Vol. 19, November, 2005

1/19 IN-VITRO AND STABILITY EVALUATION OF

ENTERIC-COATED OMEPRAZOLE TABLETS

A.A. Ramadan

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy,         Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

Enteric-coated omeprazole pellets were prepared adopting fluidized-bed technique and compressed into tablets using different excipients. Microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 102), lactose and mannitol were used as fillers while PVP, PEG 6000 and methyl cellulose as binders and magnesium stearate as lubricant. All the pellets inside the tablets maintained their integrity with no significant change in their surface properties. Gastro-resistance of omeprazole in acid medium and percent dissolution in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 were performed. Stability of the pellets and its compressed tablets were evaluated for the remaining omeprazole at 40 oC and 75% relative humidity. The stability study showed an acceptable remaining omeprazole in which more than 90% of the drug was remained after three months storage at 40oC for most of the prepared tablets. Formula F6 (tablets containing lactose and methyl cellulose) and Formula F9 (tablets containing mannitol and methyl cellulose) showed high percent release in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 and at the same time gave a good stability on storage for 90 days at 40 oC and 75% relative humidity.

cialis avantage inconvénient  

tadalafil livraison 48h 2/19 ANTI-HELICOBACTER PYLORI IMMUNOGLOBULIN G (IgG) AND IgA ANTIBODIES IN GASTRIC CANCER PATIENTS: CORRELATION WITH OXIDATIVE STRESS

S.A. Zaki, O.A. Abd El-Rahman, A.M. Mohamadin*and M.F. Abd-Ellah**

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy (girls), *Department of Biochemistry, **Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy (boys), Al-Azhar University

avis site kamagra now Helicobacter pylori ( quesque c'est le viagra H. pylori) is an independent risk factor for gastric cancer, and this association may be due to the bacterium causing reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated damage in the gastric epithelium. Serum anti- similaire du viagra H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies are of great value in diagnosis of prix de cialis en belgique H. pylori infection in patients with gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of serum anti- cialis prix en pharmacie belgique H. pylori IgG and IgA antibodies in gastric cancer patients and to ascertain whether free radical mediated oxidative stress is involved in such a process.A total of twenty-seven patients suffering from gastric cancer were included in this study. Seventeen apparently healthy controls that were of comparable age and sex were also included in this study.Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect serum anti- cialis pour essayer H. pylori IgG and IgA antibodies in 27 patients with gastric cancer and 17 healthy subjects (normal control group). Vitamin E concentration and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, and reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentrations were colorimetricallyassayed. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was assayed by assessing the inhibition of pyrogallol autooxidation. Both IgG and IgA levels in gastric cancer patients were significantly higher than controls. TBARS concentration was significantly elevated, whereas enzymatic (SOD and GSH-Px) and non-enzymatic (GSH and vitamin E) antioxidants were significantly lowered in gastric cancer patients when compared to normal healthy subjects. By regression analysis, TBARS concentrations correlated best with the presence of IgG and IgA antibodies in gastric cancer patients. Data suggest that super kamagra avis H. pylori infection is associated with the occurrence and development of gastric cancer. Serum IgG and IgA are good indicators for qui a deja essayer du viagra H. pylori infection. ROS play a pathological role in gastric cancer patients and enhancing the oxidative stress state as evidenced by a strong positive correlation of TBARS with either IgG or IgA levels.

 

3/19 STUDIES ON BIOADHESIVE VAGINAL TABLETS OF ECONAZOLE NITRATE

M.I. Mohamed and S. Mansour*

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University and *Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

To develop a more effective treatment for vaginal candidiasis, controlled-release bioadhesive vaginal tablets of econazole nitrate were prepared by a direct compression technique using different bioadhesive polymers, namely Carbopol 934, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC) and sodium alginate and their combinations. The prepared tablet formulations were evaluated for weight variation, content uniformity, hardness, friability, swelling capacity, bioadhesion performance and in vitro drug release. These studies revealed that all of the prepared tablets were acceptable in regard to weight variation, econazole nitrate content and friability. Tablet formulations that showed higher adhesion performance also presented a higher swelling capacity. The tablets prepared with SCMC showed the largest swelling capacity and highest bioadhesive power. However, the drug release from these tablets was so slow that incomplete drug release was obtained within 6 hours. Therefore, tablet formulations containing different polymer combinations were prepared in an attempt to obtain a controlled and complete drug release. The formula of econazole nitrate bioadhesive vaginal tablets containing a combination of SCMC, Carbopol and HPC proved to have good swelling capacity and bioadhesion properties with complete drug release over the 6 hr period.

 

 

4/19 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CIPROFLOXACIN HYDROCHLORIDE EYE DROPS

A. Abd El-Bary, O.N. El-Gazayerly, N.A.H. Al-Gendy*

FROM

Pharmaceutics Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Egypt.

* Pharmaceutics Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni Suef University, Egypt.

