Vol. 18, July, 2005.

1/18 Adiponectin, Leptin and Insulin RelationshipsIN WOMEN WITH UTERINE LEIOMYOMAS

A.A. Gad

Health Radiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, (NCRRT), P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

Objectives: Uterine leiomyomas represent a major public health problem in the majority of women in the reproductive age and become symptomatic in one-third of these women.Relatively few studies have attempted to identify specific risk factors for these neoplasms.It was demonstrated that overweight is a risky factor in the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma adiponectin levels and its correlation with serum leptin and insulin resistance in women with uterine myomas compared to age-matched controls. Research design and methods: Fastingplasma adiponectin was assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fasting serum leptin and insulin levels were evaluated using radioimmunoassay (RIA), while fasting plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) was measured using immunoenzymometric assay (EASIA) in 15 obese women with uterine leiomyomas [UL](n=15), compared to 10 obese healthy and age-matched controls [CON](n= 10), on the basis that when body mass index (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) was considered as obese female. Results: Women with fibroids were younger at the age at menarché and at first birth, while they had longer duration/year since date of last birth (p<0.001). They had lower parity (p<0.001), higher body weight, BMI (p<0.05) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) (p<0.05) than women without fibroids. Significantly lower plasma adiponectin and serum leptin levels were found in women with UL compared to the normal healthy controls. Fasting plasma adiponectin levels, but not serum leptin, were strongly inversely related to insulin sensitivity [homeostasis model assessment of insulin-resistance index] (HOMA-IR) and TNF-a in UL group. Blood pressure was inversely correlated with adiponectin levels in both the studied groups. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha showed insignificant higher levels among patients versus normal controls and was significantly correlated with insulin parameters and adipocytokines in both groups except for leptin in UL group. Conclusion: Reproductive and anthropometric factors have a large role in the pathogenesis of fibroids. Lower serum levels of adiponectin and leptin in obese patients with leiomyoma might be a marker for the predispositionto metabolic syndrome later in life. Circulating leptin in obese patients with myomas is markedly altered. Obese women with UL are more liable to develop metabolic syndrome later in life than healthy obese subjects.


M.A. El-Tahhan*, A.E. Shehata, M. El-Sayed**, S.S. Alwakil***

Departments of Medical Biochemistry, Zagazig University1,2, Assuit branch of Al Azhar University3, Department of Internal Medicine, Cairo University4,

Adrenomedullin (AM) is a hypotensive vasoactive natriuretic peptide that has recently been isolated from human pheochromocytoma. It is also found in the heart, lungs and kidneys. It is present in the plasma, suggesting that it may be a circulating hormone. Although its physiological role is unclear, animal studies have shown that it lowers systemic vascular resistance and that it is natriuretic and diuretic. Like atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), plasma levels of AM are reported to be significantly elevated in hemodialysis (HD) patients, suggesting that adrenomedullin may be stimulated partly by increased body fluid volume in a manner similar to other natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP). The objective of this study was to investigate AM levels in patients with chronic renal failure on regular hemodialysis and the effect of hemodialysis on its plasma level and the relationship between AM and ANP levels and blood pressure (BP) in those patients. The results of the present study showed that plasma AM in patients on HD was not correlated with plasma ANP, and this finding suggests that the action of plasma AM is different from that of plasma ANP and that the control mechanism(s) of these two peptide may be different in uremic patients.




R.F. Arafa

Phytochemistry Laboratory, Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut 71524, Egypt.

Polygonaceae or Buckwheat family is a cosmopolitan family of herbs, shrubs and few trees (El-Fayoumi, 1987). Polygonaceae is a family of minor economics importance including a few food plants (Fagpyrum and Rhem), number of ornamentals (Antigonon) and some noxious weeds (Rumex and Emex). Fagpyrum was formally the major commercial source of flavonol compound (Rutin) which strengthens capillary blood vessels preventing hemorrhage in victims of high blood pressure (Humphreys, 1964). Genus Rumex is a common distributed herbs in different geographical areas in Egypt (Saad, 1994). Some Rumex has been reported to contain polyphenolic compounds as flavonoids glucosides, anthraquinones, steroids, Leucoanthocyanidins and phenolic acids (Arafa, 2000). In Egyptian botanical medicine, the Rumex plants used in treatment of many much disease to provide human with good health (Boulos, 1983 &Arafa, 2000). In this study, using modern standards techniques of extraction, purification and identification as different kinds of extraction, chromatography, Ultraviolet and mass spectroscopy. Many polyphenolic compounds of Rumex cyprius Murb. were isolated as vitexin, isovitexin, orientein, isoorientein and emodin. The literature reported that some of isolated compounds playing important role in human life not only because they contribute to plant color but also several of them are phsiolgically active compounds (Harborne, 1982 & 1988).




A.E.M. Khaleel

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El-Ainy, Cairo, 11562, Egypt.

