Vol 21, July, 2006.

1/21 ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF RECOMBINANT HUMAN

INTERFERON a - TO RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS (RVFV)

AND RELATED MX-PROTEIN POTENTIAL AS A BIOMARKER

A.M. Fahmy and S.A. Shoman

Egyptian Organization for Biological Products and Vaccines (VACSERA Holding

Company), Giza, Egypt.

bMicrobiology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abassia,

Cairo, EGYPT.

The therapeutic role of recombinant human interferon alpha (rh-IFN-a) to control Rift Valley Fever (RVF) viral infection was monitored both in vitro and in vivo in order to evaluate the antiviral activity of interferon. The antiviral activity is attributed to the mx protein developed due to the expression of mx gene in cell lines sensitive to RVF virus (CER, Vero and BHK). Protective capacity (PC50) of rh-IFN-a to cell lines against RVF viral infection was determined by assessment of the RVF virus infectivity titer declining rate and relative residual living cell count using both MTT assay and the determination of hepatic viral load post rh-IFN-a treatment. It was concluded that rh-IFN-a can be used to share and to integrate with the control program of RVF viral infection.

2/21 NEW ANTIHYPERTENSIVE ALKALOIDS FROM CASIMIROA

EDULIS FRUITS

A.S. Awaad, D.J. Maitland* and S.M. Moneir **

Aromatic and Medicinal plant Department, Desert Research Center, and Cairo, Egypt.

* Chemistry and forensic medicine Department, School of Life Science, Bradford

University, UK

** Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

The extract of Casimiroa edulis Llave et Lax was investigated for antihypertension activity. The ethanol and total alkaloids (in chloroform) extracts were found to have antihypertension properties at doses of 500 and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Four quinolinone alkaloids were isolated and identified as: 2-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-5,8-dimethoxy'3-propylquinoline-4 (IH)-one (1); 5,8-dimethoxy-2- (3-methoxyphenyl)-3-propylquinoline-4 (IH)-one (2); 5,8-dimethoxy-2-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-propylquinoline-4 (IH)-one (3); and 5,6-dimethoxy-2-(2,5,6-trimethoxyphenyl)-lH-quinoline-4-one (4). Identification of these compounds and elucidation of their structures were carried out by using UV/vis, IR, 'HNMR, I3CNMR 2DNMR and El-mass spectrometry. Interestingly, compounds 1, 2 and 3 were found to be new alkaloids. The four isolated alkaloids showed antihypertensive activity at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively.

3/21 ANTIOXIDANT AND OTHER BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF SISYMBRIUMERYSJMOIDES DESS, FL. ATLANT,

A.S. Awaad, N.A. Eljaber*, DJ. Maitland** and G.A. Soliman***

Aromatic and Medicinal plant Department, Desert Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

*Chemistry Department, College of Science (grails sections), King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA.

** Chemistry and forensic medicine Department, School of Life Science, Bradford University, UK.

***Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

Sisymbrium erysimoides Dess., FL Atlant (cruciferae) was subjected to study the pharmacological use and isolate the compounds responsible for these activities. All extracts of the plant under investigation (total alcohol, ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol) were tested for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. A significant effect was observed especially those of ethyl acetate and butanol extracts. The activities were due to high flavonidal content (6.25 %) and their antioxidant activity.This activity was correlated to the isolation of seven flavonoidal compounds from the combined butanol and ethyl acetate extracts. The isolated compounds were identified as apigenin, apigenin -7-O-fl-galctoside, apigenin -7-O-fi-rhamnoside, apigenin -7-O-ft-glucuronide, apigenin -7-O-ft-D(2^-O-a-L- rhamnosyl) galactoronide, Kampferol, and kampferol-3-xyloside-7-galactoside.. Their identities were established by m.p., UV, El-Mass, 600 MHz !H and 13C NMR.

4/21 EFFECT OF GAMMA RADIATION ON THE THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MAKROFOL POLYCARBONATE NUCLEAR

TRACK DETECTOR

A.A. EL Saeid

Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Girl branch, Egypt.

The effect of gamma dose on the thermal properties of Makrofol Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD) was investigated. Non isothermal studies were carried out using Thermo-Gravimetry (TG) and Differential Thermo-Gravimetric (DTG) to obtain the thermal activation energy of decomposition for Makrofol detector. Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) indicated that the Makrofol samples decompose in one main break down stage. Samples from 300 urn thickness sheets were exposed to gamma doses in the range 5-100 KGy. The variation of transition temperatures with the gamma dose has been determined using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA). The results indicated that the irradiation with gamma in the dose range 5-20 KGy decreases the melting temperature of the Makrofol samples and this is most suitable fox applications requiring the molding of this polymer at lower temperatures. While, in the dose range 20-100 KGY the thermal stability of Makrofol polymer increases, thus increasing the life time of articles made from this polymer.