The object of this study was to prepare a solution of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride suitable for ophthalmic use in comparison with the commercial Ciprocin eye drops (Eipico). In addition, the chemical stability of the suggested eye drops was determined using stability indicating HPLC assay. Furthermore, irritation test, sterility test and microbiological study were carried out to verify the suitability of the proposed formulae for ophthalmic use. The results showed that a solution of the drug in purified water exhibited a slight gradual decrease in the concentration of the drug by increasing the temperature of incubation from 40° to 70°C. The maximum stability corresponding to the highest percent of the drug remaining existed at pH 5. All the investigated formulae showed no change in color during the storage period except formula F4 which exhibited a yellow color at the end of incubation period. The buffer capacity, viscosity and tonicity were adjusted for the selected two formulae (F5 and F7). Sterility test of the prepared ciprofloxacin hydrochloride eye drops proved the suitability of these solutions for ophthalmic use. Accelerated stability study obviated that the amount of the drug in the selected formulae as well as the commercial eye drops stored at 40°, 50° and 60°C for three months was within the range permitted by the USP up to the end of the storage period. The rate constant of decomposition (K) was calculated according to the determined order at each of the three temperatures. The (K) values at different temperatures were plotted against the reciprocal of the corresponding temperature on logarithmic scale according to the Arrhenius plot for the determination of the expiration date. It was clear from the calculated t90 that the prepared ciprofloxacin hydrochloride eye drops were more stable than the drug solution in purified water. Eye irritation test of the prepared ciprofloxacin hydrochloride eye drops proved the suitability of these solutions for ophthalmic use. The selected ophthalmic formulae F5 and F7 exerted the same anti-microbial activity of Ciprocin eye drops against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in comparative to the lower activity of the pure authentic drug solution It may be concluded that formula (F5) eye drops containing 0.3% ciprofloxacin hydrochloride + 0.1% sodium metabisulfite + 0.02% benzalkonium chloride in 0.2 M acetate buffer at pH 5 was more stable when compared to the formula (F7) and the reference standard Ciprocin eye drops.

 

 

5/19 AN ADDITIONAL MECHANISM FOR FUMONISIN B1 TOXICITY

A.M. Aboul-enein*; M.M. Zahran** and M.I. Mohamed***

*Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

** Cell Biology Department, National Research Centre (NRC)

*** Food Toxicology and Contaminants Department, National Research Centre,

(NRC), Dokki, Giza, Egypt

Previously we showed that Fumonisin B1 (FB1) mycotoxin produced by Fusarium moniliforme (=verticilliodes) has remarkable toxic effect on experimental animals. The toxin reduced body weight, food intake and liver function with a suggested mechanism as inhibitor for sphingosine synthesis (competitive inhibitor). In the present work, an additional mode of action mechanism was laid down. Baby chicks were fed on diet containing different levels of F. moniliforme culture (FMC) or toxin extracts induced an acute toxicity and high mortality. The toxicity was prevented by the addition of thiamin, thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), or µ-ketoglutaric acid in the diet. Thiamin or TPP injected into animals at the point of death, recovered all the animals and became normal within minutes. The mode of action of the fungal toxin was elucidated. It acts via inhibition of some enzymes related to complex pyruvate-enzyme.

 

 

6/19 SYNTHESIS OF SOME NEW DIBENZ[c,e]AZEPINE-5,7-DIONES OF EXPECTED ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY

S.E-S. Barakat, M.A.A. El-Zahaby, A.A. Abdel-Rahman, A.H. Bayomi*, H.E. Ali* and M.A-S. Amin

Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department and Organic Chemistry Department*

Faculty of Pharmacy (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

Certain new dibenz[c,e]azepines derivatives were synthesized in order to evaluate their antihyperlipidemic activity. Thus anthranilic acid (I) was converted to diphenic acid (II) which on cyclodehydration gave diphenic anhydride (III). Ammonolysis of (III) afforded diphenamic acid (IV) which was cyclodehydrated to yield diphenimide (V). Potassium salt (VI) was condensed with certain chloroacetates to give the dibenzazepinedions (VII). Aminolysis of (III) yielded N-substituted diphenamic acids (VIII) which on cyclodehydration produced the dibenzazepinedions (IX). Condensation of diphenimide (V) with ethyl 4-chlorocrotonate gave the ester (X). Reaction of (V) with chloroacetonitril afforded (XI), which was reduced by sodium borohydride to give (XII). Partial hydrolysis of (XI) in presence of secondary and tertiary alcohols yielded the amides (XIII). The evaluation of hypolipidemic activity of dibenzazepinediones (VII, X-XII) against Triton-WR1339-induced hyperlipidemia in rats showed significant lowering of serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels at dose of 150 mg/kg comparing with clofibrate.

 

7/19 EFFECT OF CO-TRIMOXAZOLE ON HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN RATS

M.M. Zahran*, A. Abou-Eisha and E. El-Nahas

Cell Biology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Eygpt

This work aims to provide some hematological data on the effect of co-trimoxazole in rats.Two therapeutic doses (30 and 120 mg/kg body weight) of the drug were used. Marked variations were found in most of the tested parameters. Red cell counts, hemoglobin content and hematocrit dropped significantly in treated rats. The anemic status observed in treated animals was diagnosed as hemolytic anemia. Significant changes in mean corpuscular volume and hemoglobin concentration in addition to different status of hemoglobin (methemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, sulfhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin) were also observed. These changes indicate that anemia herewith reported belongs to the macrocytic hypochromic anemias. The severity of these changes in blood indices was concomitant with the increment in drug dosage level. When drug was stopped, red cell count, hematocrit and hemoglobin count did not return to the normal levels after the recovery period.

 

 

8/19 BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY OF LEVOFLOXACIN ALONE AND INCOMBINATION WITH CLINDAMYCIN OR N-ACETYL-CYSTEINE AGAINST BIOFILM PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