Kaempferol, caffeic acid, astragalin, isoquercetrin, hyperoside and miquelianin were isolated from the flowers of Carum carvi L. Caffeic acid, rutin, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucuronide and miquelianin were isolated from the flowers of Coriandrum sativum L. These compounds except kaempferol were isolated for the first time from the flowers of both plants. They were identified using different spectroscopic methods (UV, 1H- and 13C- NMR). Spectrophotometric assay of the total flavonoids in both flowers as well as the fruits of both plants was carried out. GLC analyses of the unsaponifiable matters showed that n-heneicosane was the major hydrocarbon reaching 6.7% and 10.4 % in C. carvi L. and C. sativum L. respectively. Concerning the sterols, stigmasterol was the major in both flowers reaching 5.8% and 11.5% of the unsaponifiable matters of the aforementioned samples, respectively. On the other hand, campesterol and β-sitosterol were detected in both of the investigated samples. Comparative GLC analysis of the methylated fatty acid fractions revealed high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids in both flowers reaching 59.4 % in the flowers of C. carvi L. and 51.7% in the flowers of C. sativum L.   It could be noticed that linoleic   acid was the major fatty acid in the flowers of C. carvi L. (35.5 %), while palmitic acid was the major in the flowers of C. sativum L. (29%).


5/18 The influence of hormone replacement therapy on prolactin and sex hormones on postmenopausal tear function and intraocular pressure

A. Gad, N. Naguib, E. Marei and S. Ahmed

Health Radiation Research Department.

National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, (NCRRT)

P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

Objective: Hormonal deficiencies in mammalian species have been recognized as an important factor in the pathogenesis of dry eye symptoms. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of changes in sex hormones and prolactin levels on tear function and intraocular pressure (IOP) in post menopausal women before and after hormone replacement therapy (HRT). SUBJECTs and Methods: Twenty-five healthy women aged between 50 and 60 years, free of ocular and systemic diseases and planning to receive HRT were selected to participate in this study concerning menopause, tear function and IOP. On the first visit, basal and reflex Schirmer test, tear film break-up time (TFBUT) and IOP measurements were performed for all the participants. Serum estradiol (E2), prolactin, total testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were determined using radioimmunoassay. The study group received HRT in the form of oral tablets of conjugated estrogens 0.625 mg/day in a continuous regimen for 3 months. Then all measurements were repeated, and compared with the initial results. Results: After receiving HRT, postmenopausal women showed high significant improvement in Schirmer's tests and TFBUT (p< 0.001) and high significant decrease in IOP (p< 0.001). Serum E2 displayed high significant increase, while total testosterone manifested high significant decrease (p< 0.001) after HRT. Both serum prolactin and FSH verified insignificant differences. Strong negative correlations were recorded between serum prolactin level and both tear function and IOP (p< 0.001) after HRT. Total testosterone correlated positively with tear functions and IOP before and after HRT. CONCLUSIONS:HRT influence serum prolactin and sex hormones levels in post menopausal women. It has beneficial influence on the tear film secretion, tear stabilization and IOP. Our results suggest that hormonal replacement therapy over a short period of time could be suitable for the treatment of eye symptoms in the postmenopausal period of life.



R.F. Arafa

Botany & Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University,

Assiut 71524, Egypt

Chenopodium murale L. is an annual weed plant grown in Egypt was used in this study where the identification of natural chemical constituents and the antimicrobial activities of the plant extract were investigated. Using GC/MS [Finnigan MAT SSQ 7000 mass spectrometer coupled with a virian 3400 gas chromatogram] many natural products from the aqueous and organic plant extracts were identified as squalene (C30H50); Thunbergol (C26 H34 O); Cholestan-3-ol, 2-methylene-3-beta-5- α(C28H48O); Ergost-25-ene-3, 5,6,12-tetrol (C28 H48O4);Caryophylene oxide (C15H24O) ; Lactose; D-mannose, a-D- glucopyranoside (C12 H22 O11); 2,6- Nonadienenoic acid; Sesquirosefuran, Cyclohexanone (C12 H18 O) and Cyclohexylpiperidine (C11H21N).


7/18 Relations of plasma erythropoietin and endothelin-1to intrauterine growth restriction in hypertensive pregnancies

A.M. Moustafa, , E.S. Marei, A.A. Gad and N.A. El-Nashar.

