Vol. 36, October, 2010.

acheter du cialis a paris 1/36 IDENTIFICATION OF BOTH NEOQ AND NEOB GENE PRODUCTS INVOLVED IN THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF NEOMYCIN IN STREPTOMYCES FRADIAE BUWKH 66278

Khaled Mohamed Anwar Aboshanab

Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University,Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt.

Neomycin is a 2-deoxystreptamine containing aminocyclitol aminoglycoside antibiotic produced by efficacité cialis generique Streptomyces fradiae BUWKH 66278. In previous work, both le cialis est il remboursé neoQ and acheter viagra en ligne au maroc neoB genes putatively involved in the biosynthesis of neomycin were heterologously expressed in peut t'on acheter du cialis sans ordonnance E. coli as soluble His-tagged proteins as determined by SDS-PAGE and Western blot assays. In this study, the biochemical activities of both gene products were investigated using spectrophotometery, TLC and HPLC. Both NeoQ and NeoB proteins were involved in the conversion of paromamine to neamine, the pseudodisaccharide intermediate in the biosynthesis of neomycin. Both NeoQ and NeoB were identified as paromamine 6'-dehydrogenase and 6'-dihydroparomamine aminotransferase, respectively. Results obtained from this study will contribute to clarify the complete biosynthetic pathway to neomycin and the related antibiotics such as ribostamycin and butirosins.

cialis et pression arterielle  

couper en 2 cialis 20mg 2/36 NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF CYANOBACTERIA EXTRACT APPLIED AS A NUTRIENT SUPPLEMENT TO THE BRADYRHIZOBIUM GROWING CULTURE AS A REPLACEMENT TO YEAST EXTRACT AND ITS EFFECT ON BACTERIA GROWTH, NODULATION STATUS, PLANT GROWTH AND YIELD OF PEANUT

Elham I. EL-Khatib, Elham M. Aref and Diaa M. Swelim

Agricultural Microbiology Dept. Soils, Water and Environ. Res. Insti., Agric. Res. Center. Giza, Egypt

Two strains of comment bien prendre du cialis Bradyrhizobium (USDA 3456 and ARC 617) were examined for their ability to use cyanobacteria extract (cyano.)in their growing medium as total or partial replacement to yeast extract compared to the standard growing medium supplied with yeast extract only, and to study their effect on nodulation, plant growth and biological yield of peanut cultivated under field condition. prix de viagra en algerie Results indicate that in vitro cyanobacteria extract promoted growth of B. rhizobium strains with priority of pillule viagra prix Nostoc extract (cyano.2) rather than Anabaena extract (cyano.1) when replaced yeast extract in B. rhizobium standard medium either partially or entirely. Results in field experiments indicated that plants inoculated with Badyrhizobium sp. grown on cyanobacteria extract (cyano.) gave the best results in number of nodules/plant and their dry weight (mg/plant), dry weight of shoot and their N, P and K contents at 50 and 90 days from sowing compared to plants inoculated with rhizobia strains grown on yeast extract (YE) standard medium. The treatments with Badyrhizobium sp. grown on cyanobacteria extract (cyano.) also improved crop parameters of peanut plants. Plants inoculated with strain R2 (617) grown on cyano.1 (Anabaena 50%) produced the highest biological yield (4.75 – 4.82 kg fed-1) and seed yield (1192 - 1204 kg fed-1) compared to plants inoculated with rhizobial strains grown on YE standard medium. Seed index had not affected by the tested treatments.

3/36 THE ROLE OF PHOSPHORUS AND NITROGEN BIOFERTILIZERS ON WHEAT PRODUCTION AND SOIL FERTILITY UNDER SINAI SOIL CONDATION