S.M. Ansari and M.A.M. Yassien*

Faculty of Medicine and *Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdul Aziz Universaity, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Bactericidal activity of levofloxacin alone and in combination with clindamycin (20 µg/ml) or N-acetylcysteine (1 mg/ml) was studied against clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus (10 isolates each) in suspensions and in biofilms (formed by overnight incubation of 105-106 CFU/ml in the wells of microtiter plates). Viable counts of all the sets were done on Mueller-Hinton agar plates at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 hr periods. The presence of levofloxacin at concentration equivalent to MBC and 2MBC (2-8 times MIC) reduced the counts (log CFU/ml) of P. aeruginosa, grown in suspension, from 6.7-8.2 at 0 hr to 3.6-4.4 and 1.7-2.8 at 24 hr, respectively, and of S. aureus grown in suspension, from 6.8-8.2 at 0 hr to 3.6-4.7 and 3.1-4.1 at 24 hr, respectively (control = 8.0-8.7). The presence of clindamycin or N-acetylcycteine did not significantly increase the bactericidal activity of levofloxacin against P. aeruginosa isolates in suspension. When these isolates were grown as a biofilm, the bactericidal activity of levofloxacin at concentration of 1 MBC was significantly reduced (P < 0.01) as compared to that obtained against the tested organism in suspension, while at concentration of 2 MBC no significant change in the activity was observed (P < 0.01). In the presence of clindamycin or N-acetylcysteine, the activity of levofloxacin against the biofilm P. aeruginosa was significantly increased (P < 0.01). In case of S. aureus the presence of N-acetylcysteine did not significantly increased the bactericidal activity of levofloxacin against the organism in suspension form, but significantly increased against biofilm associated bacteria. These data suggest that the presence of clindamycin and N-acetylcysteine enhanced the bactericidal activity of levofloxacin against biofilm associated P. aeruginosa and S. aureus.

 

9/19 INTELLIGENT VOICE QUALITY ASSESSMENT POST-TREATMENT USING GENETIC PROGRAMMING

W. Sheta, T. Ritchings* and C. Berry*

1Mubarak City for Scientific Research, Burg El-Arab, Egypt

2School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, UK

Objective techniques for assessing and classifying voice quality for patients recovering from treatment for cancer of the larynx have largely focussed on they use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The results of a preliminary study are reported, where a Genetic Programming (GP) has been trained to classify recovered (normal) and abnormal voices in acoustic data, and produced much more accurate results than an ANN. In addition, the GP is able to provide impact factors for the various voice parameters, and suggests that only 6 of the 22 short-term and long-term parameters used in the current ANN studies are contributing significantly to the classifications.

 

 

10/19 THE ROLE OF MAMMALIAN CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS ON THE ADHERENCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA

M.M. Hafez, M.M. Aboulwafa, M.A.M. Yassien, N.A. Hassouna

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Ain-Shams University

The nature of mammalian cell surface receptors that involved in the adherence of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates to Vero and Hep-2 cells was studied. The results showed that some proteinacious molecules on mammalian cell surface play role as receptors for binding of the tested isolates. However, the mammalian cell surface lipid molecules did not play role in the bacterial adherence. Regarding sialic acid moieties, they have no role in the adherence of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, while the desialylated ones (gangliotetraosyl ceramide) has role in adherence of P. aeruginosa. Pretreatment of the tested isolates with different classes of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or soluble mucin significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced the bacterial adherence. In addition, pretreatment of the mammalian cells with GAG lyase significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced the bacterial adherence. In case of the carbohydrate moieties, different types (Galactose, fucose,N-acetylgalactoseβ 1-4 galactose, N-acetylgalactose, N-acetylgalactose β 1-3 galactose,: Galactose β 1-3 N-acetylglucose, Galactoseα 1-4 galactose) contributed to the adherence of P. aeruginosa isolates, though they have no role in the adherence of the tested staphylococcal isolates. Pretreatment of S. aureus isolates with collagen, gelatin, fibrinogen and fibronectin reduced their adherence, although they have no effect on the adherence of P. aeruginosa. These data were confirmed by the results of bacterial adherence to the used agents in immobilized form. According to the obtained data, mucin-, GAG-like receptors on mammalian cell surface play role in adherence of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa isolates. Gangliotetraosyl ceramide and some of the carbohydrate moieties play a role in the adherence of P. aeruginosa isolates. While, collagen, gelatin, fibrinogen and fibronectin contributed in the adherence of S. aureus isolates.

 

 

11/19 GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF APHANIZOMENON SP LABORATORY CULTURES GROWING AT 15°C AND 28°C.

H.M. Gashlan, K.O. Abulnaja and T.J. Walton*

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Geddah, KSA

*Biochemical Research Group, School of Biological Science, University of Wales, Swansea, UK

In this study the thermal adaptation of cyanobacteria, nature, and changes in membrane lipid fatty acids during the adaptation process were investigated. Aphanizomenon sp. Cultures were grown at thermally different incubation temperatures in the laboratory, i.e.28ºC and 15ºC, for 25 days, where growth characteristics – as determined by the level of chlorophyll a, caroteniods and dry weight – as well as fatty acid compositions were followed up during the growth period. Results of this study can be summarized as follow: 1) The growth characteristics of Aphanizomenon sp. grown at either temperature were very similar. At both temperatures a lag phase of about 168 h was observed after inoculation before the cultures enter their exponential phase. At both temperatures a doubling in time of 20 h was observed. These characteristics showed that the organism adapts its physiology to the different growth temperatures. 2) At both temperatures the main composition of unsaturated fatty acids was 16:0, 16:1, 16:3, 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, and 18:3 after when the organism was grown at 15ºC, also the organism responded to the low temperature by a 3.7 fold increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (18:3 and 16:3). An aspect which indicates that increasing the unsaturation of fatty acids may play a role (at least partially) in the adaptation of Aphanizomenon sp. to low temperature.  

 

12/19 COMPARISON BETWEEN PHENOTYPIC TESTS AND MEC A GENE DETECTION BY PCR FOR IDENTIFICATION OF METHICILLIN – RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA)

M.A. Gamil*, S. El Abdel-Rehem; D.F.I. El-Fouhil, A.M. Abdel-Wahab

and R.A. Awad

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine (Girls), Al-Azhar University.