5/21 EFFECT OF SOME INSULIN SENSITIZERS ON AORTIC

ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION AND LIPID PEROXIDATION OF

STREPTOZOTOCIN- INDUCED DIABETIC MALE RATS

B.H. El-Zawahry, N.M. El-Baz*, F.A. Youssef and L.A. Ahmed**

Physiology, Pharmacology* and Biochemistry** Departments, Faculty of Medicine

(Girls), Al-Azhar University

Abnormalities in vascular function are well recognized in diabetes. Hyperglycemia may be central to the pathogenesis of vascular function, but is not certain whether improvements in glycaemic control will improve vascular function. In this study, we compared the effects of the two insulin sensitizers, rosiglitazone (thiazolidinedione derivative) andmetformin (a biguanide) on lipid peroxidation and endothelial function in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Methods: Thirty two male albino rats were classified into 4 equal groups. One group left as non diabetic (control). The other 3 groups were injected intraperitoneally by 50mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ)to induce diabetes. One group of STZ-diabetic rats was left diabetic.while the other 2 groups were treated for 4 weeks with either rosiglitazone (Rosi.),144ug/kg/day or metformin (Met.),150ug/kg/day orally by means of gastric gavage tube .After 4 weeks, fasting blood samples were collected for determination of plasma glucose, LDLc, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARs) and nitric oxide (NO). Animals were sacrificed and carotid arteries were excised for determination of endothelial superoxide dismutase (SOD), while thoracic aorta was cut into strips to study the vascular function. The effect of Rosi. and Met. on the contraction elicited by L-phenylepherine (PE) and potassium chloride (KCl), and the relaxation induced by acetyl choline (ACh) and sodium nitroprosside (SNP) were measured. Results: STZ injection led to significant increase of the plasma glucose, LDL and TBARs and significant decrease of the plasma NO and endothelial SOD (P<0.0005). Both drugs could lower TBARs and elevate SOD and NO significantly, while only Rosi. could lower plasma LDLc significantly, compared to STZ-diabetic rats. The in vitro study revealed that, in STZ-diabetic rats, the contractive responses of thoracic aortic strips to PE and Kcl were enhanced and the relaxation responses to ACh and SNP were depressed. Treatment with both drugs reversed the enhanced PE and KCl-induced contraction to normal. Also, both drugs markedly enhanced the vasorelaxant effect of Ach, but Rosi. had insignificant effect on SNP-induced relaxation in comparison to Met. Incubation of aorta with L-nito arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), produced impairment of the relaxation response to ACh in diabetic rats. This effect was partly reversed in Rosi. group. However L-NAME blocked Ach-induced relaxation in Met. group. Conclusion: Our results showed that oxidc^;--stress and vascular dysfunction were evident in STZ-diabetic rats, and indicated thai, both drugs improve the vascular function, reduced the enhanced lipid peroxidation as detected by TBARs and attenuated the effect of diabetes on SOD and NO production irrespective of their glycaemic control. So both drugs considered as cardioprotective agent in diabetics.

6/21 CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF IXORA PARVIFLORA VAHL. FLOWERS

M. H. Gonaid and A. A. Sleem

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy,Cairo University, Kasr El-Amy,

Cairo, 11562-Egypt.

Pharmacology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

Five compounds viz: chlorogenic acid (1), apigenin (2), quercetin (3), apigenin-7-O-fi-D-glucopyranoside (4), and quercetin-3-O-fi-D- galactopyranoside (5) were isolated for the first time from the alcoholic extract of the flowers of Ixora parviflora Vahl. The isolated compounds were identified by analyzing their different physico-chemical and spectral data viz: (U.V., MS and !H-NMR) structural confirmation was obtained by comparison with the available reference samples and previously published data. Median lethal dose LD50, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic and cytotoxic activities were carried out. Promising results were obtained.

7/21 INFLUENCE OF COMBINED ADMINISTRATION OF ISRADIPINE

OR FOSINOPRIL WITH PARACETAMOL ON OXIDATIVE

BALANCE IN YEAST-INDUCED FEVER IN HYPERTENSIVE

RATS.

N.I. Bid, N.F. Hamed and S.A. Kenawy

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University,

Cairo, Egypt.

