Vol. 26, March, 2008.

1/26 CARDIOPROTECTIVE EFFICACY OF GRAPE SEED EXTRACT AGAINST GAMMA RADIATION INDUCED MYOCARDIAL INJURY IN RATS

Ehab T. Mohamed and Nadia M. Fahmy

Health Radiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Atomic Energy Authority (AEA), Egypt.

Grape seed extract is a source of oligomeric proanthocyanidin complex. Proanthocyanidins are a group of polyphenolic bioflavonoids which are known to possess broad pharmacological activity and therapeutic potential. The present study was conducted to investigate the cardio-protective efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) against gamma radiation induced oxidative damage in the heart of rats. GSE was given daily by stomach tube at a dose level of 100 mg/kg body wt for 3 weeks before exposure to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 6 Gy. Blood samples were collected from all groups for the determination of serum total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides (TG), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK). Also the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), Xanthine oxidase (XO), nitric oxide (NO) and malonldiahyde (MDA) content were determined in heart tissues. In irradiated rats there was a highly significant increase in the concentration of serum TC, TG, LDL, and HDL. Also, there was a highly significant increase in the activity of serum CPK, LDH and in the content of heart XO and MDA. On the other hand, significant decrease in the activity of heart SOD and NO concentration was observed. Oral supplementation of GSE before whole body gamma irradiation caused a significant improvement in all of the measured parameters when compared to the irradiated rats. Accordingly, it could be concluded that GSE may confers cardioprotection against gamma rays induced myocardial injury and GSE may serve as a potential therapeutic tool in promoting the cardiovascular health.

2/26 Influence of beverages, meals and dose on the oral bioavailability of ATENOLOL as a model class III drug

Mohsen A. Hedaya, Sahar M. El-Haggar and Sanaa A. El-Gizawy*

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and *Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Tanta, Tanta, Egypt

The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of beverages, meal composition and dose strength on the oral bioavailability of atenolol in three separate single dose crossover pharmacokinetic studies. Atenolol is a cardioselective widely used beta-blocker that is categorized as a class III drug according to the FDA’s Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). Twelve healthy volunteers participated in each study. In the first study, the fasted volunteers received 100mg of atenolol with 200 ml of each of the tested beverages; water, acidic solution, and antacid solution. In the second study, the volunteers received 100 mg of atenolol in four treatments; fasting state and fed states with isocaloric meals (normal standardized, fat-rich, and protein-rich meals). In the third study, the fasted volunteers received atenolol in two dose strengths of 50 mg and 100 mg in a two-way crossover design. The results demonstrated that the antacid solution significantly (P<0.05) decreased the bioavailability of atenolol by about 20% and 26% compared to water and acidic solution, respectively. This may be explained by a reduction in the dissolution rate of atenolol tablets due to elevated gastric pH. Protein-rich and fat-rich meals significantly (P<0.05) reduced the bioavailability of atenolol by about 41% and 27% compared to fasting state, respectively. These results may be attributed to delayed gastric emptying as well as reduced atenolol dissolution. The bioavailability of atenolol was dose independent in the range of 50-100 mg. These findings indicate that beverages and meals of different compositions have variable effects on the bioavailability of atenolol.

3/26 CORRELATION BETWEEN SERUM LEPTIN AND INSULIN LEVEL IN TYPE 2 DIABITUS MELLITUS

Nadia M. Fahmy

Health Radiation Research Department., National Center for Radiation, Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt.

Leptin is a protein that is secreted from adipocytes in amount relative to the adipose tissue. It decreases food intake and increase energy expenditure. The inter-relation of insulin, leptin, glycemia and body weight is complex. Insulin stimulates leptin secretion chronically while leptin inhibits insulin secretion and modulates insulin action. This study was undertaken to measure serum leptin concentration in type 2 diabetic patients and correlate leptin and insulin levels. The present study showed that leptin and insulin correlate positively and significantly with indices of obesity. Elevation of both insulin and leptin are common features of obese subject whether they are diabetic or non diabetic patients. The strong relation of leptin with obesity is consistent with leptin production being proportional to mass of adipose tissue. The relation between leptin, insulin and glycated haemoglobin independent of body mass index suggests a possible role for insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia.