OBJECTIVE: To detect the frequency of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ( MRSA) among isolated Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)from different clinical samples and to compare phenotypic methods [oxacillin disc diffusion (O.D.D.) and E-test] with detection of mec A gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to set up a rapid and reliable method for identification of MRSA. METHODS: From 201 clinical samples (87 from out-patient and 115 from the in-patient) S. aurues was isolated by culture on blood agar, mannitol salt agar (MSA), and lipovetelline mannitol salt agar (LMSA). Methicillin resistance was phenotypically studied by O.D.D and E-test and genotypically studied by detection of the mecA gene by PCR. RESULTS: Eighty seven (43%) S.aureus was isolated. LMSA was the most reliable medium for isolation of S.aureus and MRSA with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity`. MRSA was detected in 19/33 (57.6%) of the inpatient group (nosocomially acquired). Correlation between the studied tests revealed that O.D.D. identified 19/87 (21.8 %) MRSA isolates with 85.7% specificity, 100% sensitivity and 89.5% positive predictive value. E-test detected 17 (19.5%) isolates as MRSA and 2 (2.3%) as border line oxacillin-resistant S.aureus (BORSA; mec A- negative, oxacillin MICs of 2 to 8 ug /ml) with 100% specificity, 100% sensitivity and 100% positive predictive value. This result was the same as that of PCR used for detection of mec A gene. CONCLUSION: ODD is the least reliable test for detection of MRSA because it can not differentiate between MRSA and BORSA. E-test is reliable and accurate for identification of MRSA and BORSA and can be easily incorporated as a routine laboratory test. PCR is more rapid, but more expensive.

 

 

13/19 COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN ESTROGEN THERAPY AND RALOXIFENE ON HAEMOSTATIC FUNCTION AND THROMBO-ATHEROGENESIS IN OVARIECTOMIZED RATS

B.H. El-Zawahry*; L.M. Saber and L.A. Ahmed

Physiology* and Biochemistry Departments Faculty of Medicine Al-Azhar University

Postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is associated with a reduction in the incidence of coronary heart disease. However, inconclusive results have been reported with respect to the risk of stroke, and current studies showed an increased risk of venous thromboembolism in postmenopausal ERT. Currently raloxifene (Ral), a selective estrogen receptor modulator is being investigated as a potential alternative for postmenopausal hormone replacement to prevent osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ERT and Ral. on hemostasis and cardiovascular risk in ovariectomized rats. Method: thirty three adult female rats were ovariectomized, 8 weeks later they were divided to the following treatment groups: saline 1cc/rat, estradiol (ERT), 80 µg/kg/day, or Ral. 10 mg/kg/day. All treatments were givin orally daily for 8 weeks. The body weights were recorded weekly. Blood samples were withdrawn before ovariectomy, 8 weeks after ovariectomy and 8 weeks after treatment to determine serum total cholesterol(TC), triglycerides (TG) lipoprotein -a (Lp-a), LDLc and HDLc. Also, we determined the plasma sP-selectin, as a marker of platelet function, soluble thrombomodulin (sTM) and tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) as markers of endothelial function, fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) as a prothrombotic factors. Results: Ovariectomy resulted in significant elevation of body weight (P<0.005), and serum lipids with different degree of significance, compared to the preovariectomy values. These elevations became more pronounced with saline treatment. Both ERT and Ral. therapy for 8 weeks resulted in a decrease of all these parameters significantly, except the HDLc and TG that showed significant increase with ERT, compared to saline group. As regard the hemostatic parameters, ovariectomy only caused significant elevation of sTM (P<0.05). and insignificant increase in the other parameters. Saline administration caused further increase of all parameters, so that the sP-selectin, fibrinogen and PAI-1 became statistically significant. ERT could significantly reduce and normalize all hematological parameters. However, Ral. could only reduce significantly the sP-selectin (P<0.025) and Fibrinogen (P<0.05).The Lp-a and LDLc were correlated positively with sTM, TPA and PAI-1 and negatively with HDLc. Conclusion: This study showed that, Ral. behaves as a partial estrogen agonist. Like ERT, Ral. showed a favorable influence on two generally recognized risk factors of cardiovascular disease ,namely, LDLc and fibrinogen levels. Unlike ERT, however, it neither increased HDLc nor decreased sTM, TPA and PAI-1 levels significantly. Therefore Ral. may thus be an attractive alternative for ERT in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. On the other hand ERT elicited a decrement in blood biomarkers implicated in coagulation activation which in turn seemed to improve fibrinolytic activity. This may explain in part, the inverse association between ERT and coronary heart disease.

 

14/19 CHEMICAL AND/OR BIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF BAUHINIA VARIEGATA L. AND CLEOME DROSERIFOLIA (FORSSK.) DEL. GROWING IN EGYPT

S.E. El-Dondaity, M. Mahdy, M. El-Hamouly and H. Ammar

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University,

Cairo, Egypt

Chemical study of Bauhinia variegata L leaves led to isolation and identification of 6 compounds viz., quercetin 3-methyl ether, luteolin, rutin, narcissin, isoquercitrin and daucosterol. Their structures were determined by spectral data. This represents the first report for isolation of quercetin 3-methyl ether, luteolin, isoquercitrin and daucosterol from Bauhinia variegata L and the first report for isolation of narcissin from the genus Bauhinia. The LD50 of 70 % alcohol extracts of Bauhinia variegata L. leaves and Cleome droserifolia (Forssk.) Del. are 15.25 and 20.33 g /kg (mice) respectively, which revealed the safety margin of the drugs. A double-blind trial comparing the activity of 70 % alcohol extracts of Bauhinia variegata L. leaves and/or Cleome droserifolia (Forssk.) Del. herb with standard therapies in management of inflammation (carrageenan-induced paw edema), induced eczema in mice and clinically in treatment of chronic eczema, acne and wounds in human volunteers.Good results were obtained.

 


15/19 STUDY OF THE VOLATILE OIL AND LIPID CONTENTS OF CARDUNCELLUS ERIOCEPHALUS BOISS. AND C. MAREOTICUS DEL.

M.M. Shabana, M.M. El-Sherei, M.Y. Moussa and H.M. Abdallah

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Egypt.

