, 0.3, 2.8, and 1.8 w/w for Avicel PH 102, starch, Aerosil 200 and calcium silicate, respectively. Several systems of liquisolid compacts were prepared according to the calculated liquid load factors and their flow properties were evaluated, then the tablets and capsules were prepared. Explotab in a concentration of 10% w/w and 1% w/w magnesium stearate were added to each liquisolid compact system before compression into tablets. Technique of liquisolid compacts was used to convert liquid medication such as solution or suspension of piroxicam in propylene glycol, a nonvolatile liquid vehicle, into acceptably flowing and compressible powders by blending with selective powder excipients. A mathematical model was used to calculate the appropriate quantities of powder and liquid ingredients required to produce that desired properties of powder. In-vitro dissolution of piroxicam from the prepared liquisolid tablets and capsules were performed using simulated gastric fluid. Due to the increased wetting properties and surface of drug available for dissolution, liquisolid compacts demonstrated significant high drug release rates.


6/17 PATTERN OF CHANGE IN THROMBOPHILIA PARAMETERS DURING NORMAL PREGNANCY

M.A. Samie, A. Rezk, A.G. Eldarwish and S. Abd El Azim.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Islamic Center, Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Assiut

Normal pregnancy is known to induce complex changes in the physiological system concerned with hemostasis, leading to enhanced coagulation and decreased fibrinolysis, therefore the present study was designed to establish the physiologic changes in the coagulation and fibrinolytic system during the course of pregnancy compared to non-pregnant values. This study is an observational case control study that involved twenty-five normal pregnant women and twenty five ages matched control non-pregnant healthy women were investigated From all pregnant women, blood samples were collected in the first, second and third trimester and were assayed for activated partial thrombo plastin time (APTT), Fibrinogen (FBG), Antithrombin activity (AT), protein C activity, Protein S activity, acquired protein C resistance activity (APCR) and factor V leiden. Extensive alterations of the coagulation system occur during pregnancy. In the formal increasing levels of coagulation factors and continuous decrease of coagulation inhibitors (Kemekes-Matthes, 2001) fibrinogen concentration showed significant increase from the second trimester in comparison to the control (P<o.o1), while aptt increase significantly in the third trimester compared to the control (P<0.03). Protein C and Protein S were significantly lower than the control and throughout the course of pregnancy (P<0.01) .At,APCR, and factor V leiden remained unchanged compared with the control and throughout the course of pregnancy. We conclude that there is a progressive change in the coagulation system during the course of normal pregnancy towards thrombophilia starting from the first trimester. Women with a past or family history of thrombo-embolic disease should be assessed further through careful history taking as well as functional and molecular tests for thrombophilia.

7/17 EFFECT OF NATURAL PLANT PROTEIN DIGEST ON HYPERLIPEMIA AND HYPERGLYCEMIA IN SOME ANIMAL MODELS

A.I.S. Ahmed; G.M. Habbib*; A.A. Hammad and F. El-Deeb**

Dept. of Special Food and Nutrition, FTRI, ARC, Giza. Fac of Special Edu *Tanta and ** Manso. Univ.

A unique plant protein digest (PPD) has been shown to affect hypercholesterolemia in rats. Fortunately, it has been noticed that the effect is extended to cases of hyper-glycemia. Hyperglycemia is known to correlate some sorts of hypercholesterolemia. Therefor, four animal trails were conducted to observe this conjugation. Rabbits, as sensitive animals for cholesterol challenge, were employed at the beginning to eluc-idate that type of association. Since plant proteins are in general hypocholestrolemic agents, the active protein fragment was extracted and identified in some legume protein concentrates (PPD) and found to be of about 27kd. The system of that PPD processing seems to be highly systematic; i.e. the duration time of proteolytic action on raw proteins to produce PPDs has a sharp optimal point. The PPD prepared at the optimal point found to have the strongest effect in controlling total cholesterol in blood of rabbits and glucose as well. This phenomenon has been confirmed in another three rat’s trials. The PPD neutraceutical power appears to act as hormone like substance or more clearly as hormonal balance enhancer. Although it plays a significant role in controlling serum cholesterol level and blood glucose in rats as in rabbits, its function looks like that of insulin in lowering the glucose in the alloxide or streptosotozysed rats in the third and fourth experiments, i.e. the IDDM or type I hyperglycemia. Rats of this type have been examined in three weeks and PPD has dropped blood glucose from 3.5 to less than 2.62 norms. Moreover, in blood glucose curve, PPD reduced this level from 3.33 norms to 1.23 in two hours and was strong enough to keep it at 1.42 after 25 hour. Further accurate studies should be designed in order to observe the real hormonal balance function of this protein. This biological function most likely differs than the pathways of hormonal metabolic role of insulin. They may work as neurotransmitters or interlukines that may cooperates the endocrine system.