Health Radiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, (NCRRT) P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

Objectives: Hypertension is the most common medical disorder during pregnancy; it is mainly a vascular disease, probably caused by an imbalance between vasodilator and vasoconstrictor agents that results in generalized vasospasm and poor perfusion in many organs including the placenta, which in turnis associated with increased risk of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship of erythropoietin (EPO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in hypertensive pregnant women and their neonates complicated with IUGR, and to correlate these findings with fetal growth indices and/or chronic fetal hypoxia. Research design and methods: Thirty hypertensive pregnant women with pregnancy complicated with IUGR compared to 15 age-matched normal healthy term gestations, serving as controls; all of them delivered by cesarean sections. Plasma EPO levels in pregnant mothers and their respective newborns were evaluated using radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique, while plasma ET-1 were assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Meanwhile, cord blood gases, birth weight, signs of intrapartum fetal distress and Apgar scores were determined. Results: The present study revealed higher mean maternal and neonatal plasma EPO and ET-1 levels (p<0.0001) in hypertensive pregnancies than in the control healthy pregnancies. Negative correlations between fetal EPO and ET-1 were evident with birth weight in the different hypertensive groups at delivery. Similarly, high fetal EPO and ET-1 values correlated to low pO2. Maternal and neonatal ET-1 was also related to elevated umbilical artery Doppler resistance index (RI) (p<0.05) suggesting an increased placental resistance in pregnancies complicated with IUGR. These results signify that chronic hypoxia and fetal growth retardation regulate both EPO and ET-1 production. Conclusion: It was concluded that there were intertwined roles of EPO and ET-1 in the pathophysiology of IUGR. Cord EPO and not maternal EPO is proposed to be a biochemical marker for chronic fetal hypoxia as a result of chronic uteroplacental insufficiency. Moreover, these findings assured that the decrease in plasma EPO induce diminish in ET-1 secretion in neonatal hypoxia.


O.S.M. Ali*, M.S. Shoman, S. Abdel-Maksoud*, S.S. El-Shaer*

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of pharmacy (Girls), Al-Azhar University*. Internal Medicine, National Institute for Diabetes and Endocrinology

Insulin resistance is an important mechanism for the development and progression of not only type 2 DM, but also obesity, essential hypertension, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. An aggregation of several metabolic and non-metabolic abnormalities within the single individual was termed with several names, including "syndrome X"), "insulin resistance syndrome" (IRS), "metabolic syndrome" or "dysmetabolic syndrome". The present study conducted on 41 obese, hypertensive, dyslipidemic, type 2 diabetic females and 15 apparently healthy age matched females was taken as a control group. All participants were subjected to full history taking, through clinical examination, anthropometric measurements, and laboratory investigations which included: plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, insulin, leptin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and LDL oxidizability. Insulin sensitivity was estimated using Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR). The study points to evaluate insulin resistance among type 2 diabetic patients with syndrome X (obese, hypertensive, dyslipidemic). Also, to investigate the correlation between insulin resistance, leptin hormone, and LDL oxidizability.


M.A. El-Fredan

College of Science, King Faisal University, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia

The somatic chromosome number analysis was carried out in Senna species growing naturally in Saudi Arabia. Detailed analysis revealed some interesting genotype specific chromosomal characteristics. The chromosome numbers found were 2n = 26 and 28 for S. italica, 2n = 28 and 22 for S. occidentalis, 2n = 26, 24 and 22 for S. alexandrina, 2n = 20 for S. tora and 2n = 26 and 24 for S. holosericea. In all species, the total chromosome length varied gradually and the highest value was found in S. tora ( mean total chromosome length, TCL = 2.15 mm), as compared with S. italica, S. alexandrina, S. holosericea and S. occidentalis (TCL = 2.0, 1.97, 1.55 and 1.30 mm, respectively).



O.I. Abd El-Sattar, N.M. El-Abasawy, S.A. Abdel-Razeq*, M.M. Ismail*, K.A. Attia and N.S. Rashed*

Analytical Chem. Dept., Faculty of Pharmacy, (Boys and Gilrs*),

Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

Stability indicating method is described for the determination of two anthelmintic drugs albendazole [I] and fenbendazole [II] in the presence of their degradates. The method depends on the quantitative densitometric determination of thin layer chromatograms of both drugs in presence of their degradates. Excellent separation with discrete spots for each intact drug with its degradate was obtained using mobile phase consisting of hexane-ethylacetate-formic acid (6:5:1 by volume). Linear relationship between peak area and concentrations was obtained over the range of 0.5-4μg/spot for [I] and 0.25-3μg/spot for [II]. The proposed procedure was applied successfully for determination of both drugs in laboratory prepared mixtures containing different percentages of degradates and pharmaceutical preparations with mean recoveries 99.6 and 100.2%, respectively, for [I] or 98.6 and 99.3%, respectively, for [II]. For albendazole, intra and inter day accuracy (R%) were ranged from 97.1 + 1.47 to 100.3 + 0.85 and from 98.5 + 0.78 to 99.0 + 1.92, respectively. While precision (RSD%) ranged from 0.85 to 1.56 and from 0.78 to 1.92, respectively. For fenbendazole, intra and inter day accuracy (R%) were ranged from 98.8 + 0.81 to 102.0 + 1.96 and from 98.8 + 1.21 to 102.0 + 1.96, respectively. While precision (RSD%) ranged from 0.81 to 1.96 and from 1.16 to 1.96, respectively. The method was used for determination of I and II in the pharmaceutical products with mean percentage recovery + RSD% 100.2 + 1.24 and 99.3 + 0.99, respectively. The results obtained were found to agree statistically with those obtained by the reported methods.



