Vol. 22, November, 2006.

le viagra tue 1/22 METABOLIC CHANGES IN MIDDLE-AGED FEMALE RATS WITH RESISTANCE EXERCISE AND LOW DOSES OF GROWTH HORMONE.

S.R. Abdu* and N.Y. Mohamed**

* Physiology Department   and   ** Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, for Girls Al-Azhar University

It is still unclear, whether the administration of GH to humans or animals has a synergic effects on some metabolic parameters with endurance resistance exercise. Therefore, the present study seeks to establish whether or not metabolism is altered by the combination of growth hormone (GH) with resistance exercise in middle-aged female rats. GH administration resulted in a significant decrease in total cholesterol and significant increase in Insulin and leptin compared to control group .Also GH administration resulted in greater weight gain compared with control and exercised groups. Exercise significantly deceased serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, Insulin, glucose and body weight gain, while high density lipoprotein increased significantly. GH combined with exercise reduced the effect of exercise on serum triglycerides, total cholesterol ,low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, but increased insulin and leptin concentrations, suggesting that GH may induce an insulin resistance state. All the results of growth hormone group were not synergistic with (growth hormone with exercise) group. These results suggest that GH may induce acquired insulin resistance and may not be useful for increasing performance in athletes.

cialis einnahmeempfehlung 2/22 Design of controlled release Aceclofenac microcapsules: PREPARATION, EVALUATION and Pharmacodynamic study

M.F. El-Miligia, T.E. El-Bayomib, M.A. El-Nabarawic and M.M.F. Alid

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacya,c,   Misr University for Science and Technologya, and Cairo Universityc, and National Organization of Drug Control and Researchb,d, Giza, Egypt viagra pour faire durer le plaisir .

Aceclofenac (AC) controlled release microcapsules were prepared using ethyl cellulose EC, cellulose acetate phthalate CAP, Eudragit (RSPM and N40) and cellulose acetate butyrate CAB, at three different ratios of drug to polymer, D/P, (1: 1, 1: 2 and 2: 1) by the emulsion solvent evaporation method. Tween 80 was used as emulsifier. The microcapsules were evaluated for particle size analysis,the yield percent, microcapsules content, scanning electron microscope, SEM and release study in pH gradient values from pH 1.2 to 7.4. The selected aceclofenac microcapsules were evaluated for theirpharmacodynamic study (anti-inflammatory activity and ulcerogenic activity) in comparison to conventional aceclofenac tablet. Results dealt that as the drug to polymer (D/P) ratio increased, the microcapsules mean particle size increased. The microcapsules at D/P ratio 2:1 showed the largest mean particle size, the highest yield values and the highest drug loading percent. Spherical particles with smooth surface and few residual drug crystals on the surface were formed. The smoothness was increased by increasing polymer ratio. The microcapsules of different D/P ratios showed different extents of controlled release of drug. As the polymer concentration increased the release of drug was decreased. AC/EC microcapsules at D/P ratio 2:1 showed the higher anti-inflammatory activity and lower ulcerogenic activity in comparison to other microcapsules and conventional aceclofenac tablet.

 

 

3/22 Evaluation of some biological active compounds of edible mushroom extracts

M.M. Rashad; H.M. Abdou and A.E. Mahmoud

Biochemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

Methanol and water crude extracts were done for the eight fruit bodies of prix d'une boite de cialis 10 mg Pleurotus ostreatus NRRL-0366 cultivated on eight different ratios of both water hyacinth leaves and rice straw as a substrates. Locally commercialized avis sur dapoxetine Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom was taken in this study for comparison. The total phenolic content was determined, in order to assess its effect on antioxidant activity of extracts. Methanol and water crude extracts from the nine fruit bodies were investigated for their antioxidant potency in two different assays, namely, the β-carotene and linoliec acid system and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The total polyphenol content in the methanolic extracts (2.35-5.73 mg/g dry weight) were higher than those of the water extracts (1.25-2.8 mg/g dry weight), whereas the commercial mushroom was in moderate value. Total antioxidant of water extracts in the nine fruit bodies were determined by the b-carotene-linoleic acid and were ranged from 9.7%-57.9% and they were lower than their methanolic extracts (31.9%-89.52%). Also,the radical scavenging of the water extracts were ranged from 3.67%-12.23% and they were lower than their methanol extracts (26.64%-62.41%). Edible mushrooms may have potential as natural antioxidants. GLC analysis of the nine fruit bodies fatty acids has revealed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentration than the saturated one. The most promising one (6.7:1) was in the mushroom produced when double amounts of water hyacinth leaves was supplemented to one part of rice straw and used as a substrate. The dominant fatty acid in the eight bodies was linoleic (18:2) (36.8%-48.2%). The other major fatty acids were palmitoleic acid (24.2%-34.2%) and stearic acid (14.2%-22%), respectively.

 

avodart et cialis 4/22 Formulation, evaluation, anti-inflammatory activity and bioavailability of ketorolac acheter dapoxétine (priligy®) TROMETHAMINE FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS PREPARED BY THREE DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES

S.A. Tayel, M.A. El-Nabarawi, D.A. El-Sotohi and A. Sleem*

le viagra chez une femme FROM

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, *Department of Pharmacology, National Research Center, Giza, Egypt contrer les effets du viagra .

Three different methods were chosen for preparing Ketorolac Tromethamine (KT) fast dissolving tablets (FDTs); these are direct compression method (DC), blister tablet method (BTM) and freeze drying method (FD). Thirty KT FDTs were formulated using different fillers (Lactochem inter I, spray dried lactose and mannitol); binders (PVP, gelatin and PEG) and KT. The prepared KT FDTs were evaluated for drug content, weight uniformity, dissolution in comparison to conventional ketolac® tablet, X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetery (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), anti-inflammatory activity, ulcerogenic activity in rats and bioavailability study on human volunteers. Results revealed that, all the prepared KT FDTs by the three different methods showed acceptable drug content and weight uniformity. Drug dissolution from KT FDTs prepared by three methods was higher than conventional ketolac® tablet. XRD showed slight change in the crystallinity of drug. DSC showed physical interaction between the drug and certain excipients. SEM showed that, KT FDTs prepared by FD method had large pores. F#30 prepared by either FD or DC showed highest anti-inflammatory activity and lowest ulcerogenic activity in rats than other tablets formulae in comparison to conventional ketolac® tablet. F#30 (FD) gave slightly higher bioavailability data (Cpmax, tmax and AUC) than F#30 (DC) in comparison to ketolac® tablet. It can be concluded that, although F#30 (FD) showed slightly higher results than F#30 (DC), KT FDTs prepared by DC method gave promising results when compared from economic point of view with that prepared by other method.

 

kamagra gold vert 5/22 EFFECT OF THE TRIPLE THERAPY USED FOR HELICOBACTER PYLORI ERADICATION ON CYTOCHROME P450 AND THE PHARMACOKINETICS PROFILE OF OMEPRAZOLE IN HEALTHY VOLUNTEERS

M. El-Hamamsy*, B. Nazmy*, M. Ismail Hamed** and A. Morad*.

Clinical Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University1, 2, 4, October 6 University**.