8/17 EFFECT OF METHYL TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) ON MOLYBDENUM HYDROXYLASES IN RATS

Y.A. Al-Tayib

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Al-Taif University, Al-Taif, Saudi Arabia

Effect of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) on the molybdenum hydroxylases, (aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase) activities, in the liver, kidney and small intestine of rats was investigated. Pre-treatment of rats with a daily dose of 500 ppm of MTBE in drinking water for 10 days caused a significant increase (P < 0.0005) in the specific hepatic aldehyde oxidase activity using phenanthridine and phthalazine as substrates. Rats treated with MTBE showed a significant increase (P < 0.0005) in hepatic and kidney xanthine oxidase activity, whereas no effect was observed on the enzymatic system of the small intestine. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) of the Km value for phthalazine was demonstrated regarding hepatic aldehyde oxidase from MTBE-treated rats. Whereas the Km value of phenanthridine remains unchanged in comparison with control. In addition, no significant change of the Km value for xanthine was recorded with hepatic xanthine oxidase from MTBE-treated rats. It was concluded that MTBE treatment caused induction in one of isozymes of aldehyde oxidase with enhanced specificity for only one substrate (phthalazine) whereas the rise in specific activity observed with xanthine oxidase may be related to higher enzyme levels.

9/17 ALGINATE HYDROGEL BEADS AS DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM:

ІI. EFFECT OF WATER CONTENT ON THE RELEASE BEHAVIOR OF BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN

M.S. Mohy Eldin*, E.A. Hassun**, E.A. Kamoun*, A.A. El-Zatahry*

* Department of polymers Bio-application, Institute of New Material and Advanced Technology, Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, New Borg El-Arab City 21934, Alexandria, Egypt.

** Department of chemistry, faculty of science, Al-Azhar University,

Nasr city, Cairo, Egypt.

To demonstrate the effect of water content on the release behavior, different parameters namely; dryness, surface area and aging time in CaCl2 have been evaluated. The suitable kinetic model for the release of BSA has been established and the kinetic parameters have been calculated.

10/17 ALGINATE HYDROGEL BEADS AS DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM:

I. OPTIMIZATION OF THE FORMULATION CONDITIONS TO HAVE ZERO-ORDER RELEASE

M.S. Mohy Eldin*, E.A. Hassan**, E.A. Kamoun*, A.A. El-Zatahry*

* Department of Polymers Bio-application, Institute of New Material and Advanced Technology, Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, New Borg El-Arab City 21934, Alexandria, Egypt.

** Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

Different conditions of the formulation process of alginate beads loaded with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as drug model have been investigated. The effect of these conditions on the release behavior was studied. An interesting observation which reflects the importance of the biological memory of BSA has been found in the study of the effect of crosslinking’s temperature. Zero order release behavior has been obtained and controlled through the optimization of crosslinking conditions.

11/17 IMPACT OF OMEPRAZOLE, LANSOPRAZOLE AND RESERPINE ON THE EFFICACY OF FLUOROQUINOLONES AGAINST EFFLUX-MEDIATED MULTIDRUG RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS-CLINICAL ISOLATES

S.M.M. Kheira

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University,

Mansoura, Egypt

The impact of efflux pump inhibition by omeprazole, lansoprazole and reserpine (NorA inhibitors) on the efficacy of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and levofloxacin was investigated against efflux mediated multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-clinical isolates using susceptibility testing, time-kill study, and postantibiotic effect methods. The study revealed that levofloxacin had the most potent activity against all strains tested. The MICs of the hydrophobic fluoroquinolone, levofloxacin, were unchanged or reduced by 2-fold when combined with any of the NorA inhibitors. However, omeprazole, lansoprazole and reserpine produced from 4- to 32-fold decreases in ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin MICs for efflux-mediated multidrug resistant S. aureus strains. Reductions in MICs of the hydrophilic fluoroquinolones, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, demonstrated that efflux mechanism appears to be a prevalent cause of clinically significant fluoroquinolone resistance in S. aureus. Time-kill studies showed that lansoprazole and reserpine increased the activities of both ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin by 2.9 to 4.8 Log10 CFU/ml against the multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains. Lansoprazole and reserpine increased the levofloxacin postantibiotic effects (PAEs) on four of the ten multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains from about 1.5- to 3-fold. Both ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin PAEs were increased from 2- to 5-fold and from 2- to 6-fold by adding lansoprazole and reserpine, respectively. In conclusion, the data suggest that combinations of a hydrophilic fluoroquinolone with either omeprazole, lansoprazole or reserpine would substantially improve its efficacy against efflux mediated multidrug-resistant S. aureus infections.

