Vol. 20, March, 2006.

1/20 DOSE VARIABILITY IN NUCLEAR MEDICINE FACILITY FOR WORKING SITES AND PERSONNELS

A.A. El Saeid*, I.E. Saad** and O.M. Magrahi**

* Physics Department, Faculty of Science (Girls), Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

** Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Oncology, Faculty of

Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

Nuclear medicine is a medical branch that uses radioactive materials in diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Due to the different activities and the variety of energies of the radioactive materials used in this field, the implementation of radiation protection guidelines, to protect the workers, are therefore crucial. Aim of the work. To study the variation of the TLD measurements for different working staff as well as the variation of doses recorded at different working sites in nuclear medicine unit. Experimental techniques. The doses for the working personnel were measured using TLD crystals for 1 year duration and the average equivalent dose rate at different sites were measured daily for 6 weeks. Results and discussions. The maximum dose that working personnel received was 16.26 mSv, for the physicist and this was due to a radiation accident occurred. But under normal working conditions the maximum dose was recorded for a resident physician who was in charge for a long time during the study, was found to be 8.58 mSv . This value is far according to the recommended substantial reduction of doses from 50 to 20 msv /year to occupationally exposed people..Regarding the weekly measurements at different sites in the nuclear medicine unit starting from Saturday to Thursday, it was found that the maximum measured dose rate equivalent was 28 µSv/hr . This value was recorded at the iodine-131 storage area on delivery day (Sunday) and this due to high energy (364 KeV). Other areas were found to have relatively low doses, such as the hot laboratory background, the generator area, the waiting room and the gamma camera room. Conclusions. The surveying in the nuclear medicine unit is essential procedure in order to maintain a safe working area for the occupational staff members, and to asses the maximum dose he received during existence in the field.

 

 

2/20 PREPARATION OF VAGINAL FLUCONAZOLE HYDROGELS FROM POLYVINYL ALCOHOL BY FREEZING – THAWING PROCESS.

G.A.S. Awad

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University

The aim of this study was to develop fluconazole in an ultra pure polyvinyl alcohol bioadhesive hydrogel, able to deliver the drug in sustained release pattern for local vaginal therapy. The vaginal bioadhesive fluconazole inserts were prepared using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels physically cross-linked by freeze – thaw technique. The effect of changing the concentrations of PVA and polyethylene glycol (PEG) added to the effect of changing the pH of the buffer used during the preparation of the hydrogels on the release of fluconazole and the swelling of the prepared suppositories have been studied. The formula containing the combination of 26.2% PVA and 0.129 % PEG and the one with 17.84%PVA and 0.746 % PEG were found to be promising, for controlling fluconazole release in a diffusional drug release pattern with good welling properties, with the superiority of the later in bioadhesive properties.

 

3/20 THE ROLE OF INOCULUM BUILD-UP IN PRODUCTION OF RIFAMYCIN B BY AMYCOLATOPSIS MEDITERRANEI

M.M.M. Hussein

Microbial Biotechnology Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University.

Improvement of the fermentation process for production of rifamycin B was carried out by optimization of the culture conditions of the producing organism Amycolatopsis mediterranei (NCH). The effect of the use of different regimes of short term preservation of the vegetative growth, as well as the use of different age and size of the inoculum, on rifamycin B production, were studied. The storage of three days old vegetative growth at 4°C for 3 days, the use of six or nine days old vegetative growth to subculture fresh vegetative medium (V2) resulted in a yield of 11.73, 11.76 and 11.72 g/l, respectively, as compared to the yield of the control (three days old vegetative growth, 11.74 g/l), using shake flasks. The application of anova test for analysis of variance of these results revealed that the there is no statistical significant difference between the control and the three previous conditions. The use of three days old vegetative growth and a size of inoculum of 5% were found to be optimum, where the yield of rifamycin B was 16.1 g/l in the fermentor. The use of 5% inoculum from two days old fermentation growth, instead of vegetative growth, was characterized by absence of lag phase, and by a higher consistent production with a yield of 10 g/l at day 5 and its maximum production was 11.5 g/l at day 6, as compared to the use of the control which is characterized by a 48 hours lag phase with a yield of 8 g/l at day 5 and its maximum production was 16.1 g/l at day 8. Further process optimization of the growth and production phases would most certainly further increase the yield to a level at day 8 higher than that obtained with the control, but sufficient economic studies on the cost of labor, power, etc. must be carried out to determine whether the prolongation of the fermentation period is economically beneficial or not.