4/26 CELECOXIB PHARMACOKINETIC INTERACTION WITH FLUCONAZOLE AND TRIMETHOPRIM/ SULPHAMETHOXAZOLE

Mohsen A. Hedaya, *Nasrat M. Ayad, Dalia M. El-Sabaawy

and Sanaa A. El-Gizawy3

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Tanta, Egypt

*Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tanta, Egypt

**Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

University of Tanta, Tanta, Egypt

Celecoxib is a selective COX-2 inhibitor approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. The main purpose of this research was to investigate the pharmacokinetic drug interaction between celecoxib and each of fluconazole and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (TMP/SMT). Twelve healthy male volunteers received a single oral dose of 200 mg celecoxib in three different treatments: alone (control), 2-h after administration of a single oral dose of 150 mg fluconazole, and 2-h after administration of a single oral dose of 160 mg TMP/ 800 mg SMT in a crossover experimental design. Plasma concentrations of celecoxib were determined by a validated HPLC method. The pharmacokinetic parameters of celecoxib were determined after the three treatments by compartmental and non-compartmental analysis. The compartmental analysis showed that fluconazole significantly increased celecoxib AUC0→∞ by 48 % and Cmax by 57%, and significantly prolonged celecoxib half- life in comparison with celecoxib alone. This effect of fluconazole may be due to inhibition of CYP2C9 that is the major CYP isoform responsible for celecoxib metabolism. On the other hand, TMP/SMT significantly decreased celecoxib AUC0→∞ by 34 % and Cmax by 40 %, without affecting celecoxib half- life. This effect of TMP/SMT can be explained by a reduction in the gastrointestinal absorption of celecoxib. The 90 % confidence intervals of the individual ratio of the log-transformed values of celecoxib AUC0→∞ and Cmax in case of fluconazole/celecoxib and TMP-SMT/celecoxib were outside the 80-125% range indicating clinically significant interaction. In conclusion, co-administration of celecoxib with either fluconazole or TMP/SMT can lead to significant changes in celecoxib pharmacokinetic parameters. These results recommend close medical supervision for patients taking these drug combinations because celecoxib dosage adjustment may be necessary.

5/26 PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF VITAMIN E AND C ON DIMETHOATE INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN LIVER OF RATS

Ehab T. Mohamed

Health Radiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

Dimethoate, an organophosphate pesticide, is used in controlling the pests of a variety of crops. Organophosphate pesticides have been shown to produce oxidative stress in different organs due to the generation of free radicals and alteration in the antioxidant defense system. Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) prevent the uncontrolled propagation of lipid peroxidation induced by free radicals. The present study aimed to investigate the ameliorating effects of a combination of vitamins E and C against dimethoate toxicity in the liver of rats. Four groups of rats were used in the experiment, the first group was given only corn oil (control); the second group was treated orally with dimethoate at a dose level of 30 mg/kg body weight for 30 days; the third group was treated orally with vitamins E and C twice a week for 6 weeks at doses of 40 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg body weight, respectively and the fourth group was treated orally with a mixture of vitamins E and C twice a week for 6 weeks at doses of 40 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg body weight, respectively and then treated orally with dimethoate at a dose level of 30 mg/kg body weight for 30 days. At the end of the experiment, serum activity of aspartate aminotranseferase (AST), alanine aminotranseferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), liver acetyl cholinesterase activity(AChE),thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration, glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity and catalase (CAT) activity were determined. In dimethoate group there was a highly significant increase in the activity of serum AST, ALT, ALP and in the activity of CAT, GSTand TBARS concentrationin liver tissue. On the other hand, a highly significant decrease in the level of liver GSH and AChE activity was observed. Oral supplementation of vitamins E and C before dimethoate administration caused a significant improvement in all of the measured parameters. The results showed that the mixture of vitamin E and C may ameliorate dimethoate induced oxidative stress by decreasing lipid peroxidation and enhancing antioxidant defense system in the liver of rats.

6/26 AMELIORATIVE ROLE OF SEPTILIN AGAINST RADIATION INDUCED BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN RATS

Nadia M. Fahmy, Heba H. Mansour, Nadia El Beah*, Shereen M. Galal

Health Radiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Atomic Energy Authority (AEA), Egypt.