Hypertension as well as elevated body temperature -were shown to be associated •with increased reactive oxygen species production. Two sets of animals were used.

One set was rendered hyperthermic by subcutaneous injection of yeast (4 gm/kg). The second set of animals was rendered hypertensive by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME) which was orally administered in a daily dose of 50 mg/kg for three consecutive weeks. Twenty four hours after the last dose of L-NAME, yeast was administered subcutaneously. The results showed that subcutaneous injection of yeast suspension produced significant elevation of body temperature in both normal and hypertensive rats. In addition, blood lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, blood glutathione (GSH) as well as blood and brain lipidperoxides measured as (MDA) levels and contents were increased in hypertensive hyperthermic rats, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in both blood and brain was reduced when compared with normal rats. Paracetamol reduced the elevated body temperature in the hyperthermic as well as the hyperthermic hypertensive animals. Single dose administration of isradipine (5 mg/kg) produced hypothermia as well .as antipyretic effects while fosinopril (10 mg/kg) produced only antipyretic effect. One week daily administration of isradipine caused significant reduction of body temperature as compared with that of control hypertensive hyperthermic rats. On the other hand, fosinopril did not significantly affect the elevated body temperature. However, the combination of paracetamol with either fosinopril or isradipine markedly reversed hyperthermia as compared to hypertensive hyperthermic rats. In addition, both isradipine and fosinopril reduced the elevated blood LDH activity, blood GSH and brain MDA levels and reversed the reduced SOD activity in the blood. Combination of paracetamol with either isradipine or fosinopril produced the same effects as those produced by single drug administration. We conclude that, in addition to their antihypertensive effects, both isradipine and fosinopril could be effective in ameliorating the oxidative stress associated with hypertension and hyperthermia.

8/21 POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO - DIOXINS / FURNAS AS PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS "POP"

(Anovervie)

M.M. Saad

National Research Center, Giza, Egypt

Recently, both the global Persistent Organic pollutants (POP's) of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP, 2003) and Stockholm convention on the same hazards(POP's, 2004) were agreed that governments will take measures to eliminate or reduce the release of POP's into the environment (Basel Action 2004). The recommended POP's include eight pesticides, two industrial chemicals and the two by- products of PolyChlorinated Dibenzo Dioxis and DibnzoFurans (PCDD and PCDF's). Actually, PCDD and PCDF are two series of tricyclic compounds with similar chemical and physical properties. The number of chlorine atoms can vary between 1-8, so the term isomers which refers to differentiation between compounds with the same empirical formula is not the appropriate term.(WHO, 1989). But, the term congeners which diffentiate between Compound within the same series even they has a different number of chlorine atoms, could be adopeted as the most appropriate term(Rapee, 1992). The number of positional congeners is quite large , there are 75 PCDD's and 135 PCDF's as illustrated.

9/21 CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF

THE VOLATILE OIL AND LIPID FRACTION OF IXORA PARVIFLORA VAHL. FLOWERS CULTIVATED IN EGYPT

M.H. Gonaid

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El

Ainy, Cairo, 11562-Egypt.

GC/MS analysis of the flowers essential oil of I. parviflora Vahl. revealed the presence of thirty five components representing 97.57 % of the total composition of the oil. The examined oil is highly rich in the oxygenated compounds especially the monoterpene type (83.30 %). Trans-hotrienol (51.66 %) was found to be the major constituent of the flower's essential oil followed by linalool (17.49 %). Trace amount of oxygenated sesquiterpenes and diterpenes had been detected represented only by nerolidol acetate < (z) -> (0.51%) and trans- phytol (0.76 %) respectively. Both saponfiable and unsapnflable matters prepared from the petroleum ether extract of the flowers had been investigated using GLC analysis. Palmitoelic acid (45.35 %) was identified as the major fatty acid present in the saponfiable fraction, while squalene (6.79 %), fi-sitosterol (18.53 %) and lupeol acetate (40.8 %) were found to be major components of hydrocarbons, sterols and triterpenes respectively. Chromatographic fractionation of the petroleum ether extract of the flowers revealed isolation and purification of Lupeol acetate (I), fl-amyrin acetate (2), fi-amyrin (3), and fi-sitosterol (4). Both the essential oil and the petroleum ether extract of the flowers showed significant cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antifungal activities.