 

4/20 RAPID-ONSET INTRANASAL DELIVERY OF METOCLOPRAMIDE HYDROCHLORIDE. PART I: INFLUENCE OF FORMULATION VARIABLES ON DRUG ABSORPTION IN ANESTHETIZED RATS

N.M. Zakia, G.A.S. Awada, N.D. Mortadaa, S.S. Abd ElHadyb

aDepartment of Pharmaceutics and bDepartmentof Drug Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Intranasal (IN) administration is a promising approach for rapid-onset delivery of medications and to circumvent their first-pass elimination when taken orally. Metoclopramide (MCP) is a potent antiemetic, effective even for preventing emesis induced by cancer chemotherapy. The feasibility of developing an efficacious intranasal formulation of metoclopramide has been undertaken in this study. The nasal absorption of MCP was studied in anesthetized rats over 60 min using the in-vivo in-situ technique. The influence of several formulation variables viz, pH and addition of preservative, viscosity and absorption enhancing agents on the nasal MCP absorption was examined. The data obtained showed that MCP was well absorbed nasally where almost 90% of the drug was absorbed after 60 min from the rat nasal cavity. The MCP absorption was pH- dependant such that the apparent first-order rate constant of absorption (Kapp)was almost tripled when the pH of the solution was increased from 5 to 8. However, deviation from the classical pH- partition theory was observed pointing to the role of aqueous pore pathway in MCP nasal absorption. The Kapp was significantly increased (P<0.05) by incorporation of 0.01% of the preservative benzalkonium chloride. Conversely, increasing the solution viscosity by the use of hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose adversely affected the rate of absorption. The use of enhancers namely sodium deoxycholate, sodium cholate, chitosan low and high molecular weight, protamine sulphate and poly-L-arginine resulted in significant increase in MCP absorption. The highest promoting effect was observed with the bile salt sodium deoxycholate where about 92% of the drug was absorbed in 25 min from the rat nasal cavity and the Kapp showed more than two-fold increase as compared to control (from 0.0452 min-1 to 0.1017 min-1 ).

 

5/20 PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF TINIDAZOLE MICROPARTICLES USING EMULSION SOLVENT EVAPORATION METHOD

A.A. Metwally, N.D.S. Mortada, G.A.S. Awad, A.S. Geneidi.

Departmentof Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Tinidazole, in a single daily dose, is widely used against giardiasis and amebiasis endemic in Egypt especially in school-age children. However, it suffers from a very bitter taste. So the present work aims to mask this unpleasant taste. To accomplish this tinidazole microspheres and microcapsules have been prepared by the emulsion solvent evaporation method using ethylcellulose and Eudragit E®100 as encapsulating polymers. These polymers have excellent encapsulating properties in addition of being compatible with tinidazole. The prepared microspheres and microcapsules were evaluated for their yield, drug loading, surface properties, particle size distribution, encapsulation efficiency and taste properties. Microcapsules of tinidazole : ethylcellulose in 3:1 ratio showed optimum characteristics with drug loading of 68.66±4.93 and relatively optimum taste characteristics. The encapsulation efficiency of this preparation was 91.55±6.57 while the yield was 71.25±1.05. In addition, this formula showed a 100% drug release in 0.1 N HCl in less than two hours.

 

 