Volatile oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Carduncellus eriocephalus Boiss. and Carduncellus mareoticus Del. (yield 0.03% w/w for both)   were analyzed by GC/MS. Twenty six volatile constituents were identified in the volatile oil of C. eriocephalus Boiss. representing 98.81% w/w. Only 22 constituents were identified in the volatile oil of C. mareoticus Del. representing 92.016 % w/w. Thirteen compounds were identified in the unsaponifiable matter of the aerial parts of each of C. eriocephalus Boiss. and C. mareoticus Del. through GLC analysis. α-Amyrin, Stigmasterol, and Stigmasterol- β- D- glucopyranoside were detected in both plants and isolated from hexane fraction of C. eriocephalus Boiss. Eighteen and thirteen fatty acids were identified in the saponifiable fraction of C. eriocephalus Boiss., and C. mareoticus Del. respectively through methylation followed by GLC analysis. Antimicrobial activities of volatile oils, as well as, hexane fractions of each plant under investigation were studied.

 

16/19 SYNTHESIS AND ANTICONVULSANT ACTIVITY OF SOME NEW 3-STYRYL-4(3H)-QUINAZOLINONE DERIVATIVES

*A.H. Bayomi, A.A. H. El-Helby, A.A. Abdel Rahman and M.F. Zayed

Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department and *Organic Chemistry Department

Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

Some new 4(3H)quinazolinone derivatives were synthesized for evaluation of their anticonvulsant activities. Thus, anthranilic acid I was iodinated and the obtained 5-iodoanthranilic acid II was cyclodehydrated to give the 2-methylbenzoxazinone III. Condensation of III with benzocaine and p-aminobenzoic acid yielded the coressponding 2-methyl-3-aryl-4(3H)-quinazolinones IV, which on fusion with different aromatic aldehydes produced the respective styryl derivatives V. Similarily, condensation of III with sulfanilamide gave VI, which on treatment with different aromatic aldehydes produced the respective styryl derivatives VII. The structures of some of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1HNMR, elemental analyses and Ms spectral data. Periliminary evaluation of the anticonvulsant action of the synthsized compounds against pentylenetetrazole induced convulsion in mice exhibited an appreciable activity compared with phenobarbitone as a reference drug.

 

 

17/19 DETERMINATION OF DIMINAZENE ACETURATE IN PURE FORM AND PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATION

O.I. Abdel-Sattar, N.M. Elbasawy, S.A. Abdel-Razeq*,        

   K.A. Attia,M.M. Ismail* and N.S. Rashad*

Analytical Chemistry Dept., Faculty of Pharmacy (Boy and *Girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Three simple and sensitive methods are described for the determination of diminazene aceturate [DI] in pure form and pharmaceutical preparation. In method [A] HPLC technique was used for the determination of DI in presence of phenazone. The separation was performed on Econosphere C18 column (25 cm) (4.6 mm I.D.) using a mobile phase of methanol – 0.05M sodium dihydrogen phosphate – phosphoric acid (40 : 60 : 2, v/v/v) at flow rate 1 ml min-1 and UV detection at 254 nm. Method [B] is based on spectrophotometric determination of DI in presence of phenazone in aqueous solution at 370 nm where the latter did not interfere. The third method [C] is based on using reducing property of DI for the reduction of Fe (III) into Fe (II), which reacts with O-phenathroline to form a red colored product, exhibiting an absorption maximum at 510 nm. Different parameters affecting the method conditions were studied. Good linearities were obtained in the range of 3-180mg ml-1 for method A, 1.5-18 mg ml-1 for method B and 10-140 mg ml-1 for method C. The proposed procedures were successfully applied for the determination of the drug in pharmaceutical preparations with the mean percentage recoveries + SD% of 98.7 + 1.29%, 98.8 + 1.34% and 100.1 + 1.52% for methods [A], [B] and [C] respectively. The obtained results were compared with those of the reported methods and no significant difference was observed regarding accuracy and precision.

 

 

18/19 HPLC AND (1D) SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC STABILITY-INDICATING METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ETHOPABATE

O.I. Abdel-Sattar, N.M. Elbasawy, S.A. Abdel-Razeq*, K.A. Attia,

M.M. Ismail* and N.S. Rashad*

Analytical Chemistry Dept., Faculty of Pharmacy (Boys and *Girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Two simple and reliable methods are described for the determination of ethopabate (ETB) in presence of its degradation product. The first method is based on high performance liquid chromatography on a reversed phase column (Econosphere C18) using methanol-0.05M sodium dihydrogen phosphate – phosphoric acid (40:60:2, v/v/v) as a mobile phase at flow rate of 1 ml min-1 with UV detection at 267 nm. The LOD and LOQ were 1.2 and 4 mg ml-1, respectively and linearity range was 4-130 mg ml-1. The second one deals with the first derivative (1D) spectrophotometry with zero crossing measurement at 254 nm and 280 nm, where degradation product did not interfere. The LOD and LOQ were 0.30 or 0.27 and 1.0 or 0.89 mg ml-1 at 245 nm or 280 nm, respectively, and linearity range was 1-9 mg ml-1 at 254 nm and 280 nm, respectively. The proposed procedures were successfully applied for the determination of ETB in laboratory prepared mixtures containing different ratios of its degradation product with percentage recoveries ranged from 98.1 to 100.6 % and from 97.0 to 101.5 % or from 98.2 to 101.8 % for HPLC and (1D) spectrophotometric procedures at 254 nm or 280 nm, respectively, and in commercial preparation with mean percentage recoveries of 100.2 and 99.7 %, respectively.

 

 

19/19 CHEMICAL STUDY OF THE BIOACTIVE FLAVONOIDS PRESENT IN PYRUS CALLERYANA DECNE FRUITS GROWING IN EGYPT.

S.S.El-Hawary, S.S. Zaghloul ,M.H. Gonaid and*A.A. Sleem

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University

*Pharmacology Department, National Research Center, Cairo.