12/17 PROANGIOGENIC CYTOKINES, ANGIOGENESIS INHIBITOR ENDOSTATIN AND MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE-9 IN NON-HODGKIN'S LYMPHOMA

N.E. El-Ashmawy, *E. El-Zamarany, **O. Ibrahim, ***M. Enaba, ****M. Rowisha

Departments of Biochemistry & **Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Departments of *Clinical Pathology, ***Internal Medicine & ****Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt.

Human lymphoproliferative diseases are hypothesized to invade locally and to metastatize by mechanisms similar to those developed by solid tumors. This study was conducted to investigate the role of some angiogenic inducers and inhibitors as well as matrix-degrading enzymes in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Forty patients with NHL were included in the study in addition to ten healthy subjects, who served as the control group. Serum samples were taken at diagnosis prior to receiving treatment and were used for measurement of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity and endostatin. Patients were followed-up for two years and the possible contribution, link, and prognostic significance of each of the measured parameters in NHL were evaluated. The results showed that VEGF, bFGF as well as MMP-9 activity were significantly increased in NHL patients compared with the control group. These factors were associated with the tumor stage and lymphoma grade. The prognostic values of VEGF, bFGF and MMP-9 activity were evident, where elevated pretreatment serum levels were associated with poor patient outcome. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between each two of VEGF, bFGF, and MMP-9 activity. On the other hand, the endogenous angiogenic inhibitor endostatin showed non-significant change in NHL patients versus the control group and non-significant association with any of the angiogenic mediators or the patient outcome, which indicates loss of regulatory mechanisms, leading to enhanced angiogenesis and tumor progression. The contribution of both angiogenic inducers and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in the angiogenesis-mediated lymphoma growth may raise the need for development of antiangiogenic therapy to mitigate the angiogenic cascade and help management of lymphoma.

13/17 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF KETOCONAZOLE TOPICAL PREPARATION

B.M. El-Houssieny* and S. Abd El-Aal**

* Department of Pharmaceutics and **Department of Microbiology,National Organization of Drug Control and Research

Ketoconazole, a commenly used antifungal drug, is introduced in this work in a new topical formula to improve its antifungal activity. Six plain emulgel bases were prepared and evaluated by physical examination and by stability testing by shelf storage at ambient temperature for six months. Five successful emulgel bases were chosen for incorporation of ketoconazole. The medicated emulgel were evaluated regarding appearance, pH of 10% aqueous solution, spreadability, particle size measurement, and rheological properties. Drug release were evaluated by the stirred solvent technique applying a modified USP XXIV dissolution apparatus II. The kinetic of drug release was studied using percent coefficient of variation (C.V.%). The extent of drug release as well as its potency were evaluated microbiologically by the agar diffusion technique. A commercially available cream was used for comparison. All ketoconazole emulgel formulae as well as the marketed cream showed pseudoplastic flow properties with different degree of thixotropy.   Applying the stirred solvent technique, the drug release was higher from tested emulgel formulae than from the commercial product. Commercial product showed pH value 5.12 which is low in comparison to that of the prepared ketoconazole emulgels (5.64-5.83). Relevant to particle size determination, the formula containing emulsified blend of Tween 20 and Tween 80 showed the lowest value in the mean diameter of particle size among the other tested formulae and commercial product. There was no significant difference in the extent of drug release when agar diffusion technique was applied. The best introduced ketoconazole formula regarding physical, particle size measurement and rheological properties, in addition to drug release is that containing stearic acid, carbopol 940 (1%) and emulsifier blend Tween 20 and Tween 80.

14/17 PHARMACOKINETIC AND PHARMACODYNAMIC STUDY OF NIFEDIPINE IN CHRONIC HAEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

M.A.A. Kassem*; M.S. El-Hamady **; B.M. El-Housieny***;

M.E. El-Assal ****

* Pharmaceutics Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University.

