Vol. 28, November, 2008.


Mona H.M. Ahmed; Naglaa H.M. Hassanen and Mahmoud A.M. Saleh

Special Food & Nutrition Dept., Food Technol. Res. Institute, ARC, Egypt.

Herbal extracts, are popular implementations because of their fragrance and antioxidative activity, which mainly comes from polyphenols. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extracts of green tea, thyme and sage on the occurrence of oxidative stress in the brain and liver of induced diabetes rats by measuring the extent of oxidative damage as well as the status of the antioxidant defense system in such organs. Oral feeding with aqueous extract of the herbal plants supplied to diabetic rats instead of drinking water significantly decreased levels of blood glucose. However, a significantly increment in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPH-Px) and glutathione reduced (GSH) were observed in brain and liver of diabetic rats treated with all of the extracted solutions at concentrations of 2 and 4%. The treated groups showed a significant decrement in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in brain and liver. Since the study of induction of the redox enzymes is considered to be a reliable marker for evaluating the antiperoxidative efficacy of the herbal plants, these findings suggest a possible antiperoxidative role derived from such herb extractions. Moreover to the antidiabetic effect and possess antioxidant potential that may be used for therapeutic purposes suggested.




Sahar Hegazy, *Amal Kabbash, **A. Yagi and ***Engy Abd-Elwahab

Clinical Pharmacy Department and *Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University, Egypt,**Placenta/Aloe Research Institute, Japan Bio Products Co. Ltd. 1-1Hyakunen-Koen, Kurume-Shi, Fukuoka 839-0864, Japan, ***Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt.

Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the primary threats to human health due to its increasing prevalence, chronic course and disabling complications. Synthetic hypoglycemic drugs can not fully control glucose level as well as cause side effects prompting the patients stop taking the medication. Aloe vera, also known as the Medicinal Aloe; the plant has been used for thousands of years to heal a variety of conditions. The pharmacological actions of aloe vera as studied in vitro or in animals include anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, antibacterial and hypoglycemic effects. Preliminary studies suggest that aloe juice may help lower blood sugar levels in people with type 2 (adult onset) diabetes. However, these studies do not show enough results to suggest using aloe for diabetes. Setting: Tanta University Hospitals, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University, and Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt. Objective: to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of Aloe vera on diabetic patients. Design: Aloe vera gel high molecular weight fractions (AHM) were obtained from the gel part of Aloe vera leaves cultivated in Okinawa, Japan.  AHM were processed by patented hyper-dry system in combination of freeze-dry technique with far infrared-ray radiation. Fifteen patients with type 2 DM uncontrolled with their oral hypoglycemic medication were enrolled in the study. The protocol of the study was explained to the patients and they agreed to participate by signing a written consent form. The patients received 2 tablespoonful (0.8 g) of AHM three times daily for 3 months and continued taking their hypoglycemic medications. Blood samples were analyzed for fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglycerides (TG), cholesterol, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and serum creatinine before the study. Blood samples were obtained again weekly for measurement of FBG, and every 2 weeks for TG and cholesterol analysis. The (HbA1c) values were evaluated monthly, while serum activities of AST, ALT, and serum creatinine level were determined at the end of the study. Results: Treatment the patients with AHM for 3 months with their oral hypoglycemic agents resulted in significant decrease fasting blood glucose compared to before administration. The decrease in blood glucose level was significant and sustained after 6 weeks of the start of the study. The triglycerides level were decreased significantly compared to before treatment with AHM (P<0.05). The decrease was significant after 4 weeks and continues to fall throughout the study. Treatment the patient with AHM with their oral hypoglycemic agents didn't result in any change in cholesterol levels compared to before the treatment. Glycosylated Hb values calculated for each patient showed a significant reduction by 20% compared to before treatment (P<0.05). Treatment of the patients with AHM didn't result in any change in serum activities of AST, ALT, or serum creatinine. Conclusion: AHM have the potential to treat diabetic patients whom treatment with oral hypoglycemic drugs failed to decrease blood glucose levels with no adverse effects on kidney and liver functions.