6/20 ANTHROPOMORPHIC STUDY OF FETAL KIDNEY (RENAL VOLUME MEASUREMENT) IN GROWTH RESTRICTED FETUSES

I.B. Abd Rabou* and A.M. Ramadan**

Obstetrics and Gynecology*, Diagnostic Radiology** Departments, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Hypertension and cardiovascular strokes are major threats to life. Intrauterine growth restriction and the accompanied renal changes may be one mechanism that may lead to hypertension later in adult life. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine whether measurement of renal volume and renal artery blood flow differ in growth-restricted fetuses (IUGR). Patients and Methods: One hundred-fifty-four pregnant women (69 with IUGR and 85 with non- IUGR fetuses) referred to ultrasound unit between 29-42 weeks of gestation were included. Fetal biometry, biophysical profile, renal volume and renal artery blood flow were assessed. Results: No differences were found with respect to maternal age, parity, weight, body mass index, blood pressure or fetal gestational age. Renal volume of IUGR group was 29.5% less than that of non-IUGR group (P < .0001) (median volume 9.8 cm3 (range 2.4-18.9 cm3) for IUGR versus 13.9 cm3 (range, 5.8-30.2 cm3) for non-IUGR fetuses; P < .003). The ratio of renal volume to estimated fetal weight was 12% less than non-IUGR group (P < .032). There was no statistical significant difference between the two groups regarding renal artery blood flow measurements. Conclusion: IUGR fetuses showed a significant decrease in renal volume. Because fetal renal volume measurement is a likely proxy for nephron number, this study supports the hypothesis that intrauterine growth restriction may be linked to congenital oligonephropathy and may lead to hypertension in later life.

 

 

7/20 PRETERM LABOUR AND ITS RELATION TO BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS AND FETAL FIBRONECTIN

M.A.B. Gamal*, H.A. Gomaa** and E.M. Khashan***

Microbiology Department*, Biochemistry Department**, Faculty of Pharmacy, El-Margeb, University & Medical Technology of Mosrata***, Great Socialist People's Libyan Jamahiriya

Preterm delivery (PTD) is the leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological association between PTD and various bacteria that are part of the vaginal microflora has been reported. Bacterial vaginosis is believed to be a risk factor for preterm delivery. The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between bacterial vaginosis, cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin level and the preterm delivery of infant with low birth weight. In this study a total of 288 pregnant women were enrolled during the period between May 2004 to June 2005 at El-Khoms Hospital, El-Margeb, Great Socialist People's Libyan Jamahiriya. The present study revealed that the presence of bacterial vaginosis was related to preterm delivery of a low birth weight infants. The highest risk of preterm delivery of low birth weight infants was found among those with vaginal Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis and Bacteroides spp. (6.3%), as well as women with vaginal Mycoplasma hominis, Bacteroides spp and Escherichia coli (5.9%). However Lactobacillus spp. had no effect on poor pregnancy outcome and play no role with preterm delivery of infants with low birth weight. There was also a strong relation between cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin and isolation of Mycoplasm hominis, Bacteroides spp. and Escherichia coli. In conclusion, that the effect of the abnormal vaginal flora was an independent predictor of preterm delivery. Cervicovaginal measurement of fetal fibronectin in combination with detection of bacterial vaginosis may be useful for evaluation of pregnant women with threatened premature delivery of low birth weight infants.

 

 

8/20 ATYPICAL SQUAMOUS CELLS OF UNDETERMINED SIGNIFICANCE: PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

I.B. Abd Rabou and W.H. Abbas**

Obstetries and Gynecology* and Pathology** Departments, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors predictive of dysplasia of the cervix among women seen with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) on Papanicolaou smears (Pap) of the cervix. Methods: Three-hundred and fourteen women were screened by Pap smear for ASCUS cytology because of contact bleeding, persistent vaginal discharge, history of sexually transmitted diseases (including human papilloma virus, HPV) or as part of cancer screening. Cytologic smears of ASCUS were subtyped into reactive or suggestive of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL). Age, parity, gravidity, menopausal status, use of hormone replacement therapy, smoking, history of HPV infection, previous abnormal Pap smears or colposcopic examination, all were thoroughly taken and recorded. Pelvic ultrasound, colposcopic examination and colposcopic directed biopsies and endocervical curettage (ECC) were done. Endometrial sampling was done whenever indicated. The prevalence of dysplasia was calculated. The demographic features of women with ASCUS favor reactive were compared to those with ASCUS favor SIL. Risk factors predictive of dysplasia were calculated. Results: Sixty-four patients with ASCUS were diagnosed with an incidence of 20.4% among the study population. Of these, 32 patients had ASCUS favor reactive and 32 had ASCUS favor SIL. No statistical significant difference was found as regard demographic characteristics between women with ASCUS favor reactive and those with ASCUS favor SIL. The overall prevalence of dysplasia was 15.6% and was significantly higher in women who had ASCUS favor SIL (25%) than those who had ASCUS favor reactive (6.2%) (P = .003). Smoking, history of HPV and ASCUS cytology subtype were significantly risk factors for dysplasia (P = 0.03, 0.04 and 0.003 respectively). Conclusion: Cervical dysplasia prevalence was higher among ASCUS favor SIL and significantly higher in smokers and who had history of HPV infection. ASCUS favor reactive smears were successfully managed with repeated smears. Colposcopy must be done for cases with ASCUS favor SIL or persistent ASCUS favor reactive smears.