**Military Medical Academy.

*** National Organization of Drug Control and Research.

**** Kobre El-Koba Military Hospital

Twelve male volunteers were enrolled in this study six patients with essential hypertension and normal renal function (group I) and another six volunteers with chronic renal failure requiring maintenance haemodialysis (group II). Group I receives nifedipine 40 mg as single oral dose and group II receives nifedipine 40 mg as a single oral dose in days between dialysis. Blood pressure readings were taken immediately before and up to 8 hours after the dose from each volunteer of the two groups. Also, at the day of dialysis, 40 mg nifedipine was administered 2 hours before dialysis to group II. Plasma levels were determined by HPLC method. Statistical analysis of pharmacokinetic data of the two groups revealed that there were a significant increase in tmax at P≤ 0.001 and AUC (o-8) and AUC (0-∞) at ≤ 0.01 in group I than group II. Also, there was insignificant difference in each Cmax , kab, t½ ab, kelm, t½elm and MRT between the two groups of patients. There is a significant difference at P≤ 0.01 in blood pressure between group I and II. Nifedipine is an undialysable drug since its plasma concentration was not affected by haemodialysis.


15/17 SERUM LEPTIN AND INSULIN CONCENTRATIONS IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME; STUDY IN LEAN AND OBESE WOMEN

A.A. Gad

Health Radiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, (NCRRT), P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

Objectives: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of infertility in women. It is unknown whether serum leptin and/or hyperinsulinemia might play a role in the pathogenesis of (PCOS) in obese and lean women.The aim of this study was to evaluate serum leptin and fasting serum insulin concentrations in women with (PCOS) and in age and weight-matched controls with normal or abnormal body mass index (BMI (. Subjects and methods: Serum leptin and fasting serum insulin concentrations were assayed using radioimmunoassay in PCOS patients (n=20) and their age and weight matched controls (n= 20). Results: Women with PCOS showed insignificant statistically increase in the mean serum leptin level when compared to the control group. In the obese subgroups serum leptin level increased significantly in women with PCOS when compared to the obese controls (p< 0.05). Meanwhile, it showed a high significant increase when comparing the obese subgroups (either with PCOS or the control group) with the lean subgroups (p<0.001). As regards the mean serum insulin level, it showed a high significant increase in women with PCOS (either lean or obese) when compared to their weight matched groups (p<0.001). Leptin levels showed significant positive correlations with body mass index and fasting serum insulin in obese patients with PCOS and the controls. Moreover, significant positive correlations were detected between fasting serum insulin levels and BMI in women with PCOS (obese and lean) and in the obese controls. Conclusion: The results indicated that circulating leptin concentrations related principally to BMI in subjects with PCOS and controls, and that this may not be associated with the physiopathology of PCOS. Although leptin concentrations in women with PCOS correlated with insulin resistance/ hyperinsulinemia, this is related only to obesity. Body mass index and insulin resistance status were seen to be involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS.

16/17LEPTIN AND INSULIN ARE PREDICTIVE DIAGNOSTIC PARAMETERS IN POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME (PCOS)

M.A. El-Desouky

*Lab Of biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Cairo University

Leptin and insulin levels were evaluated in completely amenorrhoeic, anovulatory cases of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) for at least one year to be compared to age and Body Mass Index (BMI)-matched normal controls during their different phases of the menstrual cycle. Moreover, LH, FSH, Testosterone and Estradiol levels were investigated. Subjects were classified into two groups: Group (1): Normal healthy control subjects with age 18-30 years old, of cycle length 28-32 days. Blood samples were collected at three time intervals, at the early-follicular phase, mid-cycle phase and mid-luteal phases of their menstrual cycle. Group (2): Completely amenorrhoeic anovulatory patients of (PCOS) with age 18-30 years old since at least one year examined histopathologically. Their ovaries show multiple cysts of 2-10 in number and 2-8mm in diameter. Group (1) and (2) were further classified according to the BMI into lean subjects whose BMI<25and to obese ones whose BMI>27. Serum leptin levels were shown to be higher in both lean and obese PCOS women than their corresponding values in age- and BMI-matched control group (group 1) during all the phases of the menstrual cycle.In the present investigation, serum insulin levels were statistically higher in both lean and obese PCOS women than their corresponding values in age- and BMI- matched control group (group1) during all phases of their menstrual cycles: viz; early-follicular (F), mid-cycle (M), and mid-luteal (L) phases. At the same time, serum insulin and leptin levels in obese PCOS women were proved to be statistically higher than those reported in lean PCOS ones. We conclude from the present data the distinctive and fascinating role played by leptin in ovulation in normally cycling women, and its possible participation in the mechanism of anovulation in PCOS subjects. In the present study, a new proposal has been postulated to explain the mechanism of anovulation that may exist in this group of PCOS women characterized by being completely amenorrhoeic and anovulatory.