N.I. Eid, E.A. Arafa, S.A. Kenawy and M.E. El Sayed

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Gastropathy is a severe complication and common adverse effect of NSAIDs especially after long - term use. The designed experiments involved the study of the potential effectiveness of cumin and chamomile oils against piroxicam –induced ulcer after 14 day - treatment on adult male Wistar rats. Test drugs namely famotidine(20mg/kg), cumin oil (400mg/kg) and chamomile oil (250mg/kg) were orally administered by oral feeding tube followed by piroxicam (5mg/kg i.p) once daily for 14 days. On the day15th the animals were subjected to pyloric ligation after 48h- fasting. The ulcerogenic effect of piroxicam and the antiulcerogenic potential of the test drugs were evaluated by recording number of ulcer, ulcer index, gastric volume, titrable acidity, acid output and mucin concentration in the gastric juice. In addition, the gastric mucosal histamine content, lipid peroxides and glutathione were estimated. All test drugs were shown to protect against piroxicam-induced gastric ulcer as manifested by reduction in ulcer index and ulcer number. They also inhibited gastric secretion as manifested by reduction in titrable acidity and acid output. In addition, famotidine and chamomile oil increased mucin concentration and decreased gastric mucosal histamine content. Both of them decreased gastric mucosal lipid peroxides content and increased gastric mucosal glutathione content in peroxicam- induced gastric ulcer.It could be concluded that both cumin and chamomile oils have protective effect against piroxicam- induced gastric ulcer. The protective effect of cumin oil could be mainly due to decreased gastric acidity and that of chamomile oil could be mainly due to decreased gastric acidity, increased mucin concentration as well as its antioxidant effect.




Fathi T. Al Sabie, Vivek S. Agwan, Somia Muhammad Kshem, Huda Ali Alzentani, and Omran Hasan Alwerfali

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Fateh University

for Medical Sciences, Tripoli, Libya.

The study includes 337 patients with urinary tract infections, attended a private clinic (Asma clinic) in Tripoli, Libya, during the period from January to September 2008. The age of patient varied from 1 year to 80 years. Of these patients 121 (35.9%) were male; while 121(35.9%) were non-pregnant females and 95(28.2%) were pregnants. Urine samples were obtained from the patients. Microbiological studies were carried out to isolate and identify bacterial and fungal pathogens. Bacterial pathogens were isolated from 310(92.0%) samples, fungal pathogens from 20(5.9%) and mixed growth was observed in 7(2.1%) samples. Highest percentage of infection was in the age group 71 - 80 years. Amongst the isolated bacteria, Escherichia coli presented the highest number where 130(42.0%) isolates were recovered from the clinical samples followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus, 42 isolates (13.5%); Proteus mirabilis, 31 isolates (10.0%); Klebsiella pneumoniae, 27 isolates(8.7%); Staphylococcus aureus, 24 isolates (7.7%); Staphylococcus epidermidis,. 19 isolates (6.1%); Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 16 isolates (5.2%); Streptococcus faecalis, 12 isolates (3.9%) and finally Neisseria gonorrhoea, 9 isolates (2.9%). Amongst fungi, Candida albicans was isolated presented the highest number, where 9 isolates (45%) were recovered from the tested samples followed by Candida tropicalis, 7 isolates (35%); then Candida pseudotropicalis, 4 isolates (20%). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done for bacterial isolates. It was found that ciprofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic against all the bacterial pathogens followed by gentamicin, while the other tested antibiotics were found to be less effective.





Gamal I. Harisa, Gamal A. Omran and Gamil M. Abd allah

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University


Helicobacter pylorus (H. pylori) ispylori (H. pylori) are one of the most common bacterial infections that cause gastrointestinal diseases such as gastritis and peptic ulcer. The excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are continuously formed in the human body due to different pathological conditions. H. pylori may cause some extra intestinal manifestations. This study was carried out on sixty non smokers, non obese male subjects classified into three groups after being subjected to upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. H. pyloripositive non treated group contains twenty patients and H. pyloritreated group contains twenty patients. Twenty healthy individuals were taken as control group. Altered serum uric acid concentrations, both above and below normal levels, have been linked to a number of disease states. An abnormally high uric acid level has been correlated with gout, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and renal disease. This study was performed to study is helicobacter pylori infected subjects with increased risk of hyperuricemiaor not. The results of this study revealed a significant increase in serum nitrate, lipid peroxidation products and uric acid in H. pylori positive non treated group as compared with healthy control group and H. pylori treated group. On the other hand, serum paraoxonase and thiols level was significantly decreased in H. pylori positive non treated group in comparison to control group. The eradication of H. pylori significantly ameliorated these antioxidants as compared with H. pylori non treated group.Conclusion: Our data indicated increased serum nitrate level. Increase nitrate level seems related to increased inducible NO synthase in response to H. pylori infection and inflammation. Low serum PON1 activity may relate to increased oxidative stress and inflammatory condition induced by H. pyloriinfection. Overwhelming of these results leads to increase ROS and RNS production. Increased serum UA level seems may be related to increase gastric XO activity and production of UA into systemic circulation. H. pyloriinfected subjects are with increased risk of hyperuricemia.