 

9/20 Electrical muscle stimulation as new method for enhanced transdermal delivery of tenoxicam in patients

M.A. El-Nabarawi

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy,

Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

This article aimed to investigate the accessibility of AB Tronic fitness device (electrical muscle stimulator) for the transdermal delivery of tenoxicam in patients. Tenoxicam gel was prepared by dispersing 1% of carbopol 940 in a mixture of water and propylene glycol with drug (2%) and then neutralized with triethanolamine and adjust pH to 7.4. Fifteen human patients, suffering from stiff and painful shoulder participated in this study under supervision of a physician and were divided into three groups. Tenoxicam gel was applied to each patient shoulder in three different ways: method I) add gel to first group only (passive transport, PT); method II) add gel to second group and then applying AB Tronic device (1pulse/second) for 10 minutes; method III) for third group applying AB Tronic device (1pulse/second) for 10 minutes then removes the device and then add gel. Pain and stiffness was relieved in the following decreasing order: method II > method III > method I. The pharmacokinetic parameters and area under the curve were calculated from blood levels of the drug revealed that method II showed higher AUC than method III then method I. It was concluded that addition of gel and applying AB Tronic device was the most interesting way for the application, where lag time was markedly reduced suggesting a faster penetration of drug into the skin to relieve the pain.

 

 

10/20 ESTIMATION OF FETAL HUMEROSPINOUS DISTANCE: AN ULTRASONOGRPHIC PREDICTION OF MACROSOMIA AND SHOULDER DYSTOCIA

I.B. Abd Rabou* and E.H. El-Gohary**

Obstetrics and Gynecology* and Pediatric** Departments, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Macrosomia is associated with significant neonatal and maternal morbidities particularly when shoulder dystocia occurred specially in diabetic pregnancies. The present study was undertaken to find a practical method for estimating fetal shoulder width (FSW) by ultrasound as a predictor of shoulder dystocia. Sixty pregnant women at term were included in the study. The distance between the lateral margin of the fetal cartilaginous caput humeri and the processus spinosus of the cervical vertebra C7 (humerospinous distance) was measured by ultrasound. The neonatal shoulder width was measured with calibrated scale with birth weight during the first postnatal day. Linear regression was used to calculate the correlation between the humerospinous distance and shoulder width and birth weight. A significant linear correlation was found between humerospinous distance and shoulder width (r = 0.612, P < 0.001). Fetal weight was also correlated significantly with humerospinous distance (r = 0.485, P < 0.001). Five cases with shoulder dystocia were found. No statistical significant difference between humerospinous distance, shoulder width and birth weight of infants exposed to shoulder dystocia and those who did not. Because some cases of shoulder dystocia occurred in non-macrosomic infants, pelvimetry in suspected cases is recommended in combination with humerospinous distance to avoid shoulder dystocia in non-macrosomic infants.

11/20 PROTECTIVE ROLE OF AQUEOUS GARLIC EXTRACT ON PARAQUAT –INDUCED LUNG INJURY IN RATS

M.A. Abd El Kader; A.A. Fyiadand *S.M. Soliman

Biochemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt   and   *National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo, Egypt

The ability of garlic extract (GE) to protect rat lung from the herbicide paraquat (PQ) - induced injury was evaluated. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were injected with a single intraperitoneal dose of PQ (25 mg / kg.) which induced lung injury after 24 hours as evidenced by histopathological changes associated with a significant increased level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and a significant decrease in the non-enzymatic antioxidants, reduced glutathione (GSH) and vitamin C. Insignificant increase in vitamin E level was also observed. The data demonstrated also that PQ caused a decrease in the activities of enzymatic antioxidants, catalase (CAT); superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Treatment of rats daily with GE (500 mg/kg.), three doses before and four doses following the injection of PQ prevented the rise in TBARS content in lung tissue.   In addition PQ- induced reduction in lung GSH; vitamin C as well as the antioxidant enzymes system CAT, SOD and GPx was abolished by GE treatment and was accompanied with attenuation of the induced histopathological changes in lung. The results confirm the involvement of free radicals in the pathogenesis of lung damage by PQ. Also these findings indicate that the beneficial effect of GE on PQ toxicity may be through enhancement of the endogenous antioxidant system preventing the lung damage.