10/21 STUDY ON THE POSSIBLE MODULATION OF THE ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC EFFECTS OF LIQUISOLID TABLETS OF ROFECOXIB IN RATS

O.M. Abo-Salem1, K.M. El-Say2, A.M.S. Ahmed2 and M.I. Fetouh2

'Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

Rofecoxib is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. It has anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity through inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, via inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2). This study was designed investigate the possible enhancing of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Rofecoxib in a highly soluble formulation (liquisolid tablets) compared to the commercial one. All formulae showed anti-nociceptive effects in the formalin test in rats at therapeutic dose level (2.25 mg/kg, p.o.). The LS-1 and LS-2 formulae significantly augment inhibition of pain in the late and early phase, the percent of inhibition was 51.46 % and 26.27 %, respectively compared to the commercial formula. Moreover, the liquisolid formulae were highly effective than commercial formula in the formalin and carrageenan-induced edema tests, as well as, carrageenan induced hyperalgesia and acetic acid writhing test in the rats. The LS-1 and LS-3 formulae significantly decreased edema size in the carrageenan-induced edema test compared to commercial formula; the percent of inhibition was 28.57 % and 27.73 %, respectively compared to the commercial formula at dose level 2.25 mg/kg. Only the LS-1 and LS-2 formulae significantly inhibited edema size after 30 min of carrageenan injection. The LS-1 and LS-3 formulae significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced edema test, at sub-therapeutic dose level, while commercial and LS-2 formulae did not. Our results indicate that the bioavailability and efficacy of Rofecoxib are higher in the newly formulated tablets than in the commercial tablet.

11/21 IMPLICATIONS OF SERUM TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-o, ITS TYPE 1 SOLUBLE RECEPTOR AND INTERLEUKIN-13 IN THE TREATMENT RESPONSE OF CHILDHOOD NEPHROTIC

SYNDROME

A.M. Ezz El Din*, EM. Nassar*, F.S. El-Msry* and M. Hassaballah**

*Health Radiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, AEA, Cairo, Egypt. **Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Medicine

(for girls), Al-Azhar University

The cause of childhood minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) is unknown and how far it responds to steroid therapy remains unpredictable. In view of the conflicting evidence ofT-cell activation and Thl or Th2 pattern ofcytokine synthesis in this disease, this study examined serum tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), soluble tumor necrosis-a receptor-1 (sTNFRl) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) levels in children with nephrotic syndrome (NS) before and after prednisolone (60mg/m2/day) treatment for 4 weeks, to evaluate their relationships with activity and treatment response. METHODS: The paired pre-and post treatment sera of 27 nephrotic children, 17 boys and 10 girls aged 1-8 years (6.5±2) and 10 age-matched healthy control children were investigated using ELISA assays for (TNF-a), (sTNFRl) and (IL-13). RESULTS: Pre-and post-.treatment cytokine levels in both steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) and steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) patients were higher than in controls. After 4 weeks of prednisolone treatment, patients with SRNS presented a higher serum TNF-a level than that before treatment (p<0.0001). In contrast, patients with SSNS presented a higher serum IL-13 level than that before treatment (p<0.0001). As regards serum levels of sTNFRl, they were significantly higher in pre-treatment nephrotic individuals as compared to the control group (p < 0.0001). A very high significant decrease in post-treatment sTNFRl concentration was detected in steroid-sensitive patients versus the pretreatment values (p < 0.0001), in comparison; the significant decrease of sTNFRl in SRNS was not so prominent (P<0.05). Thus, the determination of sTNFRl levels might potentially serve as an indicator in prognostic estimation of corticosteroids' efficacy. Conclusions: This study proved the significance of serum TNF-a, sTNFRl and IL-13 levels in relation to the disease activity and treatment response. Hence the estimation of TNF-a and IL-13 might be important prognostic indicators of predominance of Thl or Th2 cytokines. This indicates that prior to treatment the Thl and Th2 cell activity provides a useful tool to evaluate the probability of steroid sensitivity in patients with primary NS.Thus, these bioindices, together with sTNFRl could be effective methods for the prediction ofcorticosteroid effectiveness in minimal change nephrotic syndrome.