17/17 OPEN PROSTATECTOMY VERSUS TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF THE PROSTATE (TURP) FOR TREATMENT OF B P H

A.A. Mansour

National institute of urology and nephrology, El-Mattariia, Cairo.

Even though prostate enlargement in elderly is nearly a universal phenomenon, not all of those who have enlargement will experience significant symptoms. When a patient seeks treatment, he often does so because of bothersome symptoms that affect his quality of life. A study was done to compare TURP versus open prostatectomy as regard their results and complications. Forty patients with indications of surgical treatment of BPH, divided into two equal groups, the first group subjected to TURP and the second group subjected to open prostatectomy, after full preoperative evaluation in the form of, history, examination, laboratory, radiological and urodynamic study. All patients followed for three months postoperative for results and complications, by symptom score, urine analysis and culture, uroflowmetry, cystometry and TRUS.There was a highly significant improvement in both groups from the base line data of IPSS symptom score, peak flow rate and post voiding residual urine, but more significant in open group. The incidence of intra operative blood loss and postoperative urinary tract infection was more in open group than TURP. Also the operative time, post operative catheterization time and hospital stay was shorter in TURP group than open group. This result support thatalthough TURP is the gold standard surgical treatment of BPH, still there is a place for open prostatectomy.

 


18/17 QUANTITATIVE PROTEIN RESPONSIVENESS OF MUSCA DOMESTICA (DIPTERA: MUSCIDAE) TO CERTAIN IGRs AND PLANT EXTRACTS.

K.S. Ghoneim, M.S. Amer, A.S. Bream, A.G. Al-Dali and Kh.Sh. Hamadah

Dept. of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar Univer.,

Madenit Nasr. Cairo, Egypt.

Three concentration levels of each IGR (Lufenuron and   Diofenolan) or plant extract (Margosan-O and Jojoba) had been given to the early 3rd instar larvae of the house fly Musca domestica through the feeding diet. In addition, other three dose levels of each IGR or extract had been topically applied onto the late 3rd instar larvae. After treatment of the early instar larvae, an inhibitory action of both IGRs on the body protein-content became widespread through the pupal stage. Only one exception was observed because Lufenuron induced the pupae to gain more proteins at the last day before the end of pupation. Also, the reducing action of Diofenolan on the proteins was profoundly achieved, irrespective of the conc. level or the day. After topical application of these IGRs, also, a widespread inhibitory action on the protein content along the pupal life days could be easily appreciated according to the available data, with few exceptions. On the other hand, an inhibitory action on the proteins overall the pupal stage was detected by the plant extracts, after treatment of the early 3rd instar larvae. Margosan-O reached the maximum of its inhibitory effect during the 2nd pupal day (at the lowest conc.- level) while Jojoba reached its maximal inhibitory action during the 4th pupal day (at the highest conc.- level). In addition, topical application of these extracts led to a suppressing effect on the protein content throughout the pupal stage. At the highest dose of each, the maximal inhibitory effect was explored during the 4th day. Margosan-O was found, generally, more potent than Jojoba.

19/17 THE ROLE OF CERTAIN FACTORS OF THE FIBRINOLYSIS SYSTEM IN BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN CHILDERN

A.I. Said, E.T. Mohamed and S.A. El-Sayed

National Center for Radiation Research and Technology

Every inflammatory process, including that in the course of bronchial asthma may disturb the balance of blood coagulation and the fibrinolytic system. This study aimed at the evaluation of fibrinolysis in patients with bronchial asthma. The present study included 2 asthmatic groups, each of 24 patients; the asymptomatic group which was subclassified into mild and moderate subgroups according to asthma severity and the symptomatic group which was subclassified into mild and moderate subgroups according to severity of acute exacerbation. The study also included 22 healthy non-asthmatic control group. In these subjects, the following parameters were established: the concentration of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), the concentration of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and the level of total Immunoglobulin E (IgE). It was found that there was a highly significant decrease in plasma PAI-1 in all asthmatic groups compared to the control group. In case of plasma t-PA, there was a highly significant increase in all asthmatic group compared to control group. Also, the level of serum Ig E showed a highly significant increase in all asthmatic group compared to the control group. The result of the present study indicated that patients with bronchial asthma displayed an elevated concentration of t-PA and a decrement in the concentration of PAI-1. These findings suggest that the activity of the fibrinolysis system is increased in subjects with bronchial asthma.