12/20 TRANSCRIPTION–MEDIATED AMPLIFICATION VERSUS POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FOR DETECTION OF RESIDUAL SERUM HEPATITIS C VIRUS RNA IN PATIENTS WITH DIFFERENT VIROLOGIC RESPONSE AT THE END OF TREATMENT

A.A. Aboulata1, E.A. Gouda1, A.S. Elharoun2, K.M. Desouky3

Microbiology1 and General Medicine3 Departments, Faculty of Medicine,

Al-Azhar University and Microbiology Department2, Faculty of Medicine,

Menoufia University.

In patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) undergoing antiviral therapy, relapse occurred within 6 months after discontinuation of therapy in some of them. It is conceivable that polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays with a lower detection limit of 100 HCV-RNA copies/ml are still too insensitive to detect residual viremia. Transcription mediated amplification (TMA) can detect residual serum HCV RNA in patients who achieved apparent viral clearance by End of treatment (EOT) and subsequently relapsed. So, we compare between TMA and reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) methods for detection of residual serum HCV RNA in follow up of treatment of 114 HCV chronic liver disease (CLD) patients receiving antiviral therapy. Serum samples were obtained from each patient at EOT (24 weeks) and during follow up (24-26 weeks) after cessation of antiviral therapy from; EOT responders (35 patients) and control groups [sustained responders (41 patients) and nonresponders (38 patients)]. All samples were tested by RT-PCR based assays (Amplicor 2.0 HCV system) and by (TMA). TMA is an isothermal, autocatalytic target amplification method that has the potential to detect less than 50 HCV-RNA copies/ml. According to RT-PCR results HCV-RNA was detected by the TMA-based assay in 13 of 35 (37.1%) EOT and 19 of 35 (54. 3%) follow-up samples from EOT responders P< 0.001 and P< 0.0001, but not in any of the EOT or follow-up samples from sustained responders. While in one non responder patient, TMA-based assay could not detect HCV-RNA in his serum samples at both EOT and follow-up (2.6%). The TMA-based assay detected HCV-RNA in higher significant relapsing rate with interferon-α [INF- α] (52.1%) than in combination therapy (INF-α + ribavirin) 8.3% in EOT responders P<0.0001. Also, HCV genotypes response to treatment modalities showed: Success rates in combined therapy as the following, 100% in genotypes 1,2,4 and 63.6% in genotype 3. While, in monotherapy the failure rates of treatment were high in genotype 3 (94.7%) and low in genotype 4 (33.3%). In conclusion, residual serum HCV-RNA can be detected at the EOT and follow up by TMA in a considerable proportion of patients who were classified by RT-PCR as EOT responders with a subsequent virologic relapse later on.


13/20 PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF PEMULEN®-BASED FLUCONAZOLE EMULGELS

N.D. Mortada

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Egypt

Pemulens® are hydrophobically modified acrylic acid copolymers. Due to the lipophilic and hydrophilic moieties in their structure, and viscosity enhancing properties, they are designated as polymeric emulsifiers. In the present study Pemulen® TR-1 was used to prepare emulgels of fluconazole, a synthetic anti-fungal drug. The polymer was used either solely or in combination with a nonionic surfactant (tween 80) and carbopol 934 as a thickener. The prepared emulgels were evaluated regarding their physical appearance, rheological behaviour, drug release, physical stability and anti-fungal activity. Emulgels with acceptable properties and consistency were obtained. Mathematical models revealed that the rheological flow of all the prepared emulgels followed the Herschel and Bulckley model. Samples containing tween 80 and/or carbopol exhibited high rheological parameters, with evidence of interaction between Pemulen® and the surfactant. On the other hand, the used additives had opposite effects concerning drug release, the surfactant enhanced the drug release while carbopol caused its retardation. Formula F4 (0.4%w/w Pemulen and 1%w/w tween 80) showed superior stability, concerning rheological characteristics, as well as anti-fungal activity.    