12/21 PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF COENZYME Q10 AGAINST CISPLATIN-INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN RATS

S.A. Shouman, Y.A. Al-Hetari and H.M. Gashlan

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdul Aziz University,

Jeddah, KSA

Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II)) is an effective agent against various types of solid tumors as testicular and ovarian carcinomas. Despite of its effectiveness, nephrotoxicity is a dose limiting factor in its usefulness. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of coenzyme Q10 in the prevention of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. Results of the current study showed that administration of cisplatin produced significant elevations in BUN and serum creatinine. In addtion, MDA, GSH and GSSG contents in the kidney tissues were significantly eleveted. On the other hand, CAT and GPx activities were significantly decreased by cisplatin treatment. Nitric oxide level in the kidney tissue was significantly decreased accompanied with non significant change in its serum level. Treatment with coenzyme QlOfor 5 consecutive days before cisplatin ameliorated the increases in tissue MDA, GSH and GSSG levels. Moreover, the combined regimen showed a significant increase in CAT activity compared to cisplatin-treated group. In summary, oxidative damage may be involved in the mechanisms of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The use of coenzyme Q10 confers some protection against this toxicity which may be attributed to its antioxidant properties.

13/21 QUALITATIVE PROTEIN CHANGES IN THE HOUSE FLY

MUSCA DOMESTICA BY THE METABOLIC ACTION OF CERTAIN CHITIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS AND PLANT EXTRACTS

K.S. Ghoneim, A.A. Abdel - Ghaffar, M.S. Amer, A.S. Bream, A.G. Al-Dali and

Kh.Sh. Hamadah.

Dept. of zoology, faculty of science, Al-Azhar Univer., MadenitNasr, Cairo.

After treatment of the early 3rd (last) instar larvae of M. domestica with Lufenuron or Diofenolan, SDS-PAGE reveals 23 bands as a total number of different proteins in the body tissues at the last day of pupal life. Ten new protein patterns appeared in the treated pupae, regardless of the CSI. On the other hand, only one band (of the number: 2 with M.W. : 183 kDa completely disappeared in the treated pupae. Topical application of Lufenuron or Diofenolan on to the late 3rd instar larvae resulted in some electrophoretic findings. Thirty five protein patterns had been obtained by the late - aged pupae. Lufenuron affected the total number of protein bands to become 16, 13 and 12 (at 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 ug/larva, respectively), while Diofenolan treatment led to 12, 12 and 15 as the total number of proteins (at the same dose levels, respectively). Lufenuron stimulated the pupae to synthesize 16 new proteins but Diofenolan promoted their congeners to synthesize 17 new proteins. After treatment of the early 3rd instar larvae with Margosan-O or Jojoba, SDS - PAGE clarified 23 bands as the total number of proteins in the body tissues of late-aged pupae. Nine new proteins appeared as a response to Margosan-O and 8 new proteins appeared as a response to Jojoba. Topical application of Margosan-O or Jojoba on to the late 3rd instar larvae resulted in the appearace of 36 different protein bands. Fifteen new proteins had been synthesized as a response to Margosan-O (at certain dose levels). Also, as a response to Jojoba, 16 new proteins had been constructed (at certain dose levels). On the other hand, no major protein could be detected in pupae. Four protein bands completely disappeared by the metabolic action of Jojoba. Likewise, no proteins completely disappeared by Margosan-O, treatment.

14/21 INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT POLYMERS ON THE STABILITY OF CHLORPHENIRAMINE MALEATE BUCCOADHESIVE

TABLETS

A.A. Kassem, M.A- Marzouk A.A. Ammar and G.H. El-Osaily

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

A specific and reliable thin layer chromatographic (TLC) assay of chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) was developed for the quantitative determination of CPM in its buccoadhesive tablets prepared using Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC 4000), Hydroxyethyl cellulose (EEC, Tylose H300), Sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) and Sodium alginate (Na alg.). These buccoadhesive tablets were subjected to physical stability testing in human saliva and to an accelerated stability testing at 35 °C and 45 °C for six months. Using TLC chromatographic method, the decomposition products occur at Rf value different from that of the intact drug. Complete separation of CPM (Rf= 0.47) and its degradate (Rf — 0.74) was carried out using a mobile phase ofethanol - methanol — 1M acetic acid (50:30:20 v/v/v). It was found that the degradation of CPM in the investigated formulae followed a zero order reaction. The minimal degradation was obtained when NaCMC was used as buccoadhesive polymer.

15/21 EFFECTS OF CERTAIN INSECT GROWTH REGULATORS AND

PLANT EXTRACTS ON CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN

THE HOUSE FLY, MUSCA DOMESTICA (DIPTERA: MUSCIDAE)

K.S. Ghoneim, A,A. Abdel-Ghaffar, M.S. Amer, A.S. Bream, A.G. Al-Dali and

Kh. Sh. Hamada.

Dept. of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar Univer., Madenet Nasr, Cairo, Egypt.