Five flavonoid glycosides were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Pyrus calleryana Decne. fruits and identified as Kaempferol-3-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (astragalin) (1), Quercitin-3-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (isoquercitrin) (2), Fisten-3-(6″-acetyl)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), Fisten-3-O- β-D-glucopyranoside (4)and Luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5) . Identification of these compounds has been established by physical, chemical and spectral analysis, as well as, by comparison with available authentic samples and published data. This represents the first report for the isolation of these compounds from the fruits of the entitled plant. The total anti-oxidant capacity for 95%, 50% alcoholic and aqueous extract of the fruits under investigation was evaluated in vitro using recent technique. Total alcoholic extract and flavonoidal fraction of the fruits showed a significant anticoagulant-effect.  

 

 

20/19 TRAMADOL ENHANCES DOXORUBICIN – INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN RATS

A.S. Awad, S. Abdel- Maksoud* and M.A Sherief**

FROM

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, *Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Azhar University, **Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University

Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline antibiotic which has a nephrotoxic effect. Tramadol(TRAM), an analgesic, which is often used to control acute and chronic pain. The aim of this study was designed to assess the nephrotoxicity effect of doxorubicin (DOX) and TRAM each alone and in combination. The rats were divided into four groups, control, DOX (4mg/kg, i.p), TRAM (54mg/kg, i.p) and DOX&TRAM (4mg/kg &54mg/kg,i.p,respectively), doses were administered every three days for two weeks. At the end of the two weeks urine and blood were collected to evaluate serum creatinine, urea, creatinine clearance, urine volume. Alsoratio of kidney weight to body weight (KW/BW) was assessed. Kidney tissue were removed for determination of antioxidant enzymes (reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione S transferase (GST) and lipid peroxides (TBARS). Light microscopy was also done. The activity of reduced glutathione and GST were significantly decreased, level of TBARS was higher significantly in DOX and DOX & TRAM groups compared to control. Serum urea ,creatinine were increased significantly in DOX & TRAM group. ∆BW and FBW were decreasedsignificantly compared to control, also urinary flow rate was increased and creatinine clearance was decreased in DOX & TRAM group compared to control. On the other hand, light microscopic examination results showed that atrophy in glomeruli decreased in its cellularity in DOX treated group ,also in some Bowman's capsule ,there was thickening in partial layer & narrowing in renal tubules. TRAM treated group showed normal tubules and atrophy in glomeruli. DOX + TRAM treated group showed exaggeration in all features, vacculation and edema in glomeruli (fig 4 -7).

 

 

21/19 ALTERATION OF CERTAIN IMMUNOPHENOTYPIC MARKERS IN DRUG ABUSERS

A.A. ELSharif and S.M.R.E. Radwan

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

The use of recreational drugs of abuse has generated serious health concerns. There is a long-recognized relationship between addictive drugs and increased levels of infections. In this study the alteration in immunophenotypic markers in cannabinoides and opiates addicts was investigated. Increase in the production of IL-4 was demonstrated among addict group compared with the control group. The immunological parameters of T-helper cells (CD4) and cytotoxic T-cells (CD8) were altered in addicts. The consequences of opiates and cannabinoids were reflected also on the level of the total immunoglobulin G (IgG), where a significant decrease was observed. Prolongation of the duration of addiction and route of addiction enhance the abnormality of the immunophenotypic markers. The observations thus illustrate the complexity of the effects of heroin and cannabinoides on the immune system.

 

 

22/19 CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF SEED ESSENTIAL OILS OF TWO OCIMUM BASILICUM L. VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN EGYPT

M.H.A Gonaid

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy

Cairo University, Kasr-El-Aini Street, 11561, Cairo, Egypt.

GC/MS analysis of the hydro-distilled seed essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L. var.basilicum and Ocimum basilicumL. var. minimum revealed qualitative and quantitative variations. Fourty seven and eighteen components were identified in the two oils corresponding to 99.82 and 98.09% respectively. The examined oils were found to be rich in terpenoid hydrocarbons, the major constituent of O.basilium var. basilicum seed volatiles were linalool (35.74 %) followed by methyl chavicol (estragole) (14.53 %). While, thujene >alpha< (34.64 %) and terpineol >cis- beta-< (23.39 %) were found to be the major components of the seed volatile oil of Ocimum basilium var. minimum. The oxygenated compounds represented 87.34 % and 37.93 % of the identified components of both essential oils respectively. A marked antimicrobial effect was observed for both oils. O.basillicum var. basilicum seed oil showed high antibacterial effect at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 3µ to 13µℓ.; while the MIC for O.basilicum var. minimum was ranging from 3 µℓ to 25 µℓ. The two examined essential oils showed also a significant cytotoxic activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

 

 

23/19 ANTIULCEROGENIC ACTIVITY OF ALHAGI MAURORUN

A.S. Awaad, D.J. Maitland* andG.A. Soliman**

Aromatic and Medicinal plant Department, Desert Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

* Chemistry and forensic medicine Department, School of Life Science, Bradford University , UK

** Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

Six main flavonoidal glycosides were isolated, for the first time, from the ethanolc extract of Alhagi maurorum Boiss (Leguminosae). They were identified as kaempferol, chrysoeriol, isorhamnetin, chrysoeriol-7-o-xylosoid, kaempferol-3-galactorhamnoside and isorhamnetin 3-O-b-D-apio-furanosyl-b-D-galactopyrano-side. Their identities were established by m.p., UV, EI-Mass, Fab-Mass, 600 MHz 1H and 13C NMR. The total extract (300 and 400 mg/kg) and two of the   isolated compounds (chrysoeriol.7-o-xylosoid and kaempferol–3–galactorhamnoside 100 mg/kg each) showed a very promising antiulcerogenic activity with curative ratios; 66.31, 69.57, 75.49 and 77.93 %, respectively.