* Zoology Department, Faculty Science, Ain Shims University, Cairo, Agypt.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of septilin administration to rats against whole body gamma irradiation induced oxidative damage in liver tissue. 180 adult male albino rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of equal number. Administration of Septilin for 5 consecutive days resulted in a significant increase in the activities of both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the level of total glutathione (GSH), in liver tissue and serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) which was reduced by radiation treatment. Also, Septilin resulted in a significant decrease in nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in liver tissue and a significant decrease in triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL), total cholesterol, Serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) levels, Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), serum nitric oxide (NO), alkaline phosphates (ALP), total and direct bilirubin compared to irradiated group. Also, septilin resulted in a significant increase inErythrocytes (RBCs), total Leucocytes (WBCs), packed cell volume (PCV) and bloodindices with no effect on haemoglobin content (Hb). In conclusion, data obtained from this study indicate that Septilin could play a beneficial radioprotective role against radiation hazard in male rats.

7/26 GINGER OIL AS A PROTECTIVE AGENT AGAINST IRON OVERLOAD INDUCED HEPATIC ALTERATIONS IN ALBINO RATS

Sahar M. Srour*; Mamdouh M. Ali** and Essam M. Ibrahim***

* Biochemistry Department, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki

**Biochemistry Department, National Research Center, Division of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Egypt.

***Pathology Department, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki

The current study was carried out to evaluate the hepatotoxicity induced by iron overload in rats and discuss the role of ginger oil supplementation in reducing the hepatic oxidative stress and liver damage. Rats were given either iron admixed with diet (8g / kg diet) or administered ginger oil orally (10 µl / rat) or both of them daily for 7 weeks. Ginger oil was intubated 1 hr before giving iron containing diet. Serum and liver samples were collected at the end of experiment for biochemical assays and histopathological examination. Analysis of variance revealed that iron treatment induced significant elevations in levels of aminotrasferases enzymes, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides and low desity lipoprotien with the significant decrease in level of high desity lipoprotien that correspond to the extensive liver damage and histopathological findings in liver which showing parenchymal degeneration with focal areas of coagulative necrosis, congestion, haemorrhage, thrombus formation as well as Kupffer cell activation. Bile duct hyperplasia, associated with connective tissue proliferation and mild mononuclear cell infiltration were evident. Quantitation of serum and hepatic iron levels with atomic absorption indicated elevated iron levels in serum and liver of iron -treated rats. On the other hand, pretreatment of rats with ginger oil returned all the altered parameters within normal values in comparison to controls, however ALT, AST and total bilirubin were still significantly higher than that of controls. Regarding the oxidative stress markers, iron treatment significantly increase thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide, with significant depletion of reduced glutathione. Also iron significantly decreases the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in liver tissues compared to controls. Group taken ginger oil with iron restored the biomarker’s values of oxidative stress towards normal with minimal histological abnormalities. In conclusion, these results indicated that ginger oil has dominative protective effect on liver damage and oxidative stress induced by iron overload through its powerful antioxidant effect.

8/26 SCREENING OF THE ANTIFERTILITY POTENTIALITY OF CERTAIN CULTIVATED EGYPTIAN DRUGS

Mohamed S. Hifnawy, Shadia M. Azzam, *Iman B. Shaheed, Sally M. Abdel-Latif

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, and *Pathology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. flowers (Malvaceae) and Ruta graveolens Linn. leaves (Rutaceae) are famous contraceptive drugs in the literature of some countries and their Egyptian varieties have never been investigated for such an activity. The Egyptian crude drugs as well as their petroleum ether, methylene chloride and methanol extracts were screened for their antifertility activity in female rats. The methanolic extracts of both drugs were found to stimulate the uterine muscle in vitro but only that of R. graveolensshowed a dose related response. When tested postcoitally from the 1st to the 7th day of pregnancy at an oral dose level of 250mg/kg/day (extracts) and 2g/rat/day (crude drugs), only the methanol extract of H. rosa-sinensis showed 100 % anti- implantation activity with a complete inhibition of the uterine alkaline phosphatase activity and luteolysis in the ovaries of treated rats at the 10th day of pregnancy. Histopathological examination of pregnant uteri of other treated groups revealed signs of embryotoxicity accompanied by a significant reduction in estradiol serum levels and an alteration in the uterine alkaline phosphatase activity. In another experiment, oral administration of crude drugs to male rats at a dose level of 2g/rat/day affected spermatogenesis and caused mild to moderate pathological lesions in genital and parenchymatous organs. A significant reduction in serum testosterone level accompanied by a significant increase in serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) level were observed only in the group treated with H. rosa-sinensis after two weeks of administration. Possible mechanisms of action are discussed.