 

20/17 ROLE OF CHLAMYDIA PNEUMONIA, CYTOMEGALOVIRUS AND HELICOBACTER PYLORI IN DIABETIC AND NON-DIABETIC PATIENTS WITH CORONARY HEART DISEASES

*M.A. El-Desouky, **N.S.I. Geweely and ***F.F. Abd El-Aal

*Lab of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Cairo University

**Dep. of Botany, Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University

***Clinical pathology Dep., Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University

The objective of this study was to test prospectively for the role and an association between Chlamydia pneumonia, Cytomegalovirus and Helicobacter pylori infection in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with coronary heart diseases by comparing the serum levels of IgG titers of these parameters in patients and control group. Subjects were classified into three groups: Group (1): Normal healthy control subjects with age 47-69 years old, Group (2): Diabetic patients with coronary heart disease. Their age ranged from 45-73 years old, Group (3): Non-diabetic patients with coronary heart disease. Serum Chlamydia pneumonia IgG titers, Cytomegalovirus IgG titers were significantly elevated in patients groups compared to control group. No significant difference of serum Helicobacter pylori IgG titers in patients when compared to control group. We conclude from the present study that Chlamydia pneumonia and Cytomegalovirus infection were played an important and possible role in coronary heart disease and may consider as a risk factor for CHD. While there is no relation between infection with H. pylori and CHD. In addition, there is no association between infection by these infectious agents and diabetes mellitus.

 

21/17 STUDY EFFECT OF LASER ON THE CHEMICAL STABILITY AND RELEASE KINETICS OF METHOTREXATE LOADED IN LOW COST LIPOSOMES.

M.F.M. Ali

Department of Medical and Biological Laser Applications, Pharmaceutical Technology Lab., National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences (NILES),

Cairo University.

In this study preparation and effect of 650 nm diode laser on the chemical stability and release kinetics of liposomes formed from natural egg yolk phosphatidyl choline (PC) (as commercial and low cost lipid), synthetic 1,2 dipalmitoyl-sn-1-phosphatidylcholine DPPC (photosensitive site), and cholesterol in a molar ratio 6: 1: 0.8 respectively and loaded with methotrexate (MTX). Encapsulation capacity and phase transition temperature Tc, as well as size distribution were measured to characterize the prepared liposomes. The effect of 80 joules (max. energy used) on liposomes physical stability by measuring the phase transition temperature using DSC, and on the chemical stability of the loaded MTX using FTIR were carried out. The release kinetics of the MTX from liposomes and effect of 30J, 60J, and 80J on the release mechanism up to three hours in phosphate buffer pH=7 was carried out. The results indicated that the encapsulation capacity of the prepared liposomes was 58.5 ± 0.42 %. Laser irradiation up to 80 joules did not affect the chemical stability of the loaded MTX, but it decreased the transition temperature from 39°C to 14°C, therefore, there was significant (p≤0.05) increase in the drug release in the irradiated samples. There was insignificant difference in the amount of drug released (p>0.05) between 30j and 60j after two hours incubation. The release kinetics of the drug from the prepared liposomes and that irradiated with 30 joules were best fitted with zero order kinetics with release rate K0=13.4±0.02h and t1/2 = 3.5± 0.3 h for the prepared liposomes and K0=14.08±0.07h and t1/2 = 2.79± 0.2 h for liposomes irradiated with 30J, while on increasing the laser energy ≥ 60 joules the release pattern was changed to fit Higuich's diffusion control model K2=25.13±0.03 h1/2 and t1/2 = 2.89± 0.1 h. In conclusion the use of laser to target liposomes formed of low cost phospholipids and low concentration of photosensitive DPPC as a target site in the membrane can increase drug release from liposomes by accelerating some photochemical interactions in liposomal membrane and increase drug release on irradiation with laser without affecting loaded drug chemical stability.