Badria Shamsan

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science,

Sana' a University, Yemen

One hundred and three patients with different liver diseases aged between (18-85) were selected to assess the levels of ceruloplasmin, copper and iron in their plasma and liver tissue homogenate [they were: 16 patients with chronic hepatitis (Hv) due to B or C- viruses without cirrhosis, 18 with obstructive jaundice (ObJn) due to extra- or intra-hepatic causes, 10 with liver cirrhosis (LC), which was due to either alcoholic or viral causes, 7 with liver malignant diseases LM (metastatic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma), 7 with portal hypertension P Hy, 22 with hepatosplenomegaly HSM,5 male patients with alcoholic liver disease (AI. LD) and 18 suffering from miscellaneous liver diseases such as Wilson's disease, Budd-chari syndrome, Gilbert disease, Autoimune disease with primary billiary cirrhosis, Bechet's disease, Adison' s disease, hepatic comma and chronic liver disease with unknown etiological cause. Twelve control group of healthy appearance volunteers with no liver diseases, whose age and sex were matched. This study showed, although, there were an increase in the plasma Cp in some liver diseases such as MLD (22.57%), Ob.Jn (14.18%), LM (10.82%) and HSM (3.73%), than that of the control group, it's mean values of Al-LD, Hv,P, Hy and LC showed a slight decrease than that of the control group with no statistical significant differences.Plasma Cu++ level of the different liver diseased groups was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than that of the control group. The results also indicated adecrease in serum iron of the different liver diseased groups, LM, MLD, LC, Ob Jn, Al-LD, HSM, Hv and P.Hy by (48.33%, 45.91%, 33.83%, 31.46%, 22.60%, 20.69%, 11.72% and 5.22%) respectively, than that of the control subjects, with no significant differences. The results also revealed a decreased in the liver homogenate Cp levels of the different liver diseased groups than that of the control group by (8.33%), with no significant differences. On the other hand there were a highly significant increase levels of Cu++ content of the liver homogenate of the different liver diseased group (P<0.001), than that of the control group, and no significance difference between the mean values of iron content of the different liver diseased groups and the control subjects. These findings suggest that such patients are under oxidative stress resulting from liver diseases accompanied with Cu++ accumulation and more oxidative stress could be found as liver disease progresses.



Sahar K. Hegazy and *N.E. El-Ashmawy


Departments of Clinical Pharmacy and *Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Tanta University, Egypt

Background: Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental and industrial cumulative pollutant that affects many organs, especially the liver. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species has been considered the primary mechanism for Cd toxicity. Objective: Because alpha lipoic acid (α-LA) has been identified as a metabolic antioxidant of natural origin, the present study was conducted to investigate the possible protective effect of α-LA on Cd-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Design: Forty male albino rats (100-120 g) were divided into 4 groups, each of 10 rats. Group I was the control group given the vehicle. Group II (Cd group) received a single i.p. injection of cadmium chloride (3.5 mg/kg). Group III (lipoic acid group) was given α-LA (25 mg/kg) orally daily for 7 days. Group IV (α-LA + Cd group) was given α-LA for 7 days prior to single Cd injection. Twenty four hours after Cd injection, rats were sacrificed and blood and liver samples were collected. Methods: Blood samples were utilized for biochemical analysis of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), vitamin C, and vitamin E. Liver tissues were homogenized and used for determination of the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), vitamin C and vitamin E. Also, the hepatic enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were estimated. Results: Cd injection to group II rats resulted in a significant increase in the activities of serum AST and ALT and in hepatic NO & MDA. On the contrary, there was a significant decrease in both plasma and liver vitamin C & vitamin E and in hepatic GSH, SOD and GPX in group II compared to control group. Pretreatment with α-LA in group IV produced a significant reduction in serum AST & ALT, elevation of hepatic GSH, SOD & GPX, and plasma and liver vitamin C and vitamin E. Also, there was a significant decrease in hepatic NO and MDA in group IV as compared to group II. Conclusion: These results suggest that α-LA might play a role in reducing the hepatotoxicity of Cd in rats, where its antioxidant property seems to mediate such protective effect.