Mohamed A. Mahmoud, Hatem H. Abotaleb, Diaa A. Swelim and Atef A. Ragab

Soils, Water and Environ. Inst. Res. Agric. Centre Res. Giza, Egypt

Two field trails were carried out in a calcareous soil at El-Tor, South Sinai Governorate to study the influence of different biofertilizer types, i.e., phosphate dissolving bacteria (PDB) or N-fixing bacteria on the soil microbial population and the wheat production in new cultivated soils. The current investigation was conducted to asses nitrogen and phosphorus status in wheat plant using Diagnoses and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) as a new evaluation procedure. Results indicated that inoculation with PDB or N2-fixing bacteria supported the rhizosphere microorganisms and recorded higher values of total bacteria, actinomycets and fungi counts as compared with uninoculated treatments with or without application of mineral fertilizers. Application of PDB and N2-fixing bacteria to wheat plants had a positive effect during wheat plants growth periods and showed significant increases in plant dry weight and plant nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents. Results of DRIS showed that N was the most limiting nutrient for wheat followed by phosphorus. At yield stage application of both biofertilization types recorded higher percentage increases and such increases were 141-14,21-4, 11-31 and 82-14% for grain yield (kg fed-1), grain nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents as compared to untreated and fertilized treatments at case of PDB, respectively, the corresponding increases due to the N2-fixing bacteria were 114-6, 10-3, 60-5 and 14-11% at the same order. Moreover, no significant differences for wheat yield (kg seed fed-1) were detected between the application of full dose and half dose from mineral fertilizers in presence of bacterial inoculation in both field experiments.

 

4/36 BIOSORPTION OF COBALT, LEAD AND NICAL IONS BY THREE SPECIES OF ASPERGILLI ISOLATED FROM POLLUTED AGRICULTURAL SOIL.

Mai A. Elkhawaga

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University,

Cairo,, Egypt

The most cobalt, lead and nical tolerant fungi A.niger, A.flavus and A.nidulans were isolated from soil receiving long –term application of sewage water of El-Gabal El-Asfar site , Cairo –Egypt. All were used to study cobalt, lead and nical sorption. The metal tolerance in term of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of these fungi was 4000, 3000 and 4000ppm for Pb2+, Ni2+ and Co2+ respectively. Pretreated dead biomass of these tested fungi was selected and used for biosorption potential evaluation of Pb2+, Ni2+ and Co2+ at different pH values (2-8) under shaking condition for 24hrs at 28C° Maximal removal of cobalt and lead by the tested fungi were at pH 6 and reached 71.0, 82.7 and 79.1% for cobalt and 99.9 for lead by A.niger, A.flavus and A.nidulans respectively. While maximal removal of nical was at pH4 and reached 82.9, 88.0 and 81.0% for A. niger, A.flavus and A.nidulans respectively.

5/36 THE TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF SEED PROTEINS

IN CAPPARIS SPECIES (CAPPARACEAE )IN EGYPT

Iman Hussein Al-Gohary

Biological Department, Faculty of Applied Science,

Umm-Alqura University, Saudi Arabia.

Gel electrophoretic pattern of seed proteins have been devoted to assert the phylogenetic relationships between six Capparis taxa. The results showed that the strongest similarity was between C.spinosa var. spinosa and C.spinosa var. canescens (55. 6%) and also C.spinosa var. spinosa showed relatively considerable similarity to the other members of Capparis. The lowest similarity was recorded in C.decidua which indicate the diversity of its morphological characters. The dendorgram segregates the examined taxa into two main groups. The first group: C.spinosa var. spinosa and C.spinosa var. canescens; the second was devided into two subgroup i) comprised C.spinosa var. inermis and C.spinosa var. deserti and subgroup ii) comprised C.sinaica and C.decidua. The electrophoretic analysis of seed proteins approach provides additional evidence for the presence of a close affinity between the studied Capparis taxa.

6/36 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE TO PRODUCE BIOGAS AND ORGANIC MANURE BY USING LEACHATE RECYCLING

Azmy N. Estefanous, Yasser S. El-Akshar, Gamal A.M. El-Sayed and Amal A. Hana.

Soils, Water and Environ. Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

Biogas production via the anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes (MSW) using leachate recycling was studied. Characteristic of recycled leachate and the organic manure produced after biogasification were determined. The pH, total & individual VFAS as well as total & ammoniacal –N were estimated and counts of anaerobic acid-producing bacteria were followed up. The survival of coliform group bacteria and pathogenic bacteria, i.e, Sallmonella & Shigella during digestion period were also checked .The leachate recycling system shortened the digestion period and also overcomed the problem of VFAS   accumulation hence, no" sour" digestion problem occurred. The production of biogas started from the first day of digestion and reached their maximum production after 27 days of digestion period, being 2.45 L biogas and 1.86 L methane / kg fermenting material / day. The biogas and methane production rates were 987.20 L biogas and 706.00 L methane / kg volatile solids consumed. A peak of VFAS and acid producing bacteria was reached after 3 weeks of digestion period. The pathogenic bacteria were absent by the end of digestion period.