22/17 SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF BENAZEPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE AND DILTIAZEM HYDROCHLORIDE

H.H. Hassanein, S. Mostafa* and M.S. Gomaa*

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

*Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

Two accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric methods have been developed and presented here for determination of diltiazem and benazepril in bulky powder and in their dosage forms. The first one utilizes the reaction of diltiazem after its alkaline hydrolysis with 3-methylbenzothiazolonehydrazone (MBTH) and the produced color was measured at 593 nm. Beer's law is obeyed inthe range 8-40 μg ml-1. The method was extended to develop a stability indicating assay for this drug. The second method used for estimation of benazepril and diltiazem is based on the formation of a ternary complex extractable with methylene chloride in case of benazepril and with chloroform in case of diltiazem. Under the optimum conditions, the ternary complexes showed an absorption maximum at 533.4 nm and 535.8 nm for benazepril and diltiazem respectively. Beer's law is obeyed inthe range 15-50 μg ml-1 for benazepril and 50-170 μg ml-1 for diltiazem. The method was applied for the determination of benazepril in its combination with hydrochlorothiazide. The method was also successfully applied for determination of the two drugs in presence of their degradation products as well as in dosage forms.

 

 

23/17 RELATION OF NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS TO HORMONAL BALANCE AND IMMUNE SYSTEM

A.I.S. Ahmed, G.M. Habib, *S.A.M. Saad and F. El-Deeb**

Special food and nutrition, FTRI; Fac Spedal Edu* Tanta Univ. **Mansoura Univ.

To investigate the combined effect of antioxidant (AO) from natural sources on the immune system, food rich in containing particular members of those have been used separately or together in an increment manner. These AO sources, as main member of antioxidant system, were practically seeds for vitamin E (VE) and selenium (Se) such as soyprotein (S) and sunflower (S’) and some other rich in VC and carotene in the extracts of some leafy crop. The food ingredients were incorporated into a final product using special technological process. As a matter of fact, the AO members have shown their quantitative and qualitative responses on aged rats. The effect of proteins, fats, CHO and some selected mineral ions were also discussed.   It seems that there were some other unknown substances that may play a secret role and must be taken in consideration in future studies. All of those are acting as such or in combination with the main elements of AO to posses either down or upregulate response on immune system. The indirect effect of AO on immune system is most probably due to its direct effect on hormonal balance that takes part and must be protected in the presence of strong AO system. The involvement of endocrinal and neurocrinal systems is probably associated with a specific balance in IL secretion and T cells mainframe action. The immunological organ, immunoglobulines, cell count as well as some humoral responses were followed up during this assessment. In brief, data shows that the effect of moderate amount of each of vegetable fats, Ca, K, Mn and Cu in addition to the main AO member in diet may have general role in this concern. Finally,special efforts should be subjected to the roleoffoodcomposition, especially AO, and immune arms and its IL in particular.

24/17 KINETIC TITRIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF GLUCOSE BY IODOMETRIC BACK TITRATION OF ACID CHROMIUM TRIOXIDE

M.M.F. Metwally, G.A.F. Ragaab

Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Zagazig University, Zagazig Egypt.

The Kinetics study of the overall reaction between glucose and chromium trioxide, in sulphuric acid, has been adapted quantitatively for the determination of glucose. The reaction was found to be a second order reaction, but each reactants go in first order manner. The rate of the reaction was calculated and found to be 0.9 x 10-4 mole. sec-1. The mathematical kinetic equation used was [C6H12O6]O = (1/a-1) / K. (t-to). The mean % recovery X + t99.0 S /   n equal to 100.126 + 0.0296 % where X (mean % recovery) and S.t99 /   n   (percentage standard deviation at 99% confidence limit = 0.0296 %).

25/17 DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH TO EXTRA PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS

E.A. El-Sherbini, A. Ghazal, A.Youssef*, A.M. El-Sharkawy* and G. Fadaly**

Microbiology Department, * Applied Biochemistry Department,** Pathology Department, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University.

The paucibacillary nature of extra pulmonary tuberculosis makes its diagnosis not easy. In this work, nested PCR using IS6110 as a target and pathozyme TB complex plus kit that utilizes M. tuberculosis highly specific 16 KDa and 38KDa antigens were studied for the rapid detection of M. tuberculosis in extra pulmonary tuberculosis specimens. A total of 60 specimens (30 clinical specimens and 30 blood samples) obtained from 30 patients suspected clinically to have extra pulmonary tuberculosis were examined by microscopy, PCR and ELISA. Ten percent of the samples were positive by microscopy and ELISA, while 60% were PCR positive and cytopathological examination of these cases was in favor of tuberculosis. PCR gave rapid positive results in 55.6% of microscopy negative cases and 71.4% of cases presented with lymph node swelling could be diagnosed by PCR compared to 10% only when ZN or ELISA test was considered