 

 

24/19 ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POTENT BIODESULFURIZING MICROORGANISMS FROM THE EGYPTIAN ENVIRONMENT

M.E. Mohamed, *A.E. Zakaria ,**B.Y. Riad and***N.S. El-Gendy

Department of Chemistry (Biochemistry Specialty), Faculty of Science, Cairo University.

*Department of Microbiology, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo

**Department of Chemistry ( Organic Specialty) , Faculty of Science, Cairo University.

***Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Cairo

The goal of this work is to isolate potent biodesulfurizing microorganisms (BDSM) from the Egyptian environment and comparing their biodesulfurization potentials with the standard isolate, Rhodococcus sp. Strain IGTS8. In the present investigation 46 different biodesulfurizing bacterial isolates and one yeast isolate were isolated from different local environmental samples. After three successive subcultures, only 16 tolerant isolates were able to survive on basal salts medium-dibenzothiophene (BSM-DBT) plates. The 16 isolates were subjected to different screening techniques in order to test their abilities to utilize the model sulfur compound dibenzothiophene (DBT) as a sole source of sulfur. By applying the plate assay on the BDSM, 50% of the isolates produced color and fluorescence indicating the dominance of codama pathway among the BDSM, while 31% of the isolates produced only fluorescence which might be referred to the 4S biodesulfurization, the rest produced neither color nor fluorescence. DBT-assay in liquid BSM-DBT cultures proved the ability of all the tested microorganisms to grow on 1000ppm of DBT as a sole source of sulfur to a varying extent. The lowest final pH recorded after 7 days was 4.5 for isolate NSh19. According to the results of Gibbs Assay, Phenol assay, BDS% and HPLC analysis of the desulfurization intermediates, four potent BDSM were selected. (NSh6, NSh10, NSh39 and NSh45). They were identified via molecular methods as Rhodococcus sp. NSh6, Agrobacterium sp. NSh10, Arthrobacter sp. NSh39 and the yeast strain NSh45 was identified as Candida parapsilosis.

 

 

25/19 IMMUNOCOMPETENCE IN LEPROSY: ASSESSMENT BY QUANTITATION OF T- CELL AND ITS SUBSETS USING MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES CD3, CD4 AND CD8

E.B. Abd El Aal*, A.A. Aboulata** and M.M. Hamza***

Dermatology, Venereology and Andrology* and Microbiology & Immunology** Departements, Faculty of Medicin, Al-Azhar Univerisity and Tropical Medicine, Aswan Teaching Hospital ***

The clinical forms of leprosy constitute a spectrum that correlates closely with the degree of cell-mediated immunity. Patients with tuberculoid leprosy (TL) develop strong cell-mediated responses and have only a few, localized lesions, whereas patients with multibacillary lepromatous leprosy (LL) are specifically unresponsive to antigens of Myocobacterium leprae. Pan T- lymphocyte; T3, T4 (helper cells), T8 (Supressor cells) and T4/T8 ratio were studied in 50 lepromatous patients and 50 tuberculoid leprosy patients as well as 15 healthy controls using monoclonal antibodies and direct immunofluorescence technique. Significant lymphocytosis was observed among leprosy patients compared to controls. Pan T- lymphocyte T3 and T4 (helper) cells showed significant lymphopenia in LL and TL patients, with insignificant reduction in T8 (Suppresor) cells. Significant reduction of T4/T8 ratio was noticed in LL patients compared to control, while their was no observed changes in this ratio in TL patients compared to control.

 

 

26/19 RHIZOPUS ALLERGY IN ASTHMATIC PATIENTS: DIAGNOSIS AND IMMUNOTHERAPEUTIC TRIAL

Z.A. Ashour, Y.M. Shetaia*, M.Y. Atiha and H.M. Sanad,

Allergy and Immunology Unit of Internal Medicine Department of Ain Shams University Hospitals and *Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science - Ain Shams University

Rhizopus, one of the Mucorales belonging to Zygomycetes, has a potential role in respiratory allergy. Although it is common fungal isolate in Egypt, it was not used before in routine fungal allergy diagnosis nor immunotherapy in Ain Shams Allergy and Immunology Unit. Therefore this study was carried out to identify this fungal allergy in patients with bronchial asthma and to evaluate the role of specific immunotherapy in those patients. The study included 21 patients with bronchial asthma and 19 healthy control subjects. All subjects were examined and the patient group were classified according to their clinical stages and medical scores. Also, skin prick test was done also serum specific IgE (SSIgE) and peripheral blood specific (PBSPIT) were done using Rhizopus extract to confirm the diagnosis. Sixteen patients out of the 21 were subjected to an uncontrolled therapeutic trial using Rhizopus vaccine by the conventional up dosing protocol and reevaluated clinically, medically and serologically follow up using by SSIgE and PBSPIT. Rhizopus allergy was documented in the patient group by positive skin prick testing, positive SSIgE and PBSPIT. We noticed highly significant (P<0.001) improvement in both clinical and medical scoring by specific immunotherapy using Rhizopus extract. This improvement was confirmed by highly significant (P<0.001) improvement of both SSIgE (T = 6.88) and PBSPIT (T = -10.63). Conclusion: Rhizopus is one of fungal allergen in asthmatic patient that necessitates specific immunotherapy.

 

27/19 SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF TENOXICAM IN RAW MATERIALS AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS

H.H. Abu-Seada

Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

Three spectrophotometric procedures have been established for the quantitation of tenoxicam in pure form and pharmaceutical preparations.The first procedure is based on the formation of an ion pair complex between the drug and the basic dye Methylene violet in phosphate buffer which can be measured at the optimum wavelength. The optimization of the reaction conditions is investigated. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range 1 – 9 μg ml−1, LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.105 and 0.35 μg ml−1 respectively. The second procedure involves the reduction of Folin Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent (FCP) by the drug to a blue colored product which exhibited an absorption maximum at 738 nm. Regression analysis of Beer’s plot showed good correlation in the concentration range of 2-16 μg ml−1, LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.238 and 0.793 μg ml−1 respectively. The last method involves the determination of tenoxicam by difference spectrometry, the absorbance of acid drug solutions were measured against the alkaline drug ones at 348nm and calibration graph was plotted which is rectilinear in the range of 4-24 μg ml−1, LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.544 and 1.81 μg ml−1 respectively. The molar absorptivity, specific sensitivity, sandell’s sensitivity and mean recovery were also calculated.The methods were successfully applied to the determination of tenoxicam in its pharmaceutical formulations.