 

7/36 CARBONATED FERMENTED MILK BEVERAGES

Salah A. Khalifa, Mostafa Z. Ashour, Atia A. Abdel Baky

and Abdel Hameid M. Rabie

Food science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig Egypt

The suitability of milk preserved by CO2 addition for the manufacture of fermented milk from pasteurized milk was evaluated.Two commercial strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp.bulgaricusand Streptococcus thermophilus were used. The injection of CO2 after blending with 12% sucrose solution to fermented milk. CO2 injected at 2 and 3 bars at 4°C.The resulted indicated that the carbonation of fermented milk delayed the acidity development during cold storage for 8weeks.The protein degradation and total volatile fatty acids were lowered significantly in treated sample than the control samples. Referring to the microbiological analysis it was found to be that Streptococcus thermophilus and molds were higher significantly in control sample than treated samples. In case of Lactobacillus delbrueckiissp. bulgaricus it was higher significantly in treated sample than control. The sensory evaluation indicated that the treated samples had higher significantly marks than the control.It was concluded that the CO2-treated samples could be satisfactory fermented milk beverages.

 

8/36 TRENDS IN ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF PATHOGENIC STRAINS ISOLATED FROM DIFFERENT HOSPITALS IN EGYPT

Mervat A.M. Abo-State, Om Kolthoum H. Khatab* and Hazem Mahmoud Ghareeb**

National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT)

*Department of Botany & Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University.

** Cleopatra Hospital.

Survey for antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical (pathogenic) isolates from five laboratories of hospitals and Central Health Laboratories of Health Ministry is important to evaluate the efficiency of the most common antibiotics described by physicians in Egypt between 15 July 2007 to 15 May 2008. A total of 210 isolates, 139 Gram-negative bacilli, 70 Gram-positive cocci and one Candida sp. were isolated. Organisms most frequently isolated were Escherishia coli (26.66%), Klebsiella spp. (20.47%), Pseudomonas spp. (12.38%), Proteus spp. (3.80%), Citrobacter spp. (0.47%), Enterobacter spp. (0.95%), Acinetobacter spp. (0.95%) and Salmonella typhimurium (0.47%). Also, Staph. aureus (28.09%), enterococci (2.85%), a-hemolytic streptococci (0.95%), pneumococci (0.47%), Staph. epidermidis (0.47%) and b-hemolytic streptococci (0.47%) were isolated. Specimen sources include urine (42.85%), sputum (17.61%), wound (14.76%) blood (6.19%), pus (4.76%), aspirate tube (4.28%), endotracheal tube (ETT) (2.38%), catheter (1.90%), throat swab (1.42%) and bile (0.95%). Fifteen antibiotics were tested in this study. Rate of resistance to 12 out of 15 tested antibiotic increased during the three periods of collection. Imipenem was the most efficient antibiotic tested against the bacterial species. Cumulative susceptibility (percent) data for all clinical isolates, were as follows:   Imipenem (64.28) > levofloxacin (53.80) > ciprofloxacin (45.71) > amikacin (45.23) > gentamicin (40.95) > ofloxacin (40.00) > azithromycin (30.47) > colistin (26.66) > chloramphenicol (22.85) > clarithromycin (20.00) > vancomycin (19.04) > amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (15.23) > clindamycin (10.47) > cefuroxime (9.04) > ceftazidime (8.09).

 

9/36 EVALUATION OF INDOOR AIRBORNE FUNGI ISOLATED FROM INDUSTRIAL WORKPLACES

Mohamad Abdel Razik, Abdel Hameed A. Awad*, Ahmed M.A. Ayesh**, Hanan F.H. Abdel Mawla*

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia.

*Air Pollution Department, and ** Food Toxicology and Contaminants Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Egypt.

Air samples were collected from two industrial workplaces, soybean and cotton mills using two samplers techniques volumetric (liquid impinger) and gravimetric (open face filter holder). A total of 12,188 fungal isolates belonging to 32 genera and 51 species were isolated from soybean mill whiles a total of 10,449 isolates belonging to 28 genera and 44 species were isolated from cotton mill. Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Alternaria, Fusarium, and Penicillium were the most predominant fungal genera isolated from both soybean and cotton mills. For soybean mill, the highest fungal concentration was recorded in storage unit. The highest monthly fungal concentrations were found in January in storage unit, in December in wet line and dry line. Whiles in cotton mills, the highest concentration of fungi was found in spinning department. The highest monthly fungal concentrations were found in January indoor in cotton mill (carding, drawing & roving and spinning departments). Indoor / Outdoor (I/O) concentration ratios in soybean mill were higher in storage unit and carding department for soybean and cotton mill respectively. In soybean mill, suspended dust ranged between 0.21 to 4.38 mg/m3. The highest suspended dust concentrations were found in June in indoor and July outdoor. Suspended dust at different cotton mill workplaces ranged between 0.21 to 1.46 mg/m3 .Statistical significant differences (P<0.05) were found between the fungal concentration in wet line with dry line and outdoor in soybean mill whiles, non significant differences were found between fungal concentrations in indoor and outdoor environments in cotton mill. An overview of concentrations and types of airborne fungi affected by various environmental factors was given. Their role as one of the dangerous biocontaminants in soybean and cotton mills workplaces was discussed.