One of the FDA approved treatment options for Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) eradication is omeprazole (20 mg twice daily) plus clarithromycin (500 mg twice daily) plus amoxycillin (1 g twice daily) for 10 days.CYP3A4 may be an important enzyme in the oxidation of omeprazolein human liver microsomes, as well as CYP2C19. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the triple therapy used for Helicobacter pylori eradication (omeprazole + clarithromycin + amoxycillin) on omeprazole pharmacokinetics and the effect of the triple therapy on CYP3A4 activity. Subjects and methods: The pharmacokinetics profile of 40 mg omeprazole in healthy volunteers was evaluated before administration of any drug by HPLC (stage I). The volunteers were classified into 3 groups: The first received omeprazole 20 mg BID, The second received omeprazole 20 mg BID plus clarithromycin 500 mg BID and the third received omeprazole 20 mg BID plus clarithromycin 500 mg BID plus amoxycillin 1g BID. All groups received the previous drugs for seven days, and then the pharmacokinetic profile of omeprazole after a 40 mg oral dose was studied again by HPLC (stage II). Urinary 6-β-hydroxycortisol to cortisol ratio was used as a probe for cytochrome 450 activity; Urine samples were collected first thing in the morning for urinary 6-β-hydroxycortisol and cortisol determination from all participants before the drug therapy (stage I) and on day eight (stage II) by HPLC. The following results were obtained: 1- Repeated oral administration of omeprazole increased its own absolute bioavailability but did not affect its elimination kinetics. 2- Repeated simultaneous administration of omeprazole plus clarithromycin increased omeprazole absolute bioavailability and decreased its elimination as well. 3- Amoxycillin repeated administration did not affect the pharmacokinetics of omeprazole. 4- Clarithromycin repeated administration decreased the urinary 6-β-hydroxycortisol to cortisol ratio.

6/22 SOME ANATOMICAL AND SURGICAL STUDY ON DUCTUS PAROTIDEUS OF THE NATIVE GOAT IN YEMEN

E. Basha and A. Ghazi

Anatomy and Surgery Department, Faculty of Vet. Med.,

Thamar University, Yemen

The ductus parotideus of the ten goats heads was fully studied for both intra and extra glandular portions. The anatomical and surgical descriptive approach were recorded as well as the surgical operative site for cannulation was studied and discussed after fixation in neutral buffer formalin solution (10%). This study showed that the site of cannulation is located at the ventral line extending from the caudal aspect of the temporomandibular joint up to the caudoventral angle of the ramus mandibulae of about 4-6 cm, in length. The anatomical study showed that the main parotid duct composed of three main radicales, proximal, middle and distal parts. The collection of the salliva through these duct was continued even one week.

 

7/22 INFLUENCE OF BRASSINOLIDE ON GROWTH, YIELD AND CERTAIN METABOLITE CONTENT ON NIGELLA SATIVA (BLACK CAMIN) CV. PLANTS

A.E. Dowidar; S.M. Abbas; A.A. Abdallah; M.M. El-Bahay and H.E. Mohamed

Biological and Geological Sciences Department, Faculty of Education,

Ain Shams University.

Brassinosteroids have been reported to accelerate plant growth when applied to seeds, in addition to a role in development of plants. The effects of presoaking seeds in different concentrations of brassinolide (0.0025, 0.05 and 1.0 ppm.) of the two cultivars of Nigella sativa CV. Egyptian and Syrian for 24 hours and pre-soaking of seeds in water to serve as control before sowing in pots were examined: 1-The morphological parameters such as shoot length, number of leaves, number of internodes, number of flowers, number of fruits, seed index, and fresh and dry weight were increased significantly at the low concentrations of brassinolide (0.0025 and 0.05 ppm) while the high concentrations of brassinolide (1.0 ppm) showed significant reduction in these parameters, comparing with those the untreated ones. 2-On the other hand, chlorophyll contents (a, b and carotenoids, and total pigments showed at low concentrations of brassinolide (0.0025, 0.05 ppm) high significant increases, but at the high concentration (1.0 ppm) induced reduction in the same contents as compared to the controls. 3-Total carbohydrates, total nitrogen, total protein and nucleic acids DNA, RNA contents of shoots of Nigella sativa cv. Egyptian and Syrian were increased highly significantly at the low concentrations of brassinolide (0.0025 and 0.05 ppm), while the high concentration of brassinolide (1.0ppm) induced high significant reduction in the same contents throughout the experimental period. The results of this study illustrate significant specific qualitative effects of brassinolide on the growth and developments of two cultivars of Nigella sativa plants which may reflect its different influence on the endogenous nutritive contents of plants.

 

 

8/22 METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE   REDUCTASE (MTHFR) C677T POLYMORPHISM AND METHOTREXATE MAINTENANCE THERAPY IN CHILDHOOD ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA

N.F. Ghoname*, I.K. Afifi*, S.M. Hazzaa**, F.Z. Hussien***

and S.A. Abdel Aziz****

Departments of Microbiology*, Clinical Pathology**, Radiation Oncology***, Pediatric****, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University

Leukemias commonly arise as a result of translocations, inversions, or deletions in genes regulating blood cell development or homeostasis. As a carrier of methyl groups, folate is an essential nutrient for nucleotide synthesis. Folate deficiency has been shown to induce DNA damage through uracil misincorporation into DNA during replication, leading to an increased risk of DNA double strand breaks during DNA excision repair and subsequent genetic instability. Reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolates is catalyzed by 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR).Variation in MTHFR has been implicated in a range ofcancer types. The effectiveness of MTX is largely attributable to its role as an inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Its metabolites also inhibit other folate enzymes, including 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). The aim of the present work was to study MTHFR C677T allelic variants in childhood ALL patients and whether this polymorphism modifies responses to methotrexate (MTX) therapy or not. MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism was detected by PCR-RFLP on 60 child with ALL and 25 control subjects with matched age and sex. The results of the current study revealed that CC genotype and C allele frequencies of MTHFR C677T were significantly higher in childhood ALL patients than in the controls, suggesting an association between C allele and an increased risk of ALL. On the other hand, TT genotype and T allele frequencies of MTHFR C677T in childhood ALL patients were significantly lower than in the controls. A significant association was recorded between the occurrence of MTX toxicity including CNS toxicity, neuropathy and infection among ALL patients carrying T allele either homozygous or heterozygous compared to those with CC genotype. In conclusion, children with MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism are associated with lower susceptibility to ALL but may have higher relative risk for MTX toxicity. Thus, this polymorphism may be a useful pharmacogenetic determinant for providing rational and effective tailored chemotherapy for childhood ALL.

 


9/22 EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT OSMOTIC PRESSURE OF THE CULTIVATION MEDIA ON HYBRIDOMA CELL GROWTH, AND MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES PRODUCTION KINETICS IN BATCH CULTURE

H.A. El-Enshasy, H. H. El Adawy* and S.T. Yang**

Bioprocess development Dept., Medical Biotechnology Dept.*, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Inst., Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Alexandria, Egypt.