9/26 EFFECT OF b-ESTRADIOL ON THE ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF AMB AGAINST CLINICAL ISOLATE OF ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO PROTEINASE AS A BIOMARKER OF ITS PATHOGENCITY.

Mohamed A. Foaad

Department of Biological and Geological Sciences. Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Heliopolis, Roxy, Cairo, Egypt.

Four isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus obtained from patients with Aspergillosis were studied for In vitro growth under the effect of female sex hormone ( b-estradiol). In order to optimize the appropriate endpoint for harvesting cells, the isolates were grown on basal medium containingMEAwith 80 % human serum in absence or presence of iron. All isolates were promoted in the basal medium containing 32 ng Fe/ ml .The most growing isolate was monitored for MIC of AMB susceptibilities by NCCLS and XTT assay. The use of XTT assay was more accurate for monitoring MIC and growth of the fungus. The effect of β-estradiol hormone on the growth and MIC was studied.The growth of the fungus and MIC of AMB were increased in the presence of β-estradiol hormone. To counteract the inhibitory activity of AMB inhbition by β-estradiol,three concentrations of TSA were examined. The stimulation of fungal growth which promoted by β-estradiol was hampered in presence of 2µg / l of TSA. Proteinase activity of A. fumigatus as a biomarker of its pathogencity was monitored by AzocaseinandAzocollassays.The enzyme was greatly stimulated in the presence of 10-7 β- estradiolwith 80% human serumand32 ng Fe/ ml.The finding of this study is that β-estradiol has promising effect on A. fumigatus pathogencitywhich encountered In vitro by a combination of AMB and TSA.

10/26 A PHARMACEUTICAL STUDY ON TOPICALLY APPLIED BIFONAZOLE GEL

Nadia A. Soliman* and Samia E. Moharram **

*Department of Pharmaceutics and **Department of Microbiology,

National Organization of Drug Control and Research

Bifonazole, a commenly used antifungal drug is introduced in this work in a new topical formula to improve its antifungal activity. Bifonazole Transparent Oil – Water (TOW) gels were prepared using different oils namely: Isopropyl myristate, Miglyol 812, Liquid paraffin. The emulsifying agents used were Brij 92, Tween 80, Emulgin B2 and Cetiol HE. Nine plain gels were prepared and evaluated by physical examination and by shelf storage stability testing at ambient temperature for six months. Six successful gels were chosen for incorporation of Bifonazole. The medicated gels were pharmaceutically evaluated visually, color, homogeneity, spreadability, conductivity, microscopically and were photographed. pH measurements of 10% aqueous solution., particle size measurements and rheological properties were determined.Gels of choice were evaluated regarding to the in-vitro release of Bifonazole by dynamic diffusion method using a dialyzing membrane in a dissolution medium composed of (1 : 1) methanol : phosphate buffer of pH 6.5.The kinetic of drug release was studies using percent coefficient of variation (C.V %). The extent of drug release as well as its potency were evaluated microbiologically by agar diffusion technique. A commercially available cream was used for comparison. They were tested against some gram – positive and gram – negative bacteria as well as yeast and fungi. TOW gels prepared from Emulgin B3 - Cetiol HE combination either with isopropyle mirystate or Liquid paraffine or miglyol 812 showed acceptable physical properties , drug release ,antifungal and antibacterial activity which found to be stable upon accelerated stability test .

11/26 PHYTOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF

THE ETHYL ACETATE FRACTION OF

CYMBOPOGON PROXIMUS STAPF. (HALFABAR) HERB

Hesham I. El-Askary, Dina R. Abou-Hussein, *Laila N. Gadelrab

and **Noha N. Nassar

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University

*R&D Department, EVA Pharma for Pharmaceuticals & Medical Appliances S.A.E.

**Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University

The antispasmodic effect of the total aqueous extract of the air-dried herb of Cymbopogon proximus Stapf., as well as that of its fractions, viz. n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate was assessed using isolated rabbit jejunum. The n-hexane and chloroform fractions were twice as potent as atropine in producing 50% inhibition to the same submaximal dose of acetylcholine, while the total aqueous extract and ethyl acetate fraction were less potent than atropine. The ethyl acetate fraction that displayed a moderate activity was for the first time investigated and its column chromatographic fractionation afforded the isolation of two phenolic acids; p-coumaric (1) and caffeic (2) acids. HPLC determination revealed their presence in a respective percentage 0.186 and 0.036 w/w of dried powdered herb constituting 44.45 and 8.7% of the ethyl acetate fraction.