The early 3rd (last) instar larvae ofM. domestica were continuosly fed on a diet treated with three concentrations of Lufenuron, Diofenolan, Margosan-O or Jojoba. Total carbohydrate content of pupae gradually decreased with the age, at the highest cone, of Lufenuron. During the 1st day, whereas Lufenuron stimulated the pupae to gain a considerable carbohydrates at the highest cone, the other cone., levels caused various reductions in this metabolite. Also, Lufenuron prohibited the pupae during last day to gain more carbohydrates. Similarly, Diofenolan affected the carbohydrates of pupae. Three dose levels of Lufenuron or Diofenolan were topically applied on to the late 3rd instar larvae. Generally, Lufenuron enhanced the pupae to have excess carbohydrates allover their life duration except the 4th day. A similar common promoting action was recorded for Diofenolan except the 1st day (at 0.001 ^g / larva) and 2nd and 3rd days (at 0.1, 0.01 & 0.001 ug / larva). After larval treatments with Margosan-O or Jojoba, a stimulatory action of both extracts could be exiguously observed allover the pupal stage, with few exceptions. Three dose levels of each extract were topically applied onto the late 3rd instar larvae. Both extracts affected the carbohydrate content of pupae. Such effect was not continuous because it was found as a stimulatory in some cases but as an inhibitory in other cases, depending on the day and dose I

16/21 INVESTIGATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICOMECHANICAL CHARACTEMSTICS OF TRANSDERMAL POLYMERIC MATRIX SYSTEMS.

F.S. Ghazy, H. A El-Ghamiy, RM. El-Nahas and SH.A. Sabry.

Dqpartment of Pharmaceutics. Faculty of pharmacy, Zagazig Univeristy, Egypt

The objective of this investigation was to design unilaminate transdermal matrix systems capable of diffusing drug such as colchicine as a model drug at a constant rate over an extended period of time as an alternative route of topical administration. The free films were evaluated for uniformity of thickness, tensile strength, percentage elongation and water uptake. The variation in the film thickness was 2% (0.005 mm), which ensured uniformity. Tensile strength of films plasticized with polyethyleneglycol 600 is more compared with other plasticized films. Drug diffusion through the films followed Higuchi diffusion model. The influence of various penetration enhancers in different concentrations such as cetrimide, sodium lauryl sulfate, Tween 80, Labrasol and Transcutol on the in vitro release of Colchicine from cellulose acetate phthalate polymeric films containing 50% w/w PEG 600 was determined. The enhancement ratio of penetration enhancers used in the formulation of Colchicine film were found to increase in the order of Transcutol > Labrasol >Cetrimide > Tween 80 > SLS.

17/21 COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ELISA, PCR AND DIRECT METHODS IN DIAGNOSIS OF GIARDIASIS

A.M. Khaled* and M.A. Abd El-Raheim**

Parasite logy Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Damiatte* and Assuit Branch**

A total of 100 cases aged from 1 up to 15 years complaining of symptoms suggestive of giardiasis in addition to thirty normal healthy children as a control group were examined clinically and laboratory using stool examination and detection of Giardia in faeces by Dot ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay) and PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). Stool examination detected 39 cases (39%), Dot ELISA (75%) 93.8% specificity while diagnosis by PCR (94%) and 100% specificity. The common clinical findings were diarrhea, abdominal cramps, anorexia, underweight, pallor and manifestations of vitamin deficiency.

18/21 A CONnOBUTION TO THE PHYTOCONSTTTUENTS AND

BIOACT1V1T1ES OF ARTEMISIA VULGARISE. CULTIVATED IN EGYPT

E.A Aboutabl, F.L Fathy and A.A. Sleem*

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University,

Kasr-el-Aini Street, 11562 Cairo, Egypt ^Pharmacology Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

From the light-petroleum soluble fraction of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Artemisia vulgaris L. cultivated in Egypt, taraxerol acetate (1), fernenol acetate (2), lupeol acetate (3), fl-amyrin (4), a-amyrin (5) and ft-sitosterol (6) were isolated. In addition, caffeic acid (7), 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (8), 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (9), chlorogenic acid (10) andpinitol (11) were isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction. Characterization of these compounds was achieved through their physical, chemical, chromatographic and spectral analyses (UV, IR, MS, H- and I3C-NMR). The ethyl acetate fraction and pinitol isolated therefrom, exhibited significant antimicrobial activity on the selected microorganisms and antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Cytotoxicity testing of the light-petroleum and ethyl acetate fractions against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell line and other six human cancer cell lines showed significant selective activities.