Chemical Engineering Dept.**, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

The effects of osmotic pressure on the cell growth and Monoclonal antibody (MAb) production by hybridoma cells in static and agitated cultures were investigated. The preliminary studies in static cultures showed that the maximal total cell number reaching about 11.1×105 cells ml-1 was obtained in cultures of 375 mOsmol kg-1, while the maximal MAb production of 61 mg l-1 was obtained in cultures of 400 mOsmol kg-1. On transferring the cultivation process to agitated cultures in spinner flasks at high shear of 150 rpm, the maximal cell number was reduced to 8.4×105 cells ml-1. This was obtained in medium of osmotic pressure of 325 mOsmol kg-1. Further increase in medium osmolarity resulted in significant decrease in total cell number. On the other hand, the cultivation in spinner flask gave higher yield of MAb than static culture. The maximal concentration of MAb of 135 mg l-1 was obtained in medium of 375 mOsmol kg-1. Based on these data, an experiment was designed to increase the volumetric MAb production by shifting the medium osmolarity from 325 mOsmol kg-1 to 375 mOsmol kg-1 during the late exponential growth phase of cells. This resulted to an increase in MAb volumetric production reaching 165 mg L-1. This value is about 68% higher than those obtained in culture of constant osmolarity of 325 mOsmol kg-1. This value is also about 22% higher than the maximal volumetric MAb production obtained in culture of 375 mOsmol kg-1 adjusted from the beginning of cultivation time.

 

 

10/22 IMPROVEMENT OF THE ISOLATION OF INTACT NUCLEI FROM YEAST SPHEROPLASTS

A.A. El Moghazy

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Al-Azhar University and Biotechnology Center, EIPICO

The isolation of nuclei from yeast cells is more difficult than from higher eukaryotic cells, since yeast cells, in contrast to mammalian cells, possess a strong cell wall and the access to nuclei is more complicated. In general, the method used for isolation of yeast nuclei should be less time consuming, not expensive, with a high yield in order to carry out as many experiments as possible with a single preparation. Several methods were available and had served as the basis for isolation of yeast nuclei, but most of them were time consuming > 8h and /or resulted in some degradation of nuclei with low yield. This study aimed to modify and optimize the preparation of spheroplasts and nuclei and to overcome some of the disadvantages which reported by some of the authors, through introduction of the appropriate modifications during preparation steps. In this study the disruption of yeast cell wall was carried out by treatment of yeast cells with cell wall-digesting enzymes (Lyticase and Zymolyase 100T) which cleave carbohydrate structures cell wall resulting in more than 90% of cells showed spheroplasts within 2hours incubation. Addition of high concentration of sorbitol maintained an osmotic balance and prevent rupture of spheroplasts during prepartion. Lysis of spheroplasts by mild hypotonic treatment and moderate mechanical force in Dounce homogenizer released intact nuclei from spheroplasts. Addition of protease inhibitor cocktail (PMSF, pepstatin A and chymostatin) to isolated media was largely inactivating the proteolytic enzymes during preparation steps. Carrying all the steps of the isolation in low temperature prevent degradation of nuclei. The activity of lipolytic enzymes present in cells minimized by removal of calcium and magnesium ions from media. Removing of triton and sucrose from the media and using of Ficoll 400 in potassium phosphate buffer prevent aggregation of nuclei and the obtained nuclei was less fragile and separated in intact form. The crude nuclear pellet from this procedure routinely contained greater than 80% of total DNA and 60% of the total protein and after several differential centrifugation steps to remove any intact yeast or contaminating organelles, purified nuclei representing almost 70%.

 

 

11/22 ARGINASE-RELATED ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGE RESPONSE IN EXPERIMENTAL TOXOCARIASIS CANIS AND THE EFFECT OF AN IMMUNOMODULATOR

A.H.A. Eassa, S.I. Fouda*, H. Atta** and O.A. Khalafallah***

Parasitology, **Biochemistry and ***Clinical Pathology Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University and *Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University

The immune response to tissue helminthic infections involves both Th1 and Th2 responses with two distinct macrophage responses; M-1 involving nitric oxide (NO) production and M-2 involving arginase activation. The balance between the two responses is involved in immunopathology and parasite survival. This balance is influenced by many factors as macrophage transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and a competition for arginine metabolites in the macrophages. Thus, the aim of this work was to explore the arginase-related M2 responses in experimental toxocariasis, together with the effect of cyclosporin A (CsA) on arginase activity. Experimentally-infected guinea pigs with embryonated Toxocara canis eggs were divided into two groups (treated and non-treated with CsA) and were sacrificed 7 and 14 days post infection (PI). Also, a control group of non-infected (treated and non-treated) animals was also included. Alveolar macrophages were isolated after scarification of the animals and cultured in RPMI-1640 liquid medium with supplements. Cell viability was evaluated and lysates were used for arginase estimation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide (10%) gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Finally, density of arginase protein bands was estimated by the densitometer. Results showed two bands (23000 and 27000 molecular weights). It was found that the 23000 molecular weight was more prominent towards the end of the experiment; 14 days PI. Comparison of band intensities showed noticeable differences between macrophages from non-infected and T. canis-infected guinea pigs. Treated animals with CsA showed a reduction of immunological response in lungs, reflected by an elevation of arginase activity, especially at the end of the experiment. Moreover, CsA had no effect on alveolar macrophage arginase I in the uninfected animals that received CsA. This shows that Th-2 responses may be involved, at least, in early pulmonary toxocariasis, as evidenced by the increase in arginase-I activity in the first week post-infection. Hence, Th-1 response is likely to be more predominant in later stages. In conclusion, early Th-2 response favors the growth of the parasite by stimulating arginase secretion/expression, via stimulation of TGF-β, as evidenced by the stimulatory effect of CsA on arginase expression/activity.

 

12/22 PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES, STRUCTURAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF BIO-RESORBABLE CERAMIC COMPOSITES IN VIVO

F. Mannaa and H. Beherei*

Medical Physiology   and *Biomaterials Departments, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

Hydroxyapatite has been extensively studied and extremely applied in orthopedic applications as to its biocompatibility and bioactivity which allow the bone tissue to grow and attach into its surface. There is a great need to produce new ceramic composites with good bioactivity, biocompatibility and higher mechanical properties over that of sintered monolithic hydroxyapatite. This study aimed to evaluate the physiological responses that are occurring as a result of in vivo implantation of three biocomposites that are based on calcium phosphate. The ceramic materials: SiO2/hydroxyapatite (H), SiO2 / Al2O3/ hydroxyapatite (A) and SiO2 / TiO2 / hydroxyapatite (T) were tested. These were subcutaneously implanted in the left leg of the rats for periods of 2,10 and 20 days. After sacrifice, the biochemical analysis of blood was performed and surface changes of biocomposites were examined by reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).The SEM investigation showed the best osteoconductivity and biocompatibility of biocomposites H and T implants. The resorption of these materials makes a rough surface and increases the surface area of the implants and their bioactivity. This rough surface is a suitable phase for housing of bone cell to grow. Biochemical analysis of blood at the end of each period showed that the changes in serum values of bone formation markers (calcium, phosphorus, calcitonin and alkaline phosphatase) in the ceramic implanted animals were quite low at 2nd day of implantation, and then gradually increased toward the 20th day. Total protein and albumin decreased gradually with time of implantation. The results showed that the liver and kidney functions were greatly affected by T ceramic throughout the periods of study. However A ceramic had no measurable effect at 2 days, while there was a significant effect at 20 days. We conclude that T ceramic is thought to have the more toxic effect on the liver and kidney, A is moderately toxic and H displayed lesser or no toxicity. The results, exhibiting significant depletion of blood GPX and SOD, suggested that cytotoxicity of the T and A biocomposites is mediated through oxidative stress.