14/20 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF METAL COMPLEXES OF PHENYLAMINO ACETIC ACID PYRIDINE-2-YLMETHYLENE HYDRAZIDE.

S.A. Aly and M. Abd El-Mongy

Department of Enviromental Biotechnology and Microbial Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Minufiya University,

Sadat City, Egypt

Phenylamino acetic acid pyridine-2-ylmethylene hydrazide and its UO2(VI), Sn(IV), ZrO(IV), Ti(IV) and Th(IV) complexes have been synthesized and characterized by IR, elemental analyses and TGA. The ligand behaves as monobasic bidentate or tridentate and neutral bidentate or tetradentate. Coordination take place in all complexes via azo methine nitrogen atom, (C-N) of pyridyl ring and the latter via two (NH) groups in tetradentate coordination. The ligand gives binuclear complex. Antimicrobial activity of the compound have been investigated against Streptococcus pyogenes and E.coli. Staphylococcus aurous which have been found to be sensitive towards such complexes. The preliminary antimicrobial screeing test was performed by using disc diffusion method. Whatman filter paper No. 1 discs were sterilized by autoclaving. The sterile discs were incubated at 37 oC and the inhibition of microbial growth was tested after 24 hrs.

 


15/20 PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND IN VITRO RELEASE OF INDOMETHACIN INCLUSION COMPLEX WITH β-CYCLODEXTRIN AND HYDROXY PROPYL β-CYCLODEXTRIN

M.S. Soliman

Pharmaceutics Department Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University

Objectives. This study describes the formation of inclusion complex by solid dispersions of indomethacin using β-cyclodextrin and HPβ-cyclodextrin as carriers, to improve the solubility and dissolution of the drug. Methods: The preparation of solid dispersion was carried out by using solvent method. The drug and carriers were dissolved in alcohol and subjected to solvent evaporation by a rotary evaporator. The residual powdered preparation was allowed to dry overnight in a laminar flow hood, pulverized and sieved through # 40 mesh. The resultant dispersion was filled in capsules and also compressed as tablets for comparison. The in vitro dissolution testing of the dosage forms was performed in distilled water and phosphate buffer pH 7.2. Characterization of inclusion complex and physical mixtures was further evaluated using Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction. Results. The results suggest that all prepared formulae as inclusion complex of indomethacin with β-cyclodextrin and HPβ-cyclodextrin showed a remarkable improvement in dissolution profiles in both dissolution media distilled water and phosphate buffer at pH 7.2. Also decreasing the drug-to-carrier ratios dramatically increased the release of drug and the amount of drug dissolved. X-ray diffraction indicated loss of crystalline nature of the drug, FT-IR, DSC studies revealed no interaction between drug and β-cyclodextrin and HPβ-cyclodextrin. Conclusion. Therefore, inclusion complex of indomethacin with β-cyclodextrin and HPβ-cyclodextrin appears to have the advantage of dissolution enhancement and that may lead to improved bioavailability.

 

16/20 BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY, SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF METAL COMPLEXES OF HYDRAZONE DERIVATIVES.

F.A. El-Saied 1; S.A. Aly1*, T.I. Kasher2 and M. Abd El-Mongy

1,2 Department of chemistry, Faculty of Science, Minoufia University, Shebin, El-Kom, Egypt

1* Department of Enviromental Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Menoufia University, Sadat City, Egypt.

Department of Microbial Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Minoufia University, Sadat City, Egypt .

Complexes of UO2(VI) acetate, UO2(VI) nitrate, Sn(IV) chloirde, Ti(IV) acetate and Th(IV) with phenyl amino acetic acid furan-2-ylmethylene hydrazide have been synthesized and characterized by IR, elemental analyses and TGA. The ligand behaves as monobasic, bidentate, tridentate or neutral bidentate, tetradentate. Coordination took place in all complexes via azo methine nitrogen atom,(O-C-O) of furan ring and via (NH) groups in tetradentate coordination. The ligand gave binuclear complex Antimicrobial activity of the compound have been investigated against Streptococcus pyogenes and E.coli. The complexes are effective against such bacteria.