12/26 ANTIOXIDANT CONSUMPTION MAY PREVENT SOME HEPATIC CARCENOMA

Fathia K.S. Abo-Zeid; Neven M. Mahmoud; Nahla A. Elbostany And Ali I.S. Ahmed

Dept of Special Food & Nutr, FTRI, ARC, Cairo.

The liver protection against aflatoxin with dietary antioxidant in aged rats was investigated. Beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L. contaminated with that mycotoxin, was used as food source of contamination. These aflatoxins are potent hepatotoxic and carcinogenic metabolites produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus. The Aflatoxin producer species used were fungus A alternate as strain 1 and A paristicus as strain 2. Thirty six male albino rats of almost 16 weeks age and 280-g ±8 average weight have been fed on noncontaminated and contaminated beans with or without natural antioxidant after the addition of the plant high protein and antioxidants semimodified food (ACES), hence the mycotoxin infected bean seeds administrations and their combination with dietary AO were biologically evaluated in terms of special blood enzymes, body and organ weights and organ histopathology of those rats. Special interests have been directed to the brain and liver longevity. Liver function has been elevated more times, especially with the contamination of Aspergillus paristicus. This strain aflatoxin production has dramatically abuse liver tissues. Mycotoxins, therefore, may generate a massive sort of oxidative stress that initiate liver carcinoma. Dietary intervention siggnifically reduce the liver toxification frequently predisposed by aflatoxin. Seemingly, prevention of excessive oxidative damage and the up-regulation of ACES at proper gene expression are two of the possible great biological role of these functional food products.

13/26 EFFECT OF GLYCEROL AND DIMETHYL SULFOXIDE IN THE EXTENDER ON THE FREEZABILITY OF RABBIT SEMEN

Awad A. Zaghloul

Division of Animal and Poultry Production, Desert research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt

Semen from 7 rabbit bucks was frozen after extension with tris-yolk-fructose, skim milk–Na citrate or Na-citrate-sucrose–yolk extenders. Extension was carried on tow steps. Each extender contained glycerol or dimethyl sulfoxide at levels of (1, 2 and 3%) and (1, 3 and 5%). Semen samples were frozen in straws. Percentages of post–thawing motility, freezability (sperm survival %) and acrosomal damage of spermatozoa were estimated. The results showed that, freezing of rabbit semen extended with Na–citrate–sucrose extender containing 1% glycerol or 3% DMSO was significantly (p<0.01) the best in percentages of post–thawing motility and freezability (sperm survival %) of spermatozoa. Also percentage of acrosomal damage decreased significantly (p<0.01) compared to tris or skim milk extender or other levels of glycerol and DMSO.

 

14/26 ROLE OF DIETARY PATTERN DURING AGE CYCLE ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN RATS

Ghada M. Youssef; Gamil M. Habib*; Abdel-Monem S. Hashish

and Maha A. Mahmoud

Special food and nutrition Dept., FTRI, ARC ;

*Fac of Specific Edu. Tanta Univ.