 

13/22 QUALITY CONTROL OF CERTAIN EGYPTIAN TRADITIONAL ANTICOUGH HERBAL PREPARATIONS

A. M. El-Shamy, M.A. Koheil, F.I. Fathy and M.M. Sabry

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Egypt

Two herbal preparations purchased from attar shop and used traditionaly for treatment of cough   were evaluated for their purity and safety. The first preparation (preparation I) is a mixture of thyme herb, mahaleb seeds, guava leaves and olibanum oleogumresin, while the second one (preparation II) contains thyme herb, tilia flowers, nigella seeds, anise fruits and liquorice roots. Microscopical examination of the two preparations revealed the presence of the diagnostic elements of the individual herbal drugs of each preparation, this confirm the genuinity of the samples and absence of adulteration or substitutions. The Pharmacopoeial constants (ash, moisture, crude fibres) of the preparations were found to be within the recorded values in the Pharmacopoeias. The heavy metals (Pb, Co Ni, Cd, Cu, Zn and Mn) were detected in the preparations in concentrations not more than their permissible daily limits. The two preparations were found to be free from pesticides. The total bacterial and fungal counts are in agreement with the safe limits, while the coliform most probable numbers exceeded the safe limits. Aflatoxins were detected in sample 1 of the two examined samples of each preparation. The concentration of aflatoxins in preparation I was below the permissible limits, while that of preparation II exceeded the limits. Analysis of the volatile oil of each preparation showed that the percentage of the marker compound(s) was (were) below the reported value(s). From toxicological study (LD50 and effects on liver and kidney functions), we can consider that the two preparations are safe and had no significant effect on kidney function, although slightly increasing the level of certain liver enzymes. The preparation II, containing liquorice showed no significant effect on the blood pressure of the experimental animals after administration for two weeks.

 

14/22 IMMUNOLOGICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY ON SYNOVIAL FLUID OF PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

H.M. Hefni*, A.M. El-Srsawy**, M.S. Mancy* and H.A. Samaha*

* Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

** Orthopedic Surgery Department, El-Sahel Teaching Hospital, Cairo, Egypt.

The aim of the study was to evaluate clinical significance of synovial fluid (SF) interleukin (IL)-15, IL-18 and causative microorganisms of infectious arthritis. Sixty patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 20 healthy controls were included in this study. Full clinical assessment with laboratory investigations were performed to both groups including: macro-and microscopical analysis of SF. Complete blood picture (CBP), Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), Rheumatoid factor (RF), C-Reactive protein (CRP), Anti-streptolysin O (ASO) and the levels of IL-15 and IL-18 measured by ELISA. Results have shown that RBCs count and Hb concentration showed significant reduction, while RF, CRP, ESR., Eosinophile count, and the levels of IL-15 and IL-18 were significantly higher in patients, group when compared to control group. More than 50.4% of total bacterial isolates in SF of patients, group grew aerobically, while the remainder isolates were anaerobic bacteria 49.6%. Amikacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin were highly effective against all isolated bacteria, while ampicillin, penicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline and vancomycin were less active. In conclusion it was shown that, cytokines level (IL-15 and IL-18) could be good indicator of the degree of the general activity of RA. Also RA could be related to bacterial infections. These results highlight the importance of obtaining level of IL-15, IL-18 as well as bacterial cultures before any clinical intervention.

 

 

15/22 Aspirin, garlic, and morbidity in patients with cardiovascular disorders: a prospective study

A.I.M. Ebid, A.G. Hassan* and S.A. Mohammed**

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University,

Cardiology Dept.*, and Clinical Pathology Dept.**, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

This study aimed at exploring the effects of concomitant intake of aspirin and garlic preparations on the coagulation profile in cardiac patients. To serve this issue we identified sixty patients of both sexes aged ≥50 years. They were all suffering from coronary heart disease and were all prescribed low-dose aspirin (75 mg twice daily) together with the ordinary treatment drug regimen. Additional ten coronary heart disease patients with no previous history of myocardial infarction and were not receiving neither aspirin nor garlic served as a negative control. The patients were categorized into three main groups; group (I) negative control; group (II): comprised 25 patients. They were all taking aspirin alone in the usual prescribed dose, together with their ordinary cardiac treatment regimen; group (III): comprised 35 patients. They were all taking aspirin in the usual prescribed dose concomitantly with garlic. Group III was further subdivided into 3 subgroups according to the strength of the garlic product they were regularly taking: Subgroup (IIIa): comprised 9 patients taking garlic 100mg, Subgroup (IIIb): comprised 15 patients taking garlic 200mg and Subgroup (IIIc): comprised 11 patients taking garlic 300mg. A 3-ml venous blood sample was withdrawn from each patient in the first time for baseline determination of the coagulation tested parameters. Then monthly sampling was performed for another 2 months. The blood samples were investigated for platelet count (PC), %of platelet aggregation (%PA), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and international normalized ratio (INR). Also, the haemoccult test (HT)was performed for all the subjects enrolled in the study for detecting fecal occult blood. The study showed that neither aspirin alone nor in combination with garlic affected the platelet count. In the same time, a significant reduction in the % PA, a significant prolongation PT, aPTT, INR was observed in those received aspirin and also, those received garlic concomitantly with aspirin at all time intervals. A significant difference was evident in those received garlic concomitantly with aspirin (IIIa, IIIb & IIIc) when compared with those received aspirin alone (group II). Results indicated that 31 out of 35 patients who received garlic concomitantly with aspirin had HT positive and there was a significant association between garlic intake with aspirin and the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding. So, in conclusion, and keeping in mind that garlic is widely used by the general public and intended to be taken over an extended period of time, both as a dietary or a medicinal agent, this study raises concerns about the possible hazardous interaction of garlic with aspirin. The findings of this study should receive attention and prompted recommendations for patientswith coronary disease using aspirin concomitantly with garlic preparations. The best way to avoid harmful interactions is telling the doctor and/or pharmacist what medications are currently taken, including any over-the-counter medications. Surgeons and anesthetists must be aware of their patients' herbal intake which should be ceased before surgery. Since herbal remedies as garlic may increase the risk of bleeding during surgical procedures.