 


17/20 MACRO- AND MICROMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF BUDDLEIA ASIATICA LOUR. AND BUDDLEIA   MADAGASCARIENSIS   LAM. GROWING IN EGYPT AND CHEMICAL STUDY OF THE VOLATILE OIL OF BUDDLEIA ASIATICA LOUR.

M.M. Fathy, R.H. Al-sofany, H.A. Kassem and Z.A. Kandil

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Egypt.

The macro-and micromorphological characters of the stem, leaf and flower of both Buddleia asiatica Lour. and Buddleia madagascariensis Lam. growing in Egypt have been studied in order to find out the diagnostic features which can help in the identification of these organs in both entire and powdered forms. Also, the chemical composition of the volatile oils of the leaves and the flowers of Buddleia asiatica Lour. was studied using GC/MS analysis. Thirty one and twenty one components were identified in the volatile oils of the leaves and flowers respectively. The examined oils are rich in oxygenated compounds, 63.77% and 90.28%, while hydrocarbons represent 29.47% and 5.04% in the oils of the leaves and flowers respectively. The major components were identified as ethyl hydroquinone (9.61%), estragole (8.44%) and phytol (8.07%) in the leaf oil, while linalool (40.68%) was the major component of the flower oil.

 

18/20 SITE DIRECTED MUTAGENSIS IN WALKER A NUCLEOTIDE BINDING SITE OF SbcC PROTEIN OF E. COLI AS A MEMBER OF THE STRUCTURAL MAINTENANCE OF CHROMOSOME (SMC) FAMILY OF PROTEINS

M.M. Youssef and *S.A. Habib

FROM

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University

*Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science (Damietta), Mansoura University

SMC proteins are characterized by having Walker A- and B- nucleotide binding sites, and DA box. The Escherichia coli SbcC protein is a prokaryotic SMC protein that is involved in the recombinational repair of DNA. In this work, the amino acid lysine43 (Lys 43) in the Walker A nucleotide binding site of the E. coli SbcC protein was mutated to glutamine (Gln) using site directed mutagenesis. Both wild type and mutated SbcC proteins were expressed and purified. The mutated SbcC protein has no ATPase activity and this indicates that the Walker A nucleotide binding site has a structural functional role in the SbcC protein activity.

19/20 ENVIRONMENTAL AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF METAL TOXICITY IN POLLUTED LAKE MANZALA AREA, EGYPT.

M.M. Zaky*, M.E. Metwaly**, S.Y. Edabaa***, E. May****, J. Mitchell****

and M. Ford****

*Biological and Geological Sciences Department, Faculty of Education at Port-Said, Suez Canal University, Egypt.

**Department of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt.

***Department of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, El-Azhar University, Egypt.

****School of Biological Sciences, Portsmouth University, U.K.

Lake Manzala is the most important lake economically and commercially in fish production in Egypt, which is situated in east of Nile Delta. Between the Damietta branch of the river Nile and the Suez Canal, the Mediterranean area is immediately north of the narrow coast which separates the two water bodies. Lake Manzala receives high load of different types of polluted waste water effluents, agricultural, industerial, and untreated domestic, from many drains,such as, Ramsis, Hadous drain, El-Sirw drain and Bahr El-Bakar drain, which disposes off more than 1.5 million m3/day.This pollution condition has increased the levels and accumulation of toxic metals, such as Zn, Hg, Pb and Cd in food chain in the lake environment, where Hg reached 5000 mg/L in El-Kapoty area, Lead 145 µg/L in El-Mataryia area and Cd 43.5 µg/L in El-Kapoty area, which are higher than the international standards of such metals.In Lake Manzala Hg, Pb and Cd reached 280 µg/g, 19 µg/g and 2.6 g/g respectively in Tilapia spp which are the traditional food consumed by humans in these populations. These figures have been reflected on the levels of these toxicants in human urine excretion in this area, where the mean values of Hg, Pb and Cd are 8647 µg/L, 1414 µg/L and 8000 µg/L respectively including males, females and children on the other hand control samples were 892 µg/L, 935 µg/L and 176 µg/L respectively. This explains the increase of many diseases, such as, skeletal, hepatic, neurological, psychological and high fatality of renal damage among people in the lake area.