Age cycle has been examined at two distinct ages, immatured (IM) and matured (M) rat, based on some different food pattern. The study aimed to compare the effect of substitution of a set of six different food types to the control of animal diet. This has been replaced in those groups by a couple of plant sources of each of the protein (A), soluble fiber (B) and fat (C) for the corresponding original basal diet components. In connection, total blood proteins in case of A1, soyproteins, makes little more than the control (NC) for IM, while B1, mallow leaves dietary fiber, has shown to be much more less than NC. Surprisingly, the same factors found to have an opposite role in case of M animals. This controversial trend is true between the two animal ages for albumin (Alb) and globulin (Glo) blood protein fractions. Therefore, the ratio Alb/Glo was always less in M than IM except with the NC and C2, dietary olive virgin oil + cotton seed oil, meanwhile, albumin was almost two times the Globulins in most cases. Regarding liver function, all food types employed here were sustainable except for GPT, which slightly raised up to 143 from 123% or 131 from 111% of control in M and IM, respectively. Concerning kidney function, an insignificant variation was noticed. Creatinine has been ranged from 1.20 to 1.46 and from 1.34 to 1.47 mg/dl for IM and M, respectively. On the other hand, differences between the two age cycles are clear in case of bilirubins. It has also been noticed that some used food protein was highly effective in controlling kidney capability, i.e. A2, the chickpea flour proteins. The lowest Creatinine /Urea ratio was that of control for IM, meanwhile, it was also A2 for M, assuming the importance of plant food source with aging. The lipoprotein seems to be markedly affected both by age or diet, meanwhile, fat diets used is considered to be a mean causative factor for a type of mild hyperlipidmia. In some more details, M was more sensitive for fiber in diet as dietary control agent for plasma phospholipids (PL), total lipids (TL), triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC). The protein control effect is coming in this respect in between fat and fiber. The HDL/TC ratio was surprisingly 17 in IM but reached around 40 in M. Meaningly, the genetic is carrying a metabolic regulatory themes that protect aged animals under this simple natural feeding system. In brief, fiber had greater effect both on LDL and HDL particularly for aged animals. One of the facts that have been established here is that all food types used are more efficiency metabolized by the immatures, or growing rats’ (IM), than the adult or matures. This data shows also that the protein is the first nutritional factor that affects the growth, in addition, soy protein is considered to be the most efficient food source in both two ages comparing to the animal ones.

15/26 MACRO- AND MICROMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF HEDERA CANARIENSIS WILLD. FAMILY ARALIACEAE

Enas H. Abdelrahman

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

The macro-and micromorphological characters of the root, stem and leaves of Hedera canariensis Willd.cultivated in Egypt are presented so as to facilitate its identification in the entire, powdered forms. Another study was carried out by the author dealt with phytochemical and molluscicidal investigation of the plant (under press)

16/26 PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND BIOLOGICAL STUDY OF CARYA ILLINOENSIS (WANGENH) K. KOCH (JUGLANDACEAE)

Enas H.Abdelrahman, Maha M. Salama, Hosam M. Abdallah and Amany A. Sleem*

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

*Department of Pharmacology, National Research Center, El-Behoose St. 31, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

GLC analysis of saponifiable and unsaponifiable matter for the bark, husk of the fruit and fruit fixed oil of Carya illinoensis (Wangenh) K. Koch family Juglandaceae was performed as well as the acid and peroxide values of the fruit fixed oil. Percentage of unsaturated fatty acids was higher in fruits (81.5%) than that of husk and bark (32.84%, 41.12%). Oleic acid (ω-9) represent the major unsaturated fatty acid (62.26%, 15.48%, and 7.45%) followed by linoleic acid (ω-6) (17.8%, 8.74%, and 16.57%) in fruit, husk and bark respectively. The major saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid (39.44%, 38.41%, and 7.05%) in bark, husk and fruit respectively. n-Octacosane was the major detected hydrocarbon (32.01%, 30.71%, 28.58%) in bark, fruit, and husk respectively followed by n-tetracosane (17.51%, 15.57%, and 1.17%) in fruit, husk and bark respectively. The acid and peroxide values of the fixed oil obtained from the fruit were 1.03 and 2.35 respectively. The macro and micromorphological study of bark, stem, leaf and fruit was also carried out with the aim of identification of the diagnostic characters of each organ in the entire and powder form. Biologically, the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of different organs viz.; bark, husk and fruit as well as the fixed oil of the fruit revealed significant anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities; the most effective one was that of the fruit. The anti-hyperlipidemic effect of fixed oil, as well as, the previous extracts was also tested. The most potent anti-hypercholesterolemic effect was revealed by the oil relative to the other tested extracts.

17/26 DEVELOPMENT OF INSOLUBLE DRUGS AS PHARMACEUTICAL SUSPENSIONS BY EMPLOYING BOX-BEHNKEN DESIGN

Manal Darwish

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy (Girls),

Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

The objective was to obtain a suspension with a large volume sediment, easily redispersible and with suitable rheological properties. Two insoluble drugs, ibuprofen and domperidone were used as model drugs in the preparation of the suspensions.Box-Behnken design is used to determine the optimal properties of the prepared suspension. The surfactant, thickener and electrolyte at different proportions are the 3 factors studied. This design strategy allows to point on the main significant effects and to determine the concentrations of each product leading to optimal properties of the intended suspensions.

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