Abeer M.N.H. El-Dakak; Mona H.M. Ahmed and *Samir A. Ismail

Special Food and Nutrition Department, Food Technology Research Institute, Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

*Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

This study investigated the effect of selenium (15 µg/ 100g rat/d as sodium selenite), lyophilized green tea extract (0.12 g/100g rat/d), lyophilized anthocyanins pigment of red grape marc extract (0.71 mg/100g rat/d), and lyophilized b-carotene pigment of carrot pulp waste extract (5 mg/100g rat/d) as antioxidants on the oxysterols in plasma, brain and liver formed endogenously in hypercholesterolemic rats exposed to H2O2 (1%). Rats were fed hypercholesterolemic diet and exposed to H2O2-induced oxidative stress for 9 weeks. The concentrations of cholesterol and cholesterol oxidation products (COP) (25-hydroxycholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol and 7- ketocholesterol), were significantly increased in plasma and organs (brain & liver), and significantly reduced by antioxidant treatment, but the lowered values were still higher than that found in normal group. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactic acid dehydrogenase activity (LDH) were significantly increased, while the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity were decreased in hypercholesterolemic rats. The administrated antioxidants returned these values to the normal levels or near.



Abd El-Raouf M. Oun, Saad El-Din M. El-Khateb and Atef G. El-Hefnawy

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University

Department of Anesthesia, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University

In this study we assessed the safety and efficacy of a single I.V. dose of granisetron (G) 1 mg, dexamethasone (D) 8 mg, granisetron with dexamethasone (G+D) 1mg and 8mg respectively and control (C) (4ml normal saline) in females undergoing elective gynecological laparoscopy. Our patients were allocated randomly to one of four groups of 20 patients each. There were no differences in demographic data, factors related to operations and anesthesia, tramadol consumption, pain or side effects between groups. The incidence of nausea and emetic episodes in the granisetron with dexamethasone group was significantly lower than in the control group (P<0.01). There were no differences between granisetron and dexamethasone, and both were more effective than control (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively) in preventing nausea and emetic episodes. However, dexamethasone was more effective in preventing nausea more than emetic episodes. fewer patients in the granisetron with dexamethasone group needed antiemetic rescue (P<0.01 vs. control and P<0.05 vs. granisetron). We conclude that granisetron and dexamethasone combination is effective in preventing PONV (post operative nausca and vomiting) after gynecological laparoscopy.



RamadanA.M. Hemeida*, Mohamed F. Abd-Ellah, Abdel-GawadS. Abdel-Gawad* and Farid M.A. Hamada.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Al-Azhar University and *Al-Azhar University Assuit.

Oxidative stress is involved in the etiology of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and renal damage. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) can slow the progression of renal impairment in diabetes. The present study was thus designed to examine the effect of verapamil (VER) and amlodipine (AML) on renal function and oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. Rats were divided into four groups: control rats, diabetic rats, diabetic rats treated with VER and diabetic rats treated with AML. At the end of treatment, diabetic rats exhibited renal dysfunction as evidenced by increased creatinine and urea levels. Also, marked increase in oxidative stress demonstrated by increased lipid peroxidation and decreased glutathione (GSH) contents as well as decreased activities of the key antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with VER or AML for 6 weeks significantly attenuated both renal dysfunction and oxidative stress. The present study suggests that in STZ-induced diabetic rats, the protective action of CCBs might be mediated, at least in part, by its effect on tissue oxidant/antioxidant status.



Nagwa M.M. Shalaby, Howaida I. Abd-Alla * and A.A. Sleem **.

*Chemistry of Natural Compounds and **Pharmacology Departments, National research Centre, Dokki, Egypt.Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abd El-Aziz University

The volatile oil of Rumex nervosus Vahl. flowers (Polygonaceae) has been investigated by means of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), resulting in the identification of nineteen constituents. An investigation of ethyl acetate fraction of the flowers constituents has afforded six flavonoids (isoquercetrin, 5,7-dihydroxy 3,6,3',4' tetramethoxy flavone, isorhamnetin 3-rhamnoside, quercetrin, luteolin 7-rhamnoside, catechin), three anthraquinones (emodin, chrysophanol, ziganein) together with gallic acid. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, as well as comparison with reference compounds and published data. Moreover, total ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction were found to exhibit significant anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antiulcer and anti-hyperglycemic activities. This is the first report on the isolation and identification of chemical constituents of R. nervosus flowers.