 

20/20 BIOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF SOME NATURAL PRODUCTS USED IN FOLK MEDICINE AS DIURETICS AND REMOVAL OF KIDNEY STONES.

S.M. Abdel Wahab, N.M. El-Fiki, W.M.A. Amin, Sh.F. Mostafa. and F.E.M. Fadel*

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El-Aini Street, 1152, Egypt.

Urology Department, El-Sahel El-Ta-alemy Hospital, Shobra, Cairo.

Evaluation of Zea mays L, styles and stigmas (corn-silk), Hordeum vulgare L. caryopsis (barley grains), Raphanus sativus L. roots, leaves and seeds (radish) for their diuretic, natriuretic, kaliuretic and chloruretic effect revealed that corn-silk is the best diuretic with moderate loss of sodium, potassium and the least chloride ions loss. The second diuretic was barley grains (hull-less) showing the least loss in sodium and potassium ions and moderate chloride ions loss. Radish revealed moderate diuretic activity but with high loss in sodium, potassium and chloride ions. Barley grains with hull was proved to be the least efficient diuretic drug with high electrolytes loss. Phytochemical screening of herbal drugs revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, carbohydrates and/or glycosides, sterols and/or triterpenoids in all drugs under investigation. In addition, volatile oil were detected in corn silk, radish roots and seeds only. Alkaloids are present in all drugs except in radish leaves. Element analysis of herbal drugs revealed the presence of oxygen, magnesium, silicon, phosphorous, sulphur, chloride, potassium, calcium and iron with variable percentages. Higher percentage of potassium and calcium were detected in corn silk and radish leaves respectively. Lithium was detected in least amount in herbal drugs except in radish leaves. Sodium was absent in all. Higher antimicrobial activity was proved by barley grains and corn silk against gram negative bacteria mainly Pseudomonous aerugenosa and a mild effect against Proteus vulgaris. They also showed moderate activity against gram positive Sarcina lutea. Radish seeds possess moderate activitity on both gm –ve and gm +ve bacteria, while leaves show activity only against gm +ve bacteria: E.coli was moderately inhibited by barley grains and radish leaves. Antifungal activity against Candida species was detected only by corn silk and radish seeds. Clinical investigation of katroon and zaytonet bany Israel (two mineral drugs) revealed their potency for expelling calculi of calcium oxalate and calcium oxide stones both in vivo treatment and in vitro experiment. Minerals and trace elements analysis revealed higher percentages of oxygen, sodium, calcium and lithium in katroon while zaytonet bany Israel showed higher percentages of silicon, aluminium, chloride, potassium and titanium.

 

21/20 IMPROVING IMMUNE RESPONSE AGAINST NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS GROUP C IN LABORATORY ANIMALS USING CAPSULAR POLYSACCHARIDE / PROTEIN CONJUGATE VACCINE PREPARED BY REDUCTIVE AMINATION METHOD

N.S. Barakat*, Z. Kamel**, Y. El Mashad***, A. Shehata*, M. Diab*

and M. Hassnin***

Research Department, The Holding Company for Biological Products & Vaccines*

Professor of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University**

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University,*

The effect of conjugating meningococcal group C capsular polysaccharide (CPS) to a carrier protein (tetanus toxoid) (TT) on improving the immune response against Neisseria meningitides group C was studied .A conjugate vaccine was prepared by using meningococcal group C capsular polysaccharide and a purified fraction of tetanus toxoid protein by using the new reductive amination method . Conjugation was proved by chemical methods and the vaccine was found to contain carbohydrate and protein in the ratio 1.1:1 respectively. The vaccine was tested in laboratory animals (Swiss albino mice) using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay .The group of mice injected with this conjugate vaccine showed the best immune response against meningococcal group C as regards the production of antibodies against group C CPS , compared to current traditional CPS vaccine. A boosting effect of this conjugate vaccine was detected using a third immunization which was not detected by using the capsular polysaccharide vaccine. This indicates also a T- cell response resulting from immunization by this conjugate vaccine.

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