Y.M. Shetaia and S.M. Zaki

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of science, University of Ain Shams, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt.

A total of 120 patients admitted to Heliopolis and El-Demerdash hospitals were investigated for the incidence of yeast infection during the period of their medication in the hospitals. The conventional yeast identification methods based on morphology, sporulation and fermentation characteristics as well as the assimilation of a wide range of carbon and nitrogen sources were used in the identification of the isolated strains. Molecular typing and phylogenetic position of the isolated yeast strains based on ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region sequences were done. Out of the 120 studied cases, 82 (68%) were positive for yeast infection representing 22 (73.3%) ICU cases, 24 (100%) neutropenic cases, 11 (61.1%) pediatric cases, 5 (41.7%) surgery cases and 20 (55.6%) hematology-oncology cases. The yeast isolates identified as 3 species of the genus Candida, Candida albicans, C. krusei and C. parapsiolosis and one species of the genus Rhodotorula, R. mucilaginousa. 78 (95.1%) of hospitalized patients were infected with 3 species of Candida and only 4 (4.9%) cases were infected with one species of Rhodotorula. C. albicans was the most prevalent species where it was isolated from 18 (18.8%) of ICU cases, 21 (87.5%) of neutropenic cases, 11 (100%) of pediatric cases, 4 (80%) of surgery cases and 13 (65%) of hematology-oncology cases. C. krusei came next where it was isolated from 3 (12.5%) of neutropenic cases, one (20%) of surgery cases and 3 (15%) of hematology-oncology cases. C. parapsilosis was isolated from 4 (18.2%) of ICU cases and finally Rhodotorula mucilaginousa was isolated from 4 (20%) of hematology-oncology cases.



R.A. Diab*; M.M. El-Sehemy*; A.F. El-Baz**; F. Shafie* and A.Z. Hussein*

*Veterinary Serum and Vaccine Research Institute, Abbasia, Cairo.

**Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Menufiya University, Sadat City.

Corn steep liquor, soya bean meal and fish meal were used for preparation of toxoids of C. perfringens types B and D beside the currently used peptone media. Antitoxin titres in sera of rabbits and sheep vaccinated with vaccines prepared from these media showed high titre for Beta-toxoid prepared on corn steep liquor and Epsilon toxoid prepared on soya bean meal more than those prepared on peptone or fish meal media.




M.S. Ahmed, F.S. El-Sakhawy, S.N. Soliman and D.M.R. Abou-Hussein

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University,

Kasr El-Ainy, Cairo, 11562, Egypt.

Guided by a preliminary phytochemical screening of the leaves, flower-heads and stem-tubers of Helianthus tuberosus L., a study of the lipoid content of the different organs under investigation was performed and the GLC analysis of the light petroleum extract revealed that the unsaponifiable matter contained a series of hydrocarbons (43.97 %, 14.15 % and 42.38 %, respectively) in the three organs while the percentage of identified steroid fraction was (53.85 %, 19.78 % and 52.04 %, respectively). The saponifiable fraction contained a mixture of saturated fatty acids (64.30 %, 82.26 % and 68.22%) in the leaves, flower-heads and stem-tubers, respectively and of unsaturated fatty acids (35.60 %, 18.04 % and 32.61%, respectively). In order to ascertain the nutritive value of the leaves and the stem-tubers, the percentage of crude protein was calculated and found to be (17.77 % and 13.31, respectively), the GLC analysis of the amino acids revealed that the relative percentage of the essential amino acids was (48.43 % and 48.95 %, respectively) while that of the non essential amino acids was (51.68 % and 51.58 %, respectively). The inulin content was determined by HPLC analysis and was found to be (4.20 % and 11.90 %) in the leaves and stem-tubers, respectively. A sesquiterpene lactone, Heliangine, was isolated from the leaves and proved for the first time a significant activity in vitro against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. For the first time, different extracts of the different organs were found to possess antimicrobial as well as antifungal activities.



Th.R. Mohamed

Botany Department, Girls College for Arts, Sciences, and Education,

Ain Shams University, Cairo

The aim of this work is to study the mutagenic effect of water extract of the medicinal plant Hyphaene thebaica (doum palm) on Vicia faba. And also, the changes in the banding patterns of M2 seed storage protein in Vicia faba plants. Hyphaene thebaica water extract have suppressing potential action on mitotic activities. Various types of mitotic and meiotic abnormalities were observed. The percentage of these abnormalities was also found dose and time exposure dependent. Further studies involved pattern of gene expression was studies following treatments. The cytology of the M2 plants was also investigated.




M.I. Afouna

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, KSA.