 

 

10/36 ANEW INTEGRATED STRATEGY FOR CONTROLLING THE DESERT LOCUST

Ayman A. Frrag, Tarek M. Abd El Ghany, Tharwt Abdel-Monim Abdel-Fatah* and Mohamed Khyri El-Dydamony*

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University *Department of Locust and Grasshopper

Nowadays, there is an upsurge in the locust and grasshopper populations in many parts of the world. Any way despite of the increase use of agrochemicals, that reduced the attack by insects and phytopathogenic microorganisms. These microbs are still represents a high risk to field workers and consumers. Accordingly, the use of biological control in these days as a practical solution is too desirable as the only alternative solution to the problem of chemical pesticides usage for long time. Amazingly, our study revealed that the mortality percentage of the first nymphal instar of the desert locust was, 100% after 10, 19, and 7 days when treated with Metarhizium anisopliae fungal spores at concentrations viz 5x1010 ( I ), 5x109 ( II ) /ml. and a mixture of Conc.I,added to 1/ 1000 µl of 10% consult ( inhibitor compound) ,respectively. On the other hand, mortality percentage reached 98, and 80 % after 6 days by treatment with 1/ 1000 and, 1/ 10000 µl of the inhibitor compound respectively. Also, The mortality percentage of the second nymphal instar attained 100% after 20 days by treatment with Conc. II, of fungal spores. Amazingly, the mortality percentage was 100% after 17days for the third nymphal instar; this by mixing the fungal spores at higher Conc. with the insecticide at Conc. of   1/ 1000 µm. Interestingly, the third and fourth nymphal instar, were less sensitive toward lower concentrations of insecticides than that of fungal spores usage. Any way, the biochemical pattern revealed that the carbohydrate contents in haemolymph of adult infected locust insect was more than that in the adult non infected insect (control). On the other hand, lipid contentsand total cholesterol, of the growth inhibitor treated, adult insect was sharply increased after 3 days of treatment. Moreover, results showed that, the treatment with fungal spores reduced both the lipid content and total cholesterol in the insect nymph, while total protein in the nymph of adult locust insect was increased with treatment by both fungal spores and growth inhibitor as a mixture. Also results revealed that the mortality percentage was 100% in both cases of adult and immature insect after 35 days and, 72% after 24 days. Any way the treatment with mixture of both fungal spores and growth inhibitor was reduced the hatchability percentage up to 47.2% in case of immature insects comparable with 95% to the control. However, results also showed that the percentage was 16.9 % in case of adult only comparable to control. Also, sterility percentage was 93.12 % in case of immature insect comparable to the control, and, 97.82% for mature ones compared with the control.

 

11/36 IN VITRO PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL OIL IN CALLUS CULTURE OF JATROPHA CARCUS L. ENDOSPERM: EFFECT OF SALINITY AND OSMOTIC STRESS

Abla H. Nassar, Seham M.A. Moustafa, Magda M. El-Araby

and Hebatollah A.A. Ismail

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Callus cultures were initiated from Jatropha carcus seed endosperm on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2 mgL-1 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 4 mgL-1 benzylaminopurine (BAP). Callus was subcultured successfully on the same medium composition and environmental conditions for three passages (each every four weeks). In the fourth passage, a part of the callus was transferred to medium containing 75 or 150 mM NaCl. Another part of the callus was transferred to a medium containing 90 or 180 gL-1 sucrose. Oil was extracted from jatropha endosperm as well as from the control and stressed calli. Qualitative and quantitative alteration in oil fatty acid constituents in response to salinity or osmotic stress were analyzed using Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC). GLC analysis of Jatropha endosperm revealed the presence of five fatty acids; oleic acid (36.96%), linoleic acid (38.72%), palmitic acid (19.9%), stearic acid (3.65%) and myristic acid (0.76%). Stearic acid, which was a minor component in the endosperm, was the major component in the control callus (52.12 %). Five main fatty acids were identified when the callus was exposed to 75 mM NaCl; the highest of which was palmitic acid at a concentration of 77.14 %. At 150 mM NaCl, palmitoleic acid, which was not present in the original endosperm or at 75 mM NaCl, appeared as a major component (41.08 %). Ten fatty acids were stimulated on the addition of 90 gL-1 sucrose to the culture medium, of which palmitic acid constituted 30.49%. The interesting result in this study was the high production of palmitoleic acid at 180 g L-1 sucrose which constituted half of Jatropha oil composition with a concentration of 50.88%. It could be concluded that in vitro cultures of Jatropha carcus might provide some fatty acids having medicinal or industrial importance.