19/21 NEMATODES AND WATER POLLUTION IN DAMIETTA

GOVERNORATE

A.M. Khaled* and M.A. Abd El-Raheim**

Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Damiatte* and Assuit Branch**

Examination of some represented water sites revealed presence of larvae and eggs of the nematodes infecting man and animals. Eggs in a descending order of abundance were Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Toxocara canis,   and Ascaris lumbricoides, then Trichocephalus trichiurus and Ancylostoma duodenale 8, 3, 2, 2, 1 respectively.   Larvae in a descending order were Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Ancylostoma duodenale 14, 8, 1 respectively. No doubt that contaminated or polluted water plays an important role as a source of nematode infection. It is betters to identify the number of eggs and larvae found and then put them in dev, followed by the word (respectively).

20/21 TRTTERPENOID SAPONINS FROM OREOPANAX RETICULATA

HORT.

FJL Melek and *M.H. Hetta

Chemistry of Natural Compounds Department, Pharmaceutical Industries Research Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, 12622, Cairo, Egypt

*Pharmacognosy department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Sueif University, 32514,

Bcni-Sueif, Egypt

Aerial shoot (leaves and stems) of Oreopanax reticulata Hort, furnished a mixture of triterpene glycosides from -which, after methylation, the methyl esters of three known compounds (Hederagenin-3-0-P-D-glucuronopyranoside-6'-O-methyl ester 3, Calenduloside E dimethyl ester 4, Zingibroside R 5), and two new gfycosides (J and 3) were isolated. The esters of the two new gfycosides were [(1R)-D-glucuronic acid hederagenin l',3; l',23-acetal] dimethyl esters and methyl oleanolate 3~0-[/$-D-6"-0-methylglucopyranosyl-(l->2)-/i-D-6'-0-methyl glucuronopyranosidej respectively. The compounds were identified using different spectral techniques: *H-NMR, "C-NMR, COSY, HMQC and HOHAHA. The antifimgal activity and the cytotoxicity of the saponin mixture were tested.

21/21 ELECTRONS MICROSCOPIC AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES

FOR ASSESSMENT OF IMMUNIZATION WITH y- BRRADIATED ANTIGEN INCOMPARASON WITH ARTEMISININ IN S.MANSONI IN INFECTED MICE

A.G. Sadiq*, N.A. El-Attar*, M.A.M. El-Gawish**, H. M. Roushdy**, A.H. El-Maraghy* and K.M. Zakaria**

* Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. ** National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo, Egypt

The present investigation is directed to study the protective effect of different treatments for controlling S. mansoni infection in mice, using vaccination by cercarial antigen irradiated (400 Gy) or nonirradiated cercarial antigen at a dose of 60 fig protein of cercarial homogenate twice weekly for 3 weeks before challenge infection in combination with i.m injection of artemisinin, as antischistosomal drug at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight 4 times once weekly after challenge infection. The degree of resistance induced by immunizaton and chemotherapy were assessed 45 day post - challenge infection in comparison with the infected non- immunized group. The results of the present study revealed a significant reduction in worm burden and ova count paralleled with a low rate of mortality in all mentioned groups in comparison with infected one. The present study showed a moderate amelioration in the changes induced in liver junctions in serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and Albumin. On the other hand, scanning and transmission electron microscopy of whole worm revealed severe degree of surface tegumental disruption and intensive corrugation as well as loss of the dorsal tegumental spines as a result of the immunization and chemotherapy. Ultrastructrual examination of liver of the infected mice indicated rupture in the endoplasmic reticulum, swelling in mitochondria and irregularity of cell membrane.

22/21 EVfMUNOLOGICAL AND fflSTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDIES

FOR EVALUATION OF IMMUNIZATION WITH y -

IRRADIATED CERCARIAL ANTIGEN AND OR TREATMENT

WITH ARTEMISININ FOR CONTROL OF SCHISTOSOMA

MANSONI INFECTION IN MICE

A.G. Sadiq*, N.A. El-Attar*, M.A.M. El-Gawish**, H. M. Roushdy**,

A.H. El-Maraghy * and Kh.M. Zakaria**

*Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University .Cairo, Egypt. ** National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo, Egypt