26/17 BIOAVAILABILITY OF FLUCONAZOLE CAPSULES IN HUMANS

L.F. Wahman; W.H. Tantawy; N.F. Abosaleh; M.H. Samman; J.K. Seddiek; A.M. Shaarawee; A.M. Effat; S.H. Hazem; H. Magdy; M.R. Elhamaway; D.I. Nissim; L.I. Abou Basha and A.M. Molokhia

National Organization for Drug Control And Research (NODCAR), Cairo, Egypt

In the present work the rate and extent of absorption of fluconazole was determined in humans by administration of fluconazole in two different capsules (Treflucan 150 mg capsules "Egyptian Int. Pharmaceutical Industeries Co." E.I.P.I.CO. and Diflucan 150 mg capsules pfizer; test "Generic" and reference standard "Innovator" respectively). The study was a relative bioavailability conducted in 24 healthy human volunteers, where each product was given as a single dose of 150 mg Fluconazole , in a cross over design . Fluconazole plasma concentrations were analyzed by a validated HPLC method. The results indicated that fluconazole pharmacokinetics of the two products possessed a C max of 6.31 and 6.46 µg.ml-1 , T max of 1.5 and 1.5 hr . AUC (0-48) of 31.64 and 32.0 µg.ml-1.h., AUC (0-∞) of 36.1 and 36.2 µg.ml-1 h., MRT were 4.6 and 4.5 h , tel 1/2 of 3.6 and 3.4 hr , in test and reference products , respectively . The relative bioavailability based on AUC (0-∞) was 99.7 %

27/17 KINETICS OF CELL GROWTH AND METABOLIC ACTIVITY OF HUMAN BONE MARROW DERIVED STEM CELLS UNDER DIFFERENT OSMOTIC STRESSES

M.A. El-Demellawy, T.A. Esmail and H.A. El-Enshasy*

Medical Biotechnology Dept1, Bioprocess Development Dept2,. Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute (GEBRI), Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications (MCSAT), New Burg Al-Arab, Alexandria, Egypt.

The effect of hyperosmotic pressure on the kinetics of both cell growth and metabolic activity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was investigated in batch cultures at various osmotic pressures in the range from 325 to 500 mOsm kg-1. The maximal specific growth rate [µ] of 0.029 [h-1] associated with the highest specific glucose consumption rate [-qgluc] of 0.1129´10-6 [µmol cells-1 h-1] was obtained in medium of 375 mOsm kg-1. The maximal cell growth of 1.03+0.016´106 cells ml-1 was obtained also in this culture after only 72 h. Further increase in medium osmolality resulted in significant increase in cultivation time concomitant with extensive reduction in specific growth rate and glucose consumption rates (both volumetric and specific). The production of lactate in culture medium was found to be directly proportional to glucose consumption rate which is also dependent on medium osmolality. However, the yield of lactate produced per glucose consumed was of about 2.24+0.16. [mol mol-1] in all cultures of different osmolality ranged from 325 to 500 mOsm kg-1.

28/17THE PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF IL-1β AND OTHER CLINICAL PARAMETERS IN EVALUATION OF AGGRESSIVE AND CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS

M.A. El Demellawy, A.A. Hassan*, R. Abd El Rrahman**

Medical Biotechnology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute (GEBRI), Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications (MuCSAT), New Bourg El Arab, Alexandria,

*Department of Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Suez Canal University, Ismaalia,

**Department of Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Most periodontal diseases are inflammatory conditions affecting periodontal tissues. Many cytokines are produced by cells in the periodontitis lesions, among them and the most important one is interleukin-1. It is a proinflammatory multifunctional cytokine, secreted by many cells. In the present study 113 subjects were included. They were grouped into 4 groups; group I are subjects with plaque induced gingivitis, group II are subjects having aggressive periodontitis, group III are subjects with chronic periodontitis, and group IV control subjects. For all subjects gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were recorded. The results showed that the level of IL-1b in the control group was lower than the diseased groups. The level of IL-1b in aggressive periodontitis group was statistically higher than plaque induced gingivitis and control groups. Also there was significant difference in IL-1b level between chronic periodontitis and control group but there was no statistically significant difference in IL-1b level between chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis or between plaque induced gingivitis and control groups. The Pearson correlation analysis showed that, in chronic periodontitis group there was strong positive correlation between IL-1b level and both PPD and CAL. This correlation is not present in case of aggressive periodontitis group. These data indicate that IL-1b level could be used as a measure of periodontal destruction, but could not be used to measure the degree of gingival inflammation.

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