  1. Objectives. The purposes of the present study were: 1). To study the effect of different concentrations of the chiral terpene enhancer (-)– carveol on the solubility of individual isomers and racemate Timolol maleate (TM). 2).   To study the preferential/deferential enhancement effect of (-)– carveol upon individual S-TM, R-TM, and the racemates across the hairless mice skin. 3). To examine the hypothesis that whether such enantioselectivity in the skin transport of TM is a concentration dependent. Method. For the solubility studies, excess amounts of R-, S-, or racemate TM were added to phosphate buffer pH 7.4 and absolute ethyl alcohol (3:2) in the absence or presence of different concentrations of (-)– carveol (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.5% v/v). The samples were agitated at 37 °C for 24 hours, centrifuged and the supernatant fluids were filtered through a 0.45mm filter. The filtrates were diluted and analyzed by HPLC using special chiral column at 294nm. For the skin transport studies, formulations containing 0.5% solutions of S-TM, R-TM, or racemate in a mixture of phosphate buffer and ethanol (3:2) with various concentrations of     (-)– carveol were prepared. The freshly prepared hairless mice skin membranes were, excised and mounted in a manner where the stratum corneum faced the donor compartments of the side-by-side diffusion cells. The cells were mounted in thermostatically controlled diffusion system, and maintained at 37 ± 0.5 °C after being tightly clamped. The plane vehicle was then added into the receptor compartments. Suitable Teflon coated magnetic bars were dropped inside each of the compartments. The ports of each cell were capped to avoid evaporation of the volatile vehicle and/or enhancers. Samples of 1 ml were withdrawn from the receptor compartment at a predetermined time intervals, and analyzed for their drug contents by HPLC. The withdrawn samples were replaced immediately with equal volumes of the same vehicle in order to maintain sink conditions. The cumulative amounts of TM permeated across a unit surface area were plotted as a function of time. The steady-state fluxes (Jss), permeability coefficients (P) and the enhancement factor (EF) were finally calculated. Results. In the solubility studies, (-)– carveol significantly enhances the solubility of all forms of TM in the tested formulations in a concentration dependent manner. In the permeation studies, presence of (-)– carveol significantly enhances the flux values of individual enantiomers and racemate. However, the chiral enhancer had shown greater effect upon all permeability characteristics of the S-isomer than those of R-isomer. Conclusion. The solubilities of the TM in test formulations were found to be a function of the added concentration of (-)– carveol. Moreover, addition of (-)– carveol has enhanced the transport of S-, R-TM enantiomers as well as that of racemate TM across hairless mice skin. For the test formulations, the overall permeability characteristics of the S-TM were superior to those corresponding to the R-TM either as enantiomer or racemate.



A.M.S. El –Shafiey and A.A. Al-Korasani

Associate Professors of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, SANA’A University Yemen.

In Yemen, Acute Respiratory infections (ARI) and diarhoea are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in infant and children under 5 years of age, with fluctuant percentage with season (higher in winter). Because ARI are extremely common, they place an economic burden in developing countries including Yemen. Most episodes are viral cough or cold while pneumonia causes about 5-10 % of ARI episodes. The latter need specific antibiotic treatment. Aim of the work: to find the risk factors for development of pneumonia and severe pneumonia as compared to cough or cold using the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI). Patients and Methods: it is a case control study performed in the outpatient clinic and inpatient department of pediatric of El-Kuwait Hospital, Sana’a University from first of May 2003 to end of April2004. This study was included 358 infant and children aged 2 months to 5 years classified as 31 with severe pneumonia, 122 with pneumonia and 205 with cough or cold control, all patients were subjected to history and clinical examination with assessment of nutritional status using Waterlow classification. Results and Discussion: among the many single risk factors studied it is observed that age < 6 months (Odds Ratio =3), wasting (OR=3.7), history of low birth weight (OR =2.3), mother’s age < 20 years (OR=3.7), and history of noncompliance toward vaccination (O R =2.2), were found to be risk factors for severe ARI. By controlling the effect of overcrowding, noncompliance in vaccination was still a risk factor for severe ARI (MHOR=2.2). Previous sibling’s deaths was found to be a significant risk factor even after controlling for other variables (O R =2.2) As regards maternal behavior during illness, the results showed that the percentage of patients of severe ARI who visited private physician was significantly higher than among the controls Regarding the lack of breast feeding, exposure to cigarette smoking at home, anddelayed contact with health facility (> 2 days) were not significantly associated with severe ARI. In conclusion: the present study demonstrated the following risk factors for severe ARI age 6 months, wasting, low birth weight, young mother, noncompliance in vaccination and ³ 2 dead siblings. It is recommended that in planning health service more focus is required on children with risk factors suffering from ARI for early and proper management.