12/36 EVALUATION OF THE POLYPHENOL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN EXTRACTS OF SOME EDIBLE PLANTS

Faten K. Abd El Hady, Wafaa I. EL-Lawndy*, Mahmoud Sakr**, Hani Moubasher*** and Eman Abd Elsalam

Department of Chemistry of Natural Products, National Research Center Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

*Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al Azhar University.

**Biotechnology Department, National Research Center Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

***Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt.

Free radicals are involved in a number of pathological conditions such as inflammatory diseases atherosclerosis, cerebral ischemia, AIDS, and cancer. Antioxidants are compounds that can delay or inhibit   the oxidation of lipids or other molecules by inhibitingthe initiation or propagation of oxidizing chain reactions.The antioxidative activity of a total of 87 extracts from plant materials and their phenolic contents were evaluated with DPPH free radical scavenging assay ,   superoxide anion generated in xanthine–xanthine oxidase (XOD) system and Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. The remarkable high antioxidant activity and high total phenolic content were found in Egyptian clover leaves through the three methods, while red radish, dandelion, spinach and broccoli leaves showed the activity through XOD and Folin-Ciocalteu only. About 27 plant samples from 29 showed highly significant antioxidant activity in extraction with 70% ethanol and water extraction in xanthine–xanthine oxidase (XOD) system. The 29 plants under study showed great variation in their phenolic contents. Water cress leaf had the extremely high level of phenolic contents which is >140 mg/g GAE and extraction with water showed the best results.          

13/36 CHARACTERIZATION OF IMMOBILIZED INULINASE FROM GAMMA IRRADIATED PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM STRAIN

Ahmed I. El-Batal, Magdi A. Amin*, Amal E. Ali* and Noha El Attar

Drug Radiation Research Department, National Center For Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority.

*Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

       The effect of immobilizing a partially purified inulinase enzyme from a gamma irradiated local strain of Penicillium chrysogenum using different supports was investigated and compared to the free enzyme system. The enzyme immobilized on calcium alginate exhibited substantial activity (64.6% of the free enzyme activity). Metal alginates and chitin showed lower activities. Characterization of the immobilized enzyme as related to temperature, pH, thermal stability and effect of metal ions demonstrated a shift in the optimum temperature from 60ºC to 70ºC and in optimum pH from 5.0 to 6.0 at 70ºC. The immobilized enzyme displayed enhanced thermostability at 70ºC. Both free and immobilized enzyme system were activated by Ca2+,Mn2+, whereas, Ag+, and Cd2+, markedly inhibited enzyme activity. These results suggest the potential use of the immobilized inulinase enzyme for industrial applications.

14/36 STUDY ON THE FLORA NORTH OF LAKE MANZALA EGYPT.

Ahmed M. Fawzy and Abd El-Halim A. Mohamed

Flora & Phyto-Taxonomy Researches Department, Horticultural Research

Institute, Agricultural Research Centre, Dokki, Eygpt.

Survey of the Flora North of Lake Manzala revealed the presence of 61 species, 5 subspecies and 1 variety belong to 18 Angiospermae families. The percentages of representation of these families were: Gramineae by 22.4%, Chenopodiaceae by 21%, Compositae by 19.4%, in each of Cruciferae, Leguminosae and Polygonaceae the percentage was 4.5%, while each of Aizoaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Convolvulaceae and Zygophyllaceae were represented by 3% and the percentage was 1.5% in the remainder families which were Amaranthaceae, Apocynaceae, Cyperaceae, Malvaceae, Primulaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Tamaricaceae and Typhaceae. Shrubs were represented by 13.5% of the recorded species while the percentages of perennial and annual herbs were 19.4% and 67.2% respectively. Two annual parasites were recorded: Cuscuta campestris Yunck. and Cuscuta pediceellata Ledeb .


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