 

1/22 METABOLIC CHANGES IN MIDDLE-AGED FEMALE RATS WITH RESISTANCE EXERCISE AND LOW DOSES OF GROWTH HORMONE.

S.R. Abdu* and N.Y. Mohamed**

* Physiology Department   and   ** Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, for Girls Al-Azhar University

It is still unclear, whether the administration of GH to humans or animals has a synergic effects on some metabolic parameters with endurance resistance exercise. Therefore, the present study seeks to establish whether or not metabolism is altered by the combination of growth hormone (GH) with resistance exercise in middle-aged female rats. GH administration resulted in a significant decrease in total cholesterol and significant increase in Insulin and leptin compared to control group .Also GH administration resulted in greater weight gain compared with control and exercised groups. Exercise significantly deceased serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, Insulin, glucose and body weight gain, while high density lipoprotein increased significantly. GH combined with exercise reduced the effect of exercise on serum triglycerides, total cholesterol ,low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, but increased insulin and leptin concentrations, suggesting that GH may induce an insulin resistance state. All the results of growth hormone group were not synergistic with (growth hormone with exercise) group. These results suggest that GH may induce acquired insulin resistance and may not be useful for increasing performance in athletes.

 

 

2/22 Design of controlled release Aceclofenac microcapsules: PREPARATION, EVALUATION and Pharmacodynamic study

M.F. El-Miligia, T.E. El-Bayomib, M.A. El-Nabarawic and M.M.F. Alid

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacya,c,   Misr University for Science and Technologya, and Cairo Universityc, and National Organization of Drug Control and Researchb,d, Giza, Egypt.

Aceclofenac (AC) controlled release microcapsules were prepared using ethyl cellulose EC, cellulose acetate phthalate CAP, Eudragit (RSPM and N40) and cellulose acetate butyrate CAB, at three different ratios of drug to polymer, D/P, (1: 1, 1: 2 and 2: 1) by the emulsion solvent evaporation method. Tween 80 was used as emulsifier. The microcapsules were evaluated for particle size analysis,the yield percent, microcapsules content, scanning electron microscope, SEM and release study in pH gradient values from pH 1.2 to 7.4. The selected aceclofenac microcapsules were evaluated for theirpharmacodynamic study (anti-inflammatory activity and ulcerogenic activity) in comparison to conventional aceclofenac tablet. Results dealt that as the drug to polymer (D/P) ratio increased, the microcapsules mean particle size increased. The microcapsules at D/P ratio 2:1 showed the largest mean particle size, the highest yield values and the highest drug loading percent. Spherical particles with smooth surface and few residual drug crystals on the surface were formed. The smoothness was increased by increasing polymer ratio. The microcapsules of different D/P ratios showed different extents of controlled release of drug. As the polymer concentration increased the release of drug was decreased. AC/EC microcapsules at D/P ratio 2:1 showed the higher anti-inflammatory activity and lower ulcerogenic activity in comparison to other microcapsules and conventional aceclofenac tablet.

 

 

3/22 Evaluation of some biological active compounds of edible mushroom extracts

M.M. Rashad; H.M. Abdou and A.E. Mahmoud

Biochemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

Methanol and water crude extracts were done for the eight fruit bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus NRRL-0366 cultivated on eight different ratios of both water hyacinth leaves and rice straw as a substrates. Locally commercialized Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom was taken in this study for comparison. The total phenolic content was determined, in order to assess its effect on antioxidant activity of extracts. Methanol and water crude extracts from the nine fruit bodies were investigated for their antioxidant potency in two different assays, namely, the β-carotene and linoliec acid system and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The total polyphenol content in the methanolic extracts (2.35-5.73 mg/g dry weight) were higher than those of the water extracts (1.25-2.8 mg/g dry weight), whereas the commercial mushroom was in moderate value. Total antioxidant of water extracts in the nine fruit bodies were determined by the b-carotene-linoleic acid and were ranged from 9.7%-57.9% and they were lower than their methanolic extracts (31.9%-89.52%). Also,the radical scavenging of the water extracts were ranged from 3.67%-12.23% and they were lower than their methanol extracts (26.64%-62.41%). Edible mushrooms may have potential as natural antioxidants. GLC analysis of the nine fruit bodies fatty acids has revealed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentration than the saturated one. The most promising one (6.7:1) was in the mushroom produced when double amounts of water hyacinth leaves was supplemented to one part of rice straw and used as a substrate. The dominant fatty acid in the eight bodies was linoleic (18:2) (36.8%-48.2%). The other major fatty acids were palmitoleic acid (24.2%-34.2%) and stearic acid (14.2%-22%), respectively.

 

 

4/22 Formulation, evaluation, anti-inflammatory activity and bioavailability of ketorolac TROMETHAMINE FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS PREPARED BY THREE DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES

S.A. Tayel, M.A. El-Nabarawi, D.A. El-Sotohi and A. Sleem*

FROM

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, *Department of Pharmacology, National Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

Three different methods were chosen for preparing Ketorolac Tromethamine (KT) fast dissolving tablets (FDTs); these are direct compression method (DC), blister tablet method (BTM) and freeze drying method (FD). Thirty KT FDTs were formulated using different fillers (Lactochem inter I, spray dried lactose and mannitol); binders (PVP, gelatin and PEG) and KT. The prepared KT FDTs were evaluated for drug content, weight uniformity, dissolution in comparison to conventional ketolac® tablet, X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetery (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), anti-inflammatory activity, ulcerogenic activity in rats and bioavailability study on human volunteers. Results revealed that, all the prepared KT FDTs by the three different methods showed acceptable drug content and weight uniformity. Drug dissolution from KT FDTs prepared by three methods was higher than conventional ketolac® tablet. XRD showed slight change in the crystallinity of drug. DSC showed physical interaction between the drug and certain excipients. SEM showed that, KT FDTs prepared by FD method had large pores. F#30 prepared by either FD or DC showed highest anti-inflammatory activity and lowest ulcerogenic activity in rats than other tablets formulae in comparison to conventional ketolac® tablet. F#30 (FD) gave slightly higher bioavailability data (Cpmax, tmax and AUC) than F#30 (DC) in comparison to ketolac® tablet. It can be concluded that, although F#30 (FD) showed slightly higher results than F#30 (DC), KT FDTs prepared by DC method gave promising results when compared from economic point of view with that prepared by other method.

 

 

5/22 EFFECT OF THE TRIPLE THERAPY USED FOR HELICOBACTER PYLORI ERADICATION ON CYTOCHROME P450 AND THE PHARMACOKINETICS PROFILE OF OMEPRAZOLE IN HEALTHY VOLUNTEERS

M. El-Hamamsy*, B. Nazmy*, M. Ismail Hamed** and A. Morad*.

Clinical Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University1, 2, 4, October 6 University**.