A.M.S. El Shafiey and A.A. Al-Korasani

Associate Professors of Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Medicine,

Sana’a University, Yemen

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways, causes recurrent episodes of wheezing, breathlessness and cough, with widespread reversible airflow obstruction. In Yemen, there is no comprehensive studies about the prevalence or evaluation of risk factors of bronchial asthma. Aim of the work: to assess potential risk factors for asthma in infants and children 2-9 years of age using case control design. Subjects and Methods: the study was performed in the department of pediatrics, El-Kuwait hospital, Sana’a University. Patients and controls (200 for each group) were collected from both outpatient clinic and inpatient departments during a one-year period from 1/11/2003 to 31/10/2004. Each group was submitted to history and clinical examination. Nutritional state was assessed according to Waterlow classification. All patients, and controls were subjected to x-ray PA, CBC and total and differential leucocytic count. Immunoglobin E (IgE) was estimated in serum sample of each case. The results were statistically analyzed using Epi-info, while Chi-square and Odds Ratio assessed risk factors. Results and discussion: among the different risk factors studied, male sex (OddRatio=1.9), environmental and socioeconomic factors (that may be directly or indirectly related to pollution),as father’s job (manual or partially skilled works (OR=2.8), illiterate mothers (OR=2.4) and passive smoke exposure (OR=2.5), positive family history of asthma (OR=32.7) and presence of other atopic diseases such as eczema, were found to be risk factors for bronchial asthma with statistically significant differences (OR=µ), combination of more than one risk factor are associated not only with increased risk for bronchial asthma but also with increase severity of asthma. In conclusion, several factors were found to be risk factors for bronchial asthma. Among them many environmental factors of pollution are possibly amenable to intervention through intensive health education campaigns and improvement of environment, which are highly recommended.



S.A. Ismail, G.A.M.A. Darwish* and F.A.A. Mostafa*

Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Biochemistry, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

*Central Laboratory for Food and Feed, Agricultural Research Center

Different sources of viscous fiber material found in okra pods, Jew's mellow and Colocasia, this kind of fiber such as guar gum, pectin and mucilage. In this study used okra pods as the mucilage material. Polysaccharide was isolated from the water –soluble mucilage extracted from okra pod every 100 gm fresh pods contain 5g dry mucilageThe mucilage extract added with different concentrations 1, 2, 3, 4 % in the diet of normal and sterptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, for six weeks were tested for effects on blood glucose, insulin, and hepatic glycogen in normal and diabetic rats .The following results were obtained. a) The lower blood glucose concentrations in diabetic rats more than normal rats. b) The blood insulin were increased in normal and diabetic rats. C) The hepatic glycogen increased in diabetic and normal rats.



O.N. El-Gazayerly

Pharmaceutics Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared by the modified high shear homogenization and ultrasonic method using Compritol® and cetyl palmitate as lipids, and poloxamer 188 as surfactant. Tenoxicam was chosen as a model drug. The prepared SLNs were characterized using DSC, X-ray diffraction, and zeta potential and were evaluated regarding particle size, drug encapsulation efficiency and in-vitro drug release. The DSC and X-ray studies showed that the prepared SLNs revealed less orderly arrangement of crystals, which was favorable for increasing the drug loading capacity. The encapsulation efficiency of tenoxicam within the SLN was in the range 94.4-99.0% for the prepared SLN formulations. Zeta potential studies revealed the stability of the SLN preparations as indicated by the negative charges obtained for all the preparations, which ranged from -11.7 to -35.0 mV.   Particle size analysis showed that mean particle size of the prepared SLNs was in the range of 255- 380 nm. The particle size decreased at the higher level of surfactant used. The obtained results from the in-vitro release studies revealed that SLNs could control the release of tenoxicam over an extended period.




S.M. Al-Ansari

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdul Aziz Universaity,

Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

The interactions between antimicrobial agents (fluoroquinolones [ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and levofloxacin], β-lactams [cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cefepime], clindamycin, and streptomycin) and biofilms formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12 clinical isolates) were studied. The presence of subinhibitory concentrations (1/2, 1/4, or 1/8 MIC) of the tested antimicrobial agents reduced the optical density of the biofilm adherent to plastic surfaces to 31.1-60.1%, 37.7-73.1%, and 50.6-85% of control, respectively. The addition of high concentrations (25 - 200 μg/ml, equivalent to 1/8-125 MIC90) of the tested antimicrobial agents to preformed biofilms (grown for 48 h at 37oC), decreased the optical density of the adherent biofilm to 73.4-87.1% and 55-71.8% of controls, respectively. In case of an in vitro model of vascular catheter colonization, treatment of the segments with subinhibitory concentrations (1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 MIC) of tested antimicrobial agents reduced the number of adherent bacteria to 12 - 26, 18 - 32, and 24 - 38 CFU/segment, respectively ( control 34-58 CFU/segment). The flushed, unsonicated and unwashed segments that were treated with the used fluoroquinolones and clindamycin (100 mg/ml) showed no growth of organisms, while, a few organisms (13-26 CFU/segment) were grown on some of the segments that were treated with 50 μg/ml of the tested agents. In case of human epithelial A549 cells, the presence of 1/2, 1/4, and 1/8 MICs of the tested agents caused reduction in the percentage of the number adherent viable cells of P. aeruginosa to 32.9-75.3%, 60.7-88.7% and 71.6-96.1 % of the control, respectively. Treatment of the preformed biofilms attached to A549 cells with higher concentrations (5, 10, and 20 µg/ml) of the tested antimicrobial agents reduced the number (by percentage) of adherent viable cells to 55.9-90.2%, 37.1-83.8%, and 27.9-72.2% of the control, respectively. Among the tested antimicrobial agents, levofloxacin was the most effective antiadherent agent,   while,   cefotaxime   had   the   least     activity. These data show that subinhibitory concentrations of fluoroquinolones, β-lactams, clindamycin, and streptomycin inhibit the adherence of P. aeruginosa to plastic surfaces, vascular catheters, and human epithelial A549 cells. In addition, higher concentrations of the tested agents were able to eradicate the preformed biofilms of P. aeruginosa.