Amal A. Al-Gendy*, Omayma D. El-gindi** and Reham O. Bakr*

* Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, October University for Modern Sciences and Arts (MSA)

** Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University (ERU)

Different calluscultures ofIphiona mucronatawere established using seedling explants and Murashige & Skoog media (MS) with different phytohormones combinations. The time course for growth of callus culture was followed for the most stable and healthy growing cell lines. Addition of Spirulina platensis extract improved the callus characters but did not increase the growth. The concentration of total flavonoids was calculated by using standard curve for rutin. Total flavonoids produced by callus grown on MS media supplied with 0.1 mg/l kinetin and 0.1 mg/l α-naphthalene acetic acid represents 40% of the plant itself. Addition of 5% Spirolina. platensis extract decreased the productivity of total flavonoids to 21%. Callus grown on MS media supplied with 0.1 mg/l zeatin and 0.1 mg/l α-naphthalene acetic acid produced 24% of total flavonoids compared to the plant itself.



Samuel T. Melek*, Rokaya M. Hussien**, Mohamed R. El-Sharkawy *

and Tarek M. Khairy***

Basic Medical Science*, Endocrinology** & Biochemistry*** Departments,

National Organization for Drug Control And Research (NODCAR), Cairo, Egypt.

Adiponectin is a member of the adipocytokines family of fat-cell secreted proteins, which exclusively expressed in adipose tissue. Insulin resistance is associated with increased risk of type-2-diabetes, which is also strongly accompanied with obesity. Adiponectin may turn out to be a promising insulin sensitizing agent. Metformin, act as insulin sensitizer drug, had the ability to improve insulin resistance by increasing adiponectin mRNA expression in the adipose tissue of obese rats leading to increase plasma adiponectin. In this study, the plasma glucose and insulin levels in obese non-treated and diabetic non-treated rats were significantly higher than that in normal group, while plasma adiponectin was significantly decreased in obese non-treated and diabetic non-treated rats in comparison with the control group. Also, it was found that plasma adiponectin was negatively correlated with insulin, glucose, cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride & HOMA, in obese non-treated and diabetic non-treated rats. After metformin therapy for one month (36 mg/daily), Plasma adiponectin was increased in obese and diabetic rats (treated groups) in comparison with the non-treated and control groups. Therefore, metformin treatment can modulate the circulating adiponectin and improve glucose level in obese and diabetic rats. This raised the idea that the effect of metformin on adiponectin level was at least partly mediated by metformin induced change in insulin level, which are secondary to the effect of metformin to enhance insulin sensitivity. Measurement of adiponectin level in clinical studies may serve as a convenient biomarker for metformin and other insulin sensitizer administration.

14/28 Flavonoid Aglycones, PhenoliC Acids, CaRbohydrates AND biological studies of rudbeckia hirta l. Cultivated in Egypt

S. S. El-Hawary, Ahmed M. Galal, Miriam F. Yousif, * Amani A. Sleem

and F. N. Kirollos

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Egypt, *Pharmacology Department, National Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

The ethanol extract of the flower heads of Rudbeckia hirta L. cultivated in Egypt afforded three flavonoid aglycones, identified as apigenin 1,kempferol 2,quercetin 3,and two phenolicacids, chlorogenicacid 4 and gallic acid 5. Characterization of the aforementioned compounds was achieved through physicochemical and spectroscopic analyses including UV, 1H-NMR and EI-MS, as well as, by comparison to available authentic samples. Quantitative determination of the total flavonoids in the roots, stems, leaves and flower heads was carried out and calculated as quercetin by colorimetric method. Quantification of quercetin in the different plant organs was carried out adopting HPLC technique. The flower heads revealed the highest percentage, 1.95% total flavonoids and 0.1849% quercetin. In addition, the polysaccharide content was investigated by HPLC analysis. Sucrose, galactose, glucose, and arabinose were identified as free sugars. Hydrolysis of the polysaccharide content followed by HPLC analysis resulted in the identification of galactose, glucose, xylose, and arabinose. The aqueous and ethanol extracts were subjected to in-vivo studies. The LD50 of both extracts was 3.6 and 3.4 g/kg b.wt. respectively in the acute toxicity test. However, long term administration (8 wks) of the test extracts caused a significant rise in the level of liver enzymes (AST and ALT) and a significant reduction of blood sugar. The ethanol extract exhibited significant anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, antioxidant, and anti-hyperglycemic activities as compared to the aqueous extract. Meanwhile, the prepared polysaccharides extract exerted pronounced anti-hyperglycemic action stronger than that of the ethanol extract. Both tested extracts revealed noticeable antitumor activities against two human cell lines, brain tumor (U251) andliver carcinoma (MCF8) cell lines.