One of the FDA approved treatment options for Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) eradication is omeprazole (20 mg twice daily) plus clarithromycin (500 mg twice daily) plus amoxycillin (1 g twice daily) for 10 days.CYP3A4 may be an important enzyme in the oxidation of omeprazolein human liver microsomes, as well as CYP2C19. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the triple therapy used for Helicobacter pylori eradication (omeprazole + clarithromycin + amoxycillin) on omeprazole pharmacokinetics and the effect of the triple therapy on CYP3A4 activity. Subjects and methods: The pharmacokinetics profile of 40 mg omeprazole in healthy volunteers was evaluated before administration of any drug by HPLC (stage I). The volunteers were classified into 3 groups: The first received omeprazole 20 mg BID, The second received omeprazole 20 mg BID plus clarithromycin 500 mg BID and the third received omeprazole 20 mg BID plus clarithromycin 500 mg BID plus amoxycillin 1g BID. All groups received the previous drugs for seven days, and then the pharmacokinetic profile of omeprazole after a 40 mg oral dose was studied again by HPLC (stage II). Urinary 6-β-hydroxycortisol to cortisol ratio was used as a probe for cytochrome 450 activity; Urine samples were collected first thing in the morning for urinary 6-β-hydroxycortisol and cortisol determination from all participants before the drug therapy (stage I) and on day eight (stage II) by HPLC. The following results were obtained: 1- Repeated oral administration of omeprazole increased its own absolute bioavailability but did not affect its elimination kinetics. 2- Repeated simultaneous administration of omeprazole plus clarithromycin increased omeprazole absolute bioavailability and decreased its elimination as well. 3- Amoxycillin repeated administration did not affect the pharmacokinetics of omeprazole. 4- Clarithromycin repeated administration decreased the urinary 6-β-hydroxycortisol to cortisol ratio.

 

 

6/22 SOME ANATOMICAL AND SURGICAL STUDY ON DUCTUS PAROTIDEUS OF THE NATIVE GOAT IN YEMEN

E. Basha and A. Ghazi

Anatomy and Surgery Department, Faculty of Vet. Med.,

Thamar University, Yemen

The ductus parotideus of the ten goats heads was fully studied for both intra and extra glandular portions. The anatomical and surgical descriptive approach were recorded as well as the surgical operative site for cannulation was studied and discussed after fixation in neutral buffer formalin solution (10%). This study showed that the site of cannulation is located at the ventral line extending from the caudal aspect of the temporomandibular joint up to the caudoventral angle of the ramus mandibulae of about 4-6 cm, in length. The anatomical study showed that the main parotid duct composed of three main radicales, proximal, middle and distal parts. The collection of the salliva through these duct was continued even one week.

 

 

7/22 INFLUENCE OF BRASSINOLIDE ON GROWTH, YIELD AND CERTAIN METABOLITE CONTENT ON NIGELLA SATIVA (BLACK CAMIN) CV. PLANTS

A.E. Dowidar; S.M. Abbas; A.A. Abdallah; M.M. El-Bahay and H.E. Mohamed

Biological and Geological Sciences Department, Faculty of Education,

Ain Shams University.

Brassinosteroids have been reported to accelerate plant growth when applied to seeds, in addition to a role in development of plants. The effects of presoaking seeds in different concentrations of brassinolide (0.0025, 0.05 and 1.0 ppm.) of the two cultivars of Nigella sativa CV. Egyptian and Syrian for 24 hours and pre-soaking of seeds in water to serve as control before sowing in pots were examined: 1-The morphological parameters such as shoot length, number of leaves, number of internodes, number of flowers, number of fruits, seed index, and fresh and dry weight were increased significantly at the low concentrations of brassinolide (0.0025 and 0.05 ppm) while the high concentrations of brassinolide (1.0 ppm) showed significant reduction in these parameters, comparing with those the untreated ones. 2-On the other hand, chlorophyll contents (a, b and carotenoids, and total pigments showed at low concentrations of brassinolide (0.0025, 0.05 ppm) high significant increases, but at the high concentration (1.0 ppm) induced reduction in the same contents as compared to the controls. 3-Total carbohydrates, total nitrogen, total protein and nucleic acids DNA, RNA contents of shoots of Nigella sativa cv. Egyptian and Syrian were increased highly significantly at the low concentrations of brassinolide (0.0025 and 0.05 ppm), while the high concentration of brassinolide (1.0ppm) induced high significant reduction in the same contents throughout the experimental period. The results of this study illustrate significant specific qualitative effects of brassinolide on the growth and developments of two cultivars of Nigella sativa plants which may reflect its different influence on the endogenous nutritive contents of plants.

 

 

8/22 METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE   REDUCTASE (MTHFR) C677T POLYMORPHISM AND METHOTREXATE MAINTENANCE THERAPY IN CHILDHOOD ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA

N.F. Ghoname*, I.K. Afifi*, S.M. Hazzaa**, F.Z. Hussien***

and S.A. Abdel Aziz****

Departments of Microbiology*, Clinical Pathology**, Radiation Oncology***, Pediatric****, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University

Leukemias commonly arise as a result of translocations, inversions, or deletions in genes regulating blood cell development or homeostasis. As a carrier of methyl groups, folate is an essential nutrient for nucleotide synthesis. Folate deficiency has been shown to induce DNA damage through uracil misincorporation into DNA during replication, leading to an increased risk of DNA double strand breaks during DNA excision repair and subsequent genetic instability. Reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolates is catalyzed by 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR).Variation in MTHFR has been implicated in a range ofcancer types. The effectiveness of MTX is largely attributable to its role as an inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Its metabolites also inhibit other folate enzymes, including 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). The aim of the present work was to study MTHFR C677T allelic variants in childhood ALL patients and whether this polymorphism modifies responses to methotrexate (MTX) therapy or not. MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism was detected by PCR-RFLP on 60 child with ALL and 25 control subjects with matched age and sex. The results of the current study revealed that CC genotype and C allele frequencies of MTHFR C677T were significantly higher in childhood ALL patients than in the controls, suggesting an association between C allele and an increased risk of ALL. On the other hand, TT genotype and T allele frequencies of MTHFR C677T in childhood ALL patients were significantly lower than in the controls. A significant association was recorded between the occurrence of MTX toxicity including CNS toxicity, neuropathy and infection among ALL patients carrying T allele either homozygous or heterozygous compared to those with CC genotype. In conclusion, children with MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism are associated with lower susceptibility to ALL but may have higher relative risk for MTX toxicity. Thus, this polymorphism may be a useful pharmacogenetic determinant for providing rational and effective tailored chemotherapy for childhood ALL.

 

 


9/22 EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT OSMOTIC PRESSURE OF THE CULTIVATION MEDIA ON HYBRIDOMA CELL GROWTH, AND MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES PRODUCTION KINETICS IN BATCH CULTURE

H.A. El-Enshasy, H. H. El Adawy* and S.T. Yang**

Bioprocess development Dept., Medical Biotechnology Dept.*, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Inst., Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Alexandria, Egypt.