21/18 The modulatory role of purslane (Portulaca oleraceae) on age-linked changes in old male rats

A.M.El-Gendyand H.A. Hassan*


Zoology Department, Faculty of Science (Girls), AL-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

*Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

Age has been reported to have a powerful influence on different functional and metabolic aspects. The free radical theory of aging proposes that, oxidative stress plays a key role in the aging process. Purslane (Portulaca oleracea) is considered as a power food of the future, since it contains many important vitamines, minerals and natural antioxidant compounds. Elderly patients are usually advised to use commercial antioxidant formulae such as centrum which contains many vitamines and minerals. This study was performed to assess the possibility of decreasing age related changes by using water suspension of freshly prepared purslane leaves in aged rats. Also, centrum was used as a commercial antioxidant.The results showed that aged rats had insignificant changes in serum glucose, total protein, globulin and total cholesterol levels as well as significant increase in the levels of serum urea nitrogen, uric acid and creatinine. Also, they had significant increases in the activities of serum amylase and lactatic dehydrogenase, while creatine kinase activity showed insignificant increase. Morever, decreased glutathione content and glutathione reductase activity with elevation in lipid peroxidation level were detected in aged rats. On the other hand, the administration of purslane or centrum to aged rats had benificial effects on the above biochemical and oxidative stress parameters indicating their efficacy against the harmful effects of aging..




A.A. ELSharif and S.M.R.E. Radwan

Microbiology & Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

The use of recreational drugs of abuse has generated serious health concerns. There is a long-recognized relationship between addictive drugs and increased levels of infections. In this study the alteration in immunophenotypic markers in cannabinoides and opiates addicts was investigated. Increase in the production of IL-4 was demonstrated among addict group compared with the control group. The immunological parameters of T-helper cells (CD4) and cytotoxic T-cells (CD8) were altered in addicts. The consequences of opiates and cannabinoids were reflected also on the level of the total immunoglobulin G (IgG), where a significant decrease was observed. Prolongation of the duration of addiction and route of addiction enhance the abnormality of the immunophenotypic markers. The observations thus illustrate the complexity of the effects of heroin and cannabinoides on the immune system.



23/18 REPORT



M. El-Hamamsy

Clinical pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University



F.M. Gamal-Eddin, A. Al-Qady; A. Alexander*, M.A. Abdel-Raheem**

and A.S. Rasmy*

Departments of Parasitology, Faculties of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo and **Assiut and *Ozone Medical Center, Cairo, Egypt.

The results obtained on the histopathological changes in the livers of mice infected with adult Schistosoma mansoni after intraperitoneal insuflation of O3:O2 gas revealed progressive decline in number of granulomas, cellular components and diminution of fibrotic reaction, coupled by complete absence of adult worms in the liver sections and mesentric veins . These findings were considered as steps towards tissue healing. The previous findings were interpreted in the light of the previous studies especially of Loverde (l998) concerning the probable role of antioxidant enzymes SOD & GPX on immunoregulatory mechanisms involved in schistosomiasis and different effects of ozone: oxygen therapy.

25/18 the morphology of THREE parasitIC nematodeS of goats from Al Arish DISTRICT, NORTH SINAI GOVERNORATE, Egypt

N.M. El-Alfi

Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Three species of intestinal nematodes were identified and described from the goats in Al-Arish city, North Sinai. The morphological features of both sexes in Haemonchus contortus, Nematodirus spathiger and Camelostrongylus mentulatus were described and illustrated by camera Lucida. The taxonomic differences of the three species were recorded.


M.I. Mohamed

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Tramadol-gelatin micropellets were prepared by the cross-linking technique using glutaraldehyde. Spherical micropellets with improved flow properties and an entrapment efficiency of 55% to 81% were obtained. The effects of core to coat ratio, speed of agitation, temperature and volume of the oil phase were studied with respect to entrapment efficiency, micropellet size, and in vitro drug release. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetric analysis confirmed the absence of any drug-polymer interaction. The in vitro drug release profile could be altered by changing various processing parameters to give a controlled release of the drug from the micropellets. The stability studies of the drug-loaded micropellets showed that both the drug content and release were not affected by storage at room temperature, 37°C, 25°C/60% relative humidity (RH) and 45°C/60% RH for 3 months.