The present study has been undertaken to investigate the possible upgrading of the resistance of mice when vaccinated with the homogenate ofSchistosoma mansoni cercariae. The use of ionizing radiation in the production of irradiated vaccines against parasitic infections has been taken into consiaration since -within the last five decades. Immunization against schistosome infection by exposing animals to irradiated cercarial antigen is of considerable importance to development of a potent protective vaccine chemotherapy remains the most effecive route for controlling schistosomiasis, there by, new drugs are now more consistently effective, less toxic making field trials of mass chemotherapy feasible. The present investigation is directed to study the protective effect of different treatment for controlling S. mansoni infection in mice, using vaccination by irradiated cercarial antigen (400 Gy) or non -irradiated cercarial antigen at a dose of 60 ug protein of cercarial homogenate twice weekly for 3 weeks (before challenge infection in combination with i.m of injection of artemisinin as antischistosomal drug at a dose of 300 mg /kg body weight 4 times once weekly after challenge infection.The degree of resistance and protective effect induced by immunizaton and chemotherapy were assessed 45 day challenge infection in comparison with the infected non- immunized group . The results of the present study revealed a significant reduction in worm burden and ova count paralleled with a low rate of mortality in all mentioned groups. Severe IL-5 and IgE were significantly increased as an immunological response of vaccination with cercarial antigen alone or in combination with artemisinin. The infected mice suffered from a marked histopathological changes in liver and lung. Hepatocellular necrosis, large granlomata with irregular outlines and inflammatory infilteration cells were observed. While, mice immunized pre infection or treated with artemisinin postinfection showed lower degree of inflammmation, mild granulomataus lesions as well as thickness in the tinning walls of the alveoli

23/21 ISOLATION OF FOUR CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES FROM THE PERICARPS OF CRYPTQSTEGIA GRANDIFLORA R.Br.

CULTIVATED IN EGYPT

A.R. Abd El-Monem and N.G. Shehab

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

From the pericarps of Cryptostegia grandiflora R.Br., Four cardenolides, oleandrigenin, gitoxigenin, gitoxigenin-3-O - a -L-rhamnoside   and   16-propionyl gitoxigenin 3-0-fl-glucopyranosyl (1-4) a-rhamnoside, cryptostigmin HI, were isolated Identification of the isolated compounds was achieved through physical, chemical and spectral analysis. All these compounds were first isolated from the pericarps of the plant. Cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds was screened using Erhlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell line.

24/21 EFFECT OF ETHRAL ON SOME MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN 2 EGYPTIAN CULTIVARS

OF SOYBEAN

H.H. Latef

Department of Biological and Geological Sciences, Faculty of Education,

Ain Shams University

Effects of treating soybean seeds with Ethral (ethophon) on morphological and biochemical parameters were investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Two cultivars were used Giza 22 and Giza 111 while four concentration of Ethral 50, 100, 200, 400 ppm were applied. In the fruiting stage (75 days after cultivation) stem height and diameter, root tallness, number of secondary roots, leafs, internude, fruits and flowers and both of fresh and dry weights were calculated. In mature stage (126 days after cultivation) yield was collected and Chlorophyll amount, total protein, seed total lipids, carbohydrates were determined. Results showed that Giza 22 is more tolerant for the treatments than Giza 111. Also, the concentrations 50 and 100ppm increase the content of proteins and carbohydrates in plants and seeds. Oil is decreased in seeds obtained from treated plants.


25/21 A COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF BONE LOSS CHANGES

BY GARLIC OIL, BLACK TEA EXTRACTS AND 11B-ESTRADIOL IN AN OVARIECTOMIZED RAT MODEL OF OSTEOPOROSIS.

S. R. Abdu * and N. Y. Mohamed **

* Physiology Department and ** Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University

The purpose of this study was to examine the antiosteoporosis effects of garlic oil and black tea extracts in an ovariectomized (Ovx) rat model of osteoporosis and to compare their efficacy -with 17^-estradiol (a potent antiosteoporotic agent). Experiments were performed on 6 different rat models: Sham-operated control, ovariectomized (Ovx), ovx + sesame oil (control), ovx + garlic oil, ovx + black tea extract (BTE) and ovx + 17/1-estradiol. Garlic oil extract, black tea extract and 17fi-estradiol could counterbalance all the changes of osteoporosis, which developed in the ovariectomized animals and were confirmed by significant alterations of serum alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activities, serum total cholesterol, urinary excretion of calcium, phosphate, creatinine, calcium to creatinine ratio and hydroxyproline when compared with the sham-operated control group. The results of this study emphasize that, the three compounds have a significant positive role in suppressing ovariectomy-induced bone resorption, and induced rise in all the above-mentioned marker changes. An overall assessment of recovery of different osteoporotic parameters indicates that 17/3-estradiol is the most potent antiosteoportic agent followed by garlic oil and black tea extract.

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