Chemical Engineering Dept.**, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

The effects of osmotic pressure on the cell growth and Monoclonal antibody (MAb) production by hybridoma cells in static and agitated cultures were investigated. The preliminary studies in static cultures showed that the maximal total cell number reaching about 11.1×105 cells ml-1 was obtained in cultures of 375 mOsmol kg-1, while the maximal MAb production of 61 mg l-1 was obtained in cultures of 400 mOsmol kg-1. On transferring the cultivation process to agitated cultures in spinner flasks at high shear of 150 rpm, the maximal cell number was reduced to 8.4×105 cells ml-1. This was obtained in medium of osmotic pressure of 325 mOsmol kg-1. Further increase in medium osmolarity resulted in significant decrease in total cell number. On the other hand, the cultivation in spinner flask gave higher yield of MAb than static culture. The maximal concentration of MAb of 135 mg l-1 was obtained in medium of 375 mOsmol kg-1. Based on these data, an experiment was designed to increase the volumetric MAb production by shifting the medium osmolarity from 325 mOsmol kg-1 to 375 mOsmol kg-1 during the late exponential growth phase of cells. This resulted to an increase in MAb volumetric production reaching 165 mg L-1. This value is about 68% higher than those obtained in culture of constant osmolarity of 325 mOsmol kg-1. This value is also about 22% higher than the maximal volumetric MAb production obtained in culture of 375 mOsmol kg-1 adjusted from the beginning of cultivation time.

 

 

10/22 IMPROVEMENT OF THE ISOLATION OF INTACT NUCLEI FROM YEAST SPHEROPLASTS

A.A. El Moghazy

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Al-Azhar University and Biotechnology Center, EIPICO

The isolation of nuclei from yeast cells is more difficult than from higher eukaryotic cells, since yeast cells, in contrast to mammalian cells, possess a strong cell wall and the access to nuclei is more complicated. In general, the method used for isolation of yeast nuclei should be less time consuming, not expensive, with a high yield in order to carry out as many experiments as possible with a single preparation. Several methods were available and had served as the basis for isolation of yeast nuclei, but most of them were time consuming > 8h and /or resulted in some degradation of nuclei with low yield. This study aimed to modify and optimize the preparation of spheroplasts and nuclei and to overcome some of the disadvantages which reported by some of the authors, through introduction of the appropriate modifications during preparation steps. In this study the disruption of yeast cell wall was carried out by treatment of yeast cells with cell wall-digesting enzymes (Lyticase and Zymolyase 100T) which cleave carbohydrate structures cell wall resulting in more than 90% of cells showed spheroplasts within 2hours incubation. Addition of high concentration of sorbitol maintained an osmotic balance and prevent rupture of spheroplasts during prepartion. Lysis of spheroplasts by mild hypotonic treatment and moderate mechanical force in Dounce homogenizer released intact nuclei from spheroplasts. Addition of protease inhibitor cocktail (PMSF, pepstatin A and chymostatin) to isolated media was largely inactivating the proteolytic enzymes during preparation steps. Carrying all the steps of the isolation in low temperature prevent degradation of nuclei. The activity of lipolytic enzymes present in cells minimized by removal of calcium and magnesium ions from media. Removing of triton and sucrose from the media and using of Ficoll 400 in potassium phosphate buffer prevent aggregation of nuclei and the obtained nuclei was less fragile and separated in intact form. The crude nuclear pellet from this procedure routinely contained greater than 80% of total DNA and 60% of the total protein and after several differential centrifugation steps to remove any intact yeast or contaminating organelles, purified nuclei representing almost 70%.

 

 

11/22 ARGINASE-RELATED ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGE RESPONSE IN EXPERIMENTAL TOXOCARIASIS CANIS AND THE EFFECT OF AN IMMUNOMODULATOR

A.H.A. Eassa, S.I. Fouda*, H. Atta** and O.A. Khalafallah***

Parasitology, **Biochemistry and ***Clinical Pathology Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University and *Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University

The immune response to tissue helminthic infections involves both Th1 and Th2 responses with two distinct macrophage responses; M-1 involving nitric oxide (NO) production and M-2 involving arginase activation. The balance between the two responses is involved in immunopathology and parasite survival. This balance is influenced by many factors as macrophage transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and a competition for arginine metabolites in the macrophages. Thus, the aim of this work was to explore the arginase-related M2 responses in experimental toxocariasis, together with the effect of cyclosporin A (CsA) on arginase activity. Experimentally-infected guinea pigs with embryonated Toxocara canis eggs were divided into two groups (treated and non-treated with CsA) and were sacrificed 7 and 14 days post infection (PI). Also, a control group of non-infected (treated and non-treated) animals was also included. Alveolar macrophages were isolated after scarification of the animals and cultured in RPMI-1640 liquid medium with supplements. Cell viability was evaluated and lysates were used for arginase estimation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide (10%) gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Finally, density of arginase protein bands was estimated by the densitometer. Results showed two bands (23000 and 27000 molecular weights). It was found that the 23000 molecular weight was more prominent towards the end of the experiment; 14 days PI. Comparison of band intensities showed noticeable differences between macrophages from non-infected and T. canis-infected guinea pigs. Treated animals with CsA showed a reduction of immunological response in lungs, reflected by an elevation of arginase activity, especially at the end of the experiment. Moreover, CsA had no effect on alveolar macrophage arginase I in the uninfected animals that received CsA. This shows that Th-2 responses may be involved, at least, in early pulmonary toxocariasis, as evidenced by the increase in arginase-I activity in the first week post-infection. Hence, Th-1 response is likely to be more predominant in later stages. In conclusion, early Th-2 response favors the growth of the parasite by stimulating arginase secretion/expression, via stimulation of TGF-β, as evidenced by the stimulatory effect of CsA on arginase expression/activity.

 

 

12/22 PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES, STRUCTURAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF BIO-RESORBABLE CERAMIC COMPOSITES IN VIVO

F. Mannaa and H. Beherei*

Medical Physiology   and *Biomaterials Departments, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

Hydroxyapatite has been extensively studied and extremely applied in orthopedic applications as to its biocompatibility and bioactivity which allow the bone tissue to grow and attach into its surface. There is a great need to produce new ceramic composites with good bioactivity, biocompatibility and higher mechanical properties over that of sintered monolithic hydroxyapatite. This study aimed to evaluate the physiological responses that are occurring as a result of in vivo implantation of three biocomposites that are based on calcium phosphate. The ceramic materials: SiO2/hydroxyapatite (H), SiO2 / Al2O3/ hydroxyapatite (A) and SiO2 / TiO2 / hydroxyapatite (T) were tested. These were subcutaneously implanted in the left leg of the rats for periods of 2,10 and 20 days. After sacrifice, the biochemical analysis of blood was performed and surface changes of biocomposites were examined by reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).The SEM investigation showed the best osteoconductivity and biocompatibility of biocomposites H and T implants. The resorption of these materials makes a rough surface and increases the surface area of the implants and their bioactivity. This rough surface is a suitable phase for housing of bone cell to grow. Biochemical analysis of blood at the end of each period showed that the changes in serum values of bone formation markers (calcium, phosphorus, calcitonin and alkaline phosphatase) in the ceramic implanted animals were quite low at 2nd day of implantation, and then gradually increased toward the 20th day. Total protein and albumin decreased gradually with time of implantation. The results showed that the liver and kidney functions were greatly affected by T ceramic throughout the periods of study. However A ceramic had no measurable effect at 2 days, while there was a significant effect at 20 days. We conclude that T ceramic is thought to have the more toxic effect on the liver and kidney, A is moderately toxic and H displayed lesser or no toxicity. The results, exhibiting significant depletion of blood GPX and SOD, suggested that cytotoxicity of the T and A biocomposites is mediated through oxidative stress.