K.A. Salem
Dept. of Community Medicine, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza.

This study was conducted to find the prevalence of Pediculosis capitis (P.C) among school students aged 6-18years and to identify important factors associated with louse infestation and also to detect the impact of anti- lice intervention program on that prevalence. A cross sectional study was conducted in one randomly selected district in Jeddah city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It contains 10 schools (primary, preparatory and secondary schools) 5 for boys and 5for girls. The study included all the schools in the selected district. All the students who were present at the time of the study were included. They were 4320 in number, 2289 were females and 2031 were males. The study consisted of a screening program (examination of hair of the head of the students for presence of lice and or nits), health education program, and mass treatment of infested students and their infested family members. Results showed that the prevalence of P.C among the total studied group was 25.9% while it was 39.5% and 10.6% among females and males respectively. There was an increase in the prevalence of P.C among the total studied group from 27.5% in those aged (6-9 years) to its maximum (37.1% )in those aged (9-12 years) then decrease to23.2% among those aged (12-15 years) .The age group (15-18 years) showed the lowest prevalence (12.3%). The prevalence of P.C was found to be significantly higher among females compared to males in all age groups (p< 0.0005). The prevalence of both lice and nits was19.4 % among females compared to 5.4% among males the difference was significant (x2 = 189.78, p< 0.0005) while the prevalence of nits alone was 20.1 % among females compared to 5.3% among males, the difference was significant   (x2 =208.42, p< 0.0005). Total infested cases with long hair represented 64.9%of cases while those with short hair were 15.9%. Infested cases with long hair among females represented (77.1%) of female cases which was higher than that reported among   male cases (13.4%), the difference was found to be significant (x2= 481.9, p<0.0005). About 80 % of total cases were found to be sharing brushes / combs with others compared to 20% not sharing. The percentage was higher among females (81.1%) compared to males (73.6%) the difference was significant (x2= 6.4, p<0.05). The percentage of total cases that had another infested family member was (88.7%) compared to (11.3%) that did not have, the percentage among females was (89.2%) compared to (86.6%) among males, the difference was not significant. Intervention in this study in the form of good screening, mass treatment with an effective drug as well as health education & awareness program to the school staff, students and their families at the same time gave good results. There was a significant decrease in the prevalence of positive cases among total screened students from 25.9 % to 2.4% and among females from 39.5 % to 4.2 % as well as among males from 10.6 % to 0.4% and also among all age groups after intervention, (p< 0.0005 for each). In conclusion: head lice control can be achieved by increased awareness and education of school students& their parents, and communities, intelligent epidemiologic assessment, and treatment campaigns in which effective therapies are used. Implementation of such intervention is needed in different schools all over the kingdom


M.I. Elhabiby, S.S. Kishawi*, R.H. Elkhodari**, I.H. Alshair and S.A. Alnajar

Biochemistry Department- Faculty of Science-The Islamic University of Gaza- Palestine.

*Medical Department, Shifa Hospital, Ministry of Health, Gaza, Palestine.

**Medical Laboratories Directorate, Ministry of Health, Gaza. Palestine.

The present work aims to study the biochemical effects of diabetes type-2 on the renal function. One hundred and eleven Palestinian individuals were included in the study. The result shows a clear effect of diabetes on the renal function, this is judged by the results of blood urea, creatinine, and proteinuria.The patient groups 1 and 2 (patients with disease duration of less than five years and more than five years respectively) showed significant higher blood urea levels, (P<0.05) than the control, 36.28 ± 2.67 mg/dl, 38.75 ± 3.26 mg/dl and 23.72 ± 1.52 mg/dl respectively. The patient of group 1 and 2 showed a higher creatinine levels but the difference was not statistically significant (P= 0.06), 0.75 ± 0.063 mg/dl, 1.96 ± 0.069 mg/dl and 0.59 ± 0.037 mg/dl respectively. The percentage of the positive proteinuria individuals in the patient groups 1 and 2 was 15.6% of group1 and 31.60% of group2. This result indicated that the possibility of proteinurea occurrence is increased with the disease duration. The prevalence of obesity in the control, group1 and group2 was 11.46%, 41.38, and 54.84% respectively. The general characteristics of the control and patient groups indicated that the family history of diabetes (F H D) in the control, group1 and group2 was found positive in 6.38%, 46.88% and 62.5% respectively. This result shows an important role of the genetic factor in the development and clinical appearance of Diabetes Mellitus type-2. In the present study the problems of urination were increased with the disease duration. The percentage of retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy and other complications in group1 and 2 was (37.5, 56.25, 9.38, and 9.38), and (62.5, 75, 25, and 37.5) respectively. This result indicated that the rate of these complications is increased with the disease duration. Conclusion the present study shows a clear effect of diabetes mellitus type-2 on the biochemical functions as well as other functions of the kidney. This effect seems to be increased with the disease duration. Also the present work indicated that obesity and the genetic factor are important two factors for the progression of diabetes and its long-term complications.

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