28/19 IN VITRO BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF THREE DIMENSIONAL MATRICES FOR BONE TISSUE ENGINEERING USING SYNTHESIZED CHITOSAN MICROSPHERES.

W.I. Abdel-Fattah*; C.T. Laurencin**; T. Jiang** and G.E. El-Bassyouni*

*Biomaterials Dept., National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

**Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA

The objective of the present study is to synthesize and characterize chitosan with different degree deacetylation (DDA%), prepare chitosan microspheres with controlled chemistry and geometry, and fabricate three dimensional (3-D) chitosan matrices based on microspheres with appropriate pore size, porosity and mechanical properties suitable for bone tissue engineering applications. Three chitosan samples with various chitin DDA% were prepared from crab chitin powder using a thermo-mechano-chemical technique. Samples were analyzed for C, H and N. DDA% was determined using H1-NMR. In addition, thermal analysis was performed to determine weight loss and glass transition temperature of the synthesized chitosan as a function of DDA%. Chitosan microspheres were prepared using an ionotropic gelation method and 3-D chitosan matrices were fabricated according to a sintered microsphere method developed by Laurencin et al. The morphology of the microspheres and matrices was visualized using scanning electron microscopy. The median pore size and porosity of the matrices were determined by mercury intrusion prosimetery. The compressive properties were measured using an Instron mechanical tester. Evaluation of the in vitro biocompatibility of the matrices was investigated by seeding osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells onto the matrices and the cell number was determined by the MTS assay. It is possible to obtain chitosan samples with three DDA% of 69, 79 and 97% depending on the applied pressure and NaOH concentration used for the deacetylation process at constant solid/liquid ratio. Thermal analyses correlate well with DDA%. Mercury intrusion porosimetry revealed a porosity of 19.2% and a median pore diameter of 199.62 μm of the fabricated 3-D matrix. Compressive modulus of the matrix (662.26±54.53 MPa) is in the middle range of human cancellous bone (10-2000 MPa). The cells were observed to adhere and proliferate after seven days of culture on the chitosan matrices with DDA% of 97% prepared at a NaOH concentration of 60% and a pressure of 50 Psi. This study demonstrated that chitosan with different DDA% can be prepared using a thermo-mechano-chemical technique. The 3-D chitosan matrices fabricated based on microspheres have reasonable porosity and appropriate mechanical properties for bone tissue engineering applications. Work is in progress to achieve a compromise between obtaining higher porosity and at the same time maintaining the excellent mechanical properties.

29/19 SUSCEPTIBILITY OF STREPTOCOCCI ISOLATED FROM SAUDI ARABIA AND UNITED KINGDOM TO ANTI-BIOTIC AND BIOCIDES

A.M. Al-Qurashi

Associate Professor, Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, P.O. Box 2114

The response to Antibiotics, Biocides and metals clinical strains ofStreptococci isolated from Saudi Arabia and England were compared. The Activities in vitro of sixteen antibiotics (benzypenicilling, erythromycin, lincomycin, methicillin, rifampi-cine, trimethoprim, vancomycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, Fucidic acid. Genta-mycin, Kanamycin, nalaedixic acid, novobiocin and streptomycin) and biocides (phenolics, parabens, cationic agents and various metal salts) have been assessed against clinically isolated and control strain from UK and Saudi Arabia of Strepto-coccus group A strains (S. pyogenes). The organisms were controlled other and clinical isolates from University Hospital of Wales, UK. The KFHU isolates from King Fahad University Hospital, Al-Khobar. The KAUH isolates from King Abdul-aziz University Hospital, Jeddah. Antibiotics and bicoides: were antibiotic, suscep-tibility testing (1) disc method and (2) minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) from the anti:biotics and MICs from biocides. All strains were ß-lactamase- negative. British Streptococcal strains were sensitive to all antibiotics tested, excepted for genetamicin and streptomycin. The Saudi tested, for strains similar except that some were resistant to gentamicin and erythromycin but all were resistant to Linomycin. The streptococcal strains showed the same degree of response to phenolics parabeus. The British and Saudi strains were equally sensitive to phenylmercuric nitrate.

30/19 ANTIBIOTIC AND BIOCIDES RESISTANCE OF MRSA ISOLATED FROM ICU IN A TEACHING HOSPITAL IN AL-KHOBAR

A.M. Al-Qurashi

Associate Professor and Consultant Microbiologist, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Dammam 31451, Saudi Arabia

The sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from ICU at King Fahd University's Hospital (KFHU), Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia to antibiotics and biocides was examined. The in vitro efficacy of various antibiotics, antiseptics and disinfectants was studied against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) standard strains and clinical isolates. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined.   The MRSA isolates produced beta-lactamase and were resistant to erythro-mycin. Most of the MRSA isolates showed intermediate sensitivity to gentamicin, based on MIC values. No vancomycin intermediate S. aureus (VISA) strain was detected. The isolates were sensitive to rifampicin. MRSA and MSSA strain were equally sensitive to phenolic disinfectants, esters of para (4)-hydroxybenzoic acid and chlorhexidine. Quarternary ammonium compounds (QAC) showed higher MIC values for MRSA strains. Methicillin resistance was associated with resistance to metal ions (cadmium and organic mercury compounds).

 

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