 

 

13/22 QUALITY CONTROL OF CERTAIN EGYPTIAN TRADITIONAL ANTICOUGH HERBAL PREPARATIONS

A. M. El-Shamy, M.A. Koheil, F.I. Fathy and M.M. Sabry

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Egypt

Two herbal preparations purchased from attar shop and used traditionaly for treatment of cough   were evaluated for their purity and safety. The first preparation (preparation I) is a mixture of thyme herb, mahaleb seeds, guava leaves and olibanum oleogumresin, while the second one (preparation II) contains thyme herb, tilia flowers, nigella seeds, anise fruits and liquorice roots. Microscopical examination of the two preparations revealed the presence of the diagnostic elements of the individual herbal drugs of each preparation, this confirm the genuinity of the samples and absence of adulteration or substitutions. The Pharmacopoeial constants (ash, moisture, crude fibres) of the preparations were found to be within the recorded values in the Pharmacopoeias. The heavy metals (Pb, Co Ni, Cd, Cu, Zn and Mn) were detected in the preparations in concentrations not more than their permissible daily limits. The two preparations were found to be free from pesticides. The total bacterial and fungal counts are in agreement with the safe limits, while the coliform most probable numbers exceeded the safe limits. Aflatoxins were detected in sample 1 of the two examined samples of each preparation. The concentration of aflatoxins in preparation I was below the permissible limits, while that of preparation II exceeded the limits. Analysis of the volatile oil of each preparation showed that the percentage of the marker compound(s) was (were) below the reported value(s). From toxicological study (LD50 and effects on liver and kidney functions), we can consider that the two preparations are safe and had no significant effect on kidney function, although slightly increasing the level of certain liver enzymes. The preparation II, containing liquorice showed no significant effect on the blood pressure of the experimental animals after administration for two weeks.

 

 

14/22 IMMUNOLOGICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY ON SYNOVIAL FLUID OF PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

H.M. Hefni*, A.M. El-Srsawy**, M.S. Mancy* and H.A. Samaha*

* Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

** Orthopedic Surgery Department, El-Sahel Teaching Hospital, Cairo, Egypt.

The aim of the study was to evaluate clinical significance of synovial fluid (SF) interleukin (IL)-15, IL-18 and causative microorganisms of infectious arthritis. Sixty patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 20 healthy controls were included in this study. Full clinical assessment with laboratory investigations were performed to both groups including: macro-and microscopical analysis of SF. Complete blood picture (CBP), Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), Rheumatoid factor (RF), C-Reactive protein (CRP), Anti-streptolysin O (ASO) and the levels of IL-15 and IL-18 measured by ELISA. Results have shown that RBCs count and Hb concentration showed significant reduction, while RF, CRP, ESR., Eosinophile count, and the levels of IL-15 and IL-18 were significantly higher in patients, group when compared to control group. More than 50.4% of total bacterial isolates in SF of patients, group grew aerobically, while the remainder isolates were anaerobic bacteria 49.6%. Amikacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin were highly effective against all isolated bacteria, while ampicillin, penicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline and vancomycin were less active. In conclusion it was shown that, cytokines level (IL-15 and IL-18) could be good indicator of the degree of the general activity of RA. Also RA could be related to bacterial infections. These results highlight the importance of obtaining level of IL-15, IL-18 as well as bacterial cultures before any clinical intervention.

 

 

15/22 Aspirin, garlic, and morbidity in patients with cardiovascular disorders: a prospective study

A.I.M. Ebid, A.G. Hassan* and S.A. Mohammed**

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University,

Cardiology Dept.*, and Clinical Pathology Dept.**, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

This study aimed at exploring the effects of concomitant intake of aspirin and garlic preparations on the coagulation profile in cardiac patients. To serve this issue we identified sixty patients of both sexes aged ≥50 years. They were all suffering from coronary heart disease and were all prescribed low-dose aspirin (75 mg twice daily) together with the ordinary treatment drug regimen. Additional ten coronary heart disease patients with no previous history of myocardial infarction and were not receiving neither aspirin nor garlic served as a negative control. The patients were categorized into three main groups; group (I) negative control; group (II): comprised 25 patients. They were all taking aspirin alone in the usual prescribed dose, together with their ordinary cardiac treatment regimen; group (III): comprised 35 patients. They were all taking aspirin in the usual prescribed dose concomitantly with garlic. Group III was further subdivided into 3 subgroups according to the strength of the garlic product they were regularly taking: Subgroup (IIIa): comprised 9 patients taking garlic 100mg, Subgroup (IIIb): comprised 15 patients taking garlic 200mg and Subgroup (IIIc): comprised 11 patients taking garlic 300mg. A 3-ml venous blood sample was withdrawn from each patient in the first time for baseline determination of the coagulation tested parameters. Then monthly sampling was performed for another 2 months. The blood samples were investigated for platelet count (PC), %of platelet aggregation (%PA), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and international normalized ratio (INR). Also, the haemoccult test (HT)was performed for all the subjects enrolled in the study for detecting fecal occult blood. The study showed that neither aspirin alone nor in combination with garlic affected the platelet count. In the same time, a significant reduction in the % PA, a significant prolongation PT, aPTT, INR was observed in those received aspirin and also, those received garlic concomitantly with aspirin at all time intervals. A significant difference was evident in those received garlic concomitantly with aspirin (IIIa, IIIb & IIIc) when compared with those received aspirin alone (group II). Results indicated that 31 out of 35 patients who received garlic concomitantly with aspirin had HT positive and there was a significant association between garlic intake with aspirin and the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding. So, in conclusion, and keeping in mind that garlic is widely used by the general public and intended to be taken over an extended period of time, both as a dietary or a medicinal agent, this study raises concerns about the possible hazardous interaction of garlic with aspirin. The findings of this study should receive attention and prompted recommendations for patientswith coronary disease using aspirin concomitantly with garlic preparations. The best way to avoid harmful interactions is telling the doctor and/or pharmacist what medications are currently taken, including any over-the-counter medications. Surgeons and anesthetists must be aware of their patients' herbal intake which should be ceased before surgery. Since herbal remedies as garlic may increase the risk of bleeding during surgical procedures.

 

 

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