Hammam A. Mowafy, *Yousif A. Asiri, **Adnan A. Kadi, *Badraddin M. Al-Hadiya

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, P.O.Box 2457, K.S.A.

*Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, P.O.Box 2457, K.S.A.

**Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, P.O.Box 2457, K.S.A.

A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for cefuroxime determination in human plasma, using cephalexin as an internal standard, has been developed and validated. The analysis was performed on a C8 HPLC column using acetonitrile-potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer as mobile phase and UV detection for the quantitation of cefuroxime. The combination of sample plasma protein precipitation and chromatography provided an assay which was accurate, reproducible and free from interferences. Quantitation was achieved by using peak area ratio of drug to the internal standard. The linearity for concentrations between 0.25 and 10.00 µg mL-1 (r2 of 0.998) was established. Intra and inter-day precision were less than 4.7%. The absolute (extraction) and relative (analytical) recoveries for the drug ranged from 79.8% to 89.5% and from 96.2% to 97.1%, respectively. Stability tests showed that the drug samples in plasma can safely be stored for at least two months at -70˚C. The method proved to be reliable as a feasible analytical tool to quantify cefuroxime for pharmacokinetic purposes in bioequivalence and/or bioavailability studies.


Boushra M.E.Yousef and Asmaa M. Kandil

National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR)

The present work is an extension to the previous investigation on the effect of solid dispersion in ternary system of solid dispersion of biphenyl dimethyl dicarboxylate (BDD) prepared with polyethylene glycol 6000 in ratio 1:1 w/w by solvent evaporation method and containing 2%sodium lauryl sulphate (DDBIIS). The previous prepared ternary system (DDBIIS) possess the highest dissolution rate and bioavailability in comparison with the commercial product. In this study, DDBIIS was subjected to biopharmaceutical stability study being stored at room temperature on shelf for one year in order to investigate the influence of stability problems on the therapeutic response on the product.Three groups of pregnant rats (each of 10) were used to study the teratogenic effects of DDBIIS on the development of rats compared with commercial product. DDBIIS and commercial product, each was administered to the pregnant rats with therapeutic dose 2.7 mg/kg/day starting from the 1st day to 20th day of gestation.No significant change was observed on the physical properties, DTA thermogram or dissolution properties. Statistical analysis of the pharmacokinetic data obtained from the animal studies between fresh and stored formula DDBIIS indicated no significant difference for all parameters.Also, the results showed some effects for DDBIIS and the commercial products more than the control groups. These effects were much smaller in group of DDBIIS than group of commercial product. DDB caused increase the high percentage of abortion and resorption, growth retardation, hematoma, paralysis in the fore and hind limbs and lack of ossification in the skeletal system of fetuses. Histological examination of liver of pregnant rats and their fetuses showed improvement the liver architecture of mothers but there are some lesions in the liver of fetuses in groups treated with commercial products more than that of group treated with DDBIIS.



Wafaa T. Islam, Maha M. Salama and Zeinab A. Kandil

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El-Aini Street, Cairo, Egypt.

The chemical composition of the hydrodistilled volatile oil from the leaves of Gaillardia aristata Pursh., grown in Egypt was investigated by GC/MS analysis. This resulted in the identification of twenty five compounds amounting to 92.32 %, of the total composition of the oil content. The oxygenated compounds reached 52.25% with bornyl acetate as the major constituent (14.77%), while hydrocarbons represented 40.17% of the total oil predominated by <ß> pinene (12.8%). GLC analysis for the saponifiable matter of the root, stem and leaf revealed that palmitic acid was the major identified saturated fatty acid in the three organs (30.7%, 14.9% and 18.8% in the root, stem and leaf respectively). The major identified unsaturated fatty acid was linolenic acid in the studied organs (10.6%, 20.6% and 17.2% in root, stem and leaves respectively) in the unsaponifiable matter. On the other hand, stigmasterol was found to be the major phytosterol in both root and stem (11% & 12.5%) while ß-sitosterol was predominant in leaf (9.8%). Moreover, antimicrobial screening was carried out as well as determining the MIC for the leaves essential oil where moderate effect was revealed against both Proteus vulgaris and Mycobacterium pheli (bacterial strain) and weak antifungal effect against candida albicans (fungal species). Macro-and micro-morphological study for the root, stem and leaves was also carried out aiming to identify the plant in both the entire and powdered forms.


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