Vol.37, February, 2011.

recette viagra maison 1/37 BIOCHEMICAL AND MOLECULAR STUDIES ON THE ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF SOME EGYPTIAN CULINARY SPICES

Mahgoub M. Ahmed

Molecular Drug Evaluation Dep., National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR), Giza, Egypt.

The anticancer activity of nutmeg, cinnamon and sage on liver (HEPG2), breast (MCF7) and colon (HCT116) human tumor cell lines were tested using sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assay, DNA fragmentation assay and two lysosomal enzymes (DNase II and cathepsin D). In addition, caspase-3 activity was tested. Results revealed that cinnamon exhibited an efficient cytotoxicity against breast (MCF7) and liver (HEPG2) carcinoma cell lines with IC50 values of 4.4 and 2.27mg, respectively and did not have cytotoxic effect against colon carcinoma cell line, while nutmeg and sage did not maintain any cytotoxic property against all tumor cell lines under our experimental conditions. The cytotoxicity of cinnamon was confirmed by increase the activity of caspase-3, DNase II and cathepsin D and DNA fragmentation. These results concluded that cinnamon had a potential anticarcinogenic property and it can be used as a natural source of anticancer agents.

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viagra vente libre hollande 2/37 BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF SOME VOLATILE OILS AT THE SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS

Nermien Z. Ahmed and Gouda T.M. Dawoud*

National Organization for Drug Control & Research "NODCAR"; Dept. of Molecular Drug Evaluation

* Phytochemistry Dept. Medicinal Plant Center, NODCAR

The present study was designed to investigate the possible antioxidant activity of different volatile oils as: tout sur viagra Eucalyptus, Dill Seed, Peppermint, Caraway, Cinnamon, Ginger, Anise, and Cardamom oils using different assays: Diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay; Reducing power (RP); hydroxyl radical scavenging assay (OH·), and lipid peroxidation assay by Fe cialis 5mg prix en pharmacie en france ++/Ascorbate model system induced lipid peroxidation viagra bresil in-vitro in rat liver mitochondrial, microsomal, and cytosolic fractions, cell fractions were performed by using ultra cooling centrifuge technique at different speed. The total antioxidant capacity of DPPH radical scavenging activity of Rutin as reference standard exhibited strong activity according to the high concentration of (200μg/ml) by (89.9%), then Cinnamon oil by (73.0%). The lowest activity was Cardamom at (19.2%).   At the concentration of (500μg/ml) Rutin showed strong hydroxyl radical scavenging activity by (94.2%), then Cinnamon (85%) and the lowest activity exerted for dill seed (51.1%). vente generique viagra Rutin has a 100% reducing power; Cinnamon by (1mg/ml) exerted a highest activity by (61.0%), while the lowest activity was Cardamom (10%).In addition, the relative inhibitory effect of different volatile oil on Fe acheter cialis original en ligne ++/Ascorbate model system induced lipid peroxidation in-vitro in rat liver mitochondrial, microsomal and cytosolic fractions were examined. The results revealed that the cytosolic fraction exerted a highly activity on lipid peroxidation more than microsomal fraction and the mitochondrial fraction at the concentration of (1mg/ml). Cinnamon, Anise, and Eucalyptus oils exerted a highest effective inhibition of lipid peroxidation in the cytosolic fraction, then miocrosomal fraction and mitochondrial fractions. The investigation of the volatile oils using GC/MS assay and identification all the compounds in these oils were studied. It was obvious that some of the compounds represented a high percentage and some appeared to be low contents.It was showed that, the antioxidant activity of these volatile oils was varied according to their contents of the active ingredients and it was attributed to the structural factors of the individual antioxidants; concentration-dependent; the kind of oil, and the sub cellular particles.

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3/37 YIELD PERFORMANCE AND FINGERPRINTING OF SOME VARIETIES FROM FODDER BEET (BETA VULGARIS L.)

Hossam O. Sakr, Zeinab M. Abd El-Naby and Ehab M. Zayed

Forage Crops Res. Depat., Field Crops Res., Inst., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt.

This research doesn’t aim to identify the suitable breeding program for improvement fodder beet but, to identify some genetically and molecule parameters in some import varieties as well as set suitable variety which high yield and quality. Four introduced genetic germplasm used in this study included varieties Monro, Jamon, Vermon and Vorochenger which imported by forage research department, FCRI, ARC. The cultivars evaluated at Serw Research Station during 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 growing season. A randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) was used in both years with three replications. Young and fresh seedling samples were used for DNA extraction for RAPD and Esterase analysis. The results can be recommended Vorochenger is the best among the varieties under investigation. The means showed that the vorochenger variety was the highest for fresh weight per plant, dry weight per plant, root length, and root yield per plot with the means of 3.864 Kg, 438.68 Gm, 14,71%, 53.71cm, and 43.98 Kg plot-1, respectively. Sucrose was significantly lower in every fodder beet varieties relative to each other so, the variety vorochenger is the best quality fodder beet which was lowest in sucrose content. The leaf root ratiodepends primarily on the efficiency of representative in the process of photosynthesis, so the number of leaves are not meaningful in the production of fodder beet roots. Total soluble solids (TSS) were important for forage quality. Molecular marker could be fingerprinting of fodder varieties. There were unique bands and genetic distance between four fodder beet varieties. The multiple bands with a number of amplified DNA fragments was ranging from 23 (primer 4) to 16 (primer 5). The prime had advantage of unique bands which give per fodder beet varieties bands were advantage mark. The total number of reproducible fragment amplified by the six primers reached 150 bands, from which 103 were polymorphic, which indicated high level of polymorphism (67%). A total of 38 bands were generated from the esterase. Only 28.9% bands i.e. 11 of 38 bands showed polymorphism among the different genotypes.

4/37 JUTE (CORCHORUS spp.)GENOTYPES

Amna H.H. El-Sweify, Nemat A. Naguib*and Naglaa A. Ashry**

Fiber Crops Res. Dept., *Seed Technology Res. Dept., **Cell Res. Dept.,

Field Crops Res., Inst., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt.

A field trial was carried out in two successive summer seasons of 2008 and 2009 at the experimental farm, of Agric. Res. Station, Giza, Agric. Res. Center (ARC), during seasons, to evaluate sixteen jute genotypes. In addition, Lab. work was done to estimate some biotechnology characters. The results showed significant variability among jute genotypes in morphological characters. The promising line 40/1 surpassed the other genotypes in most investigated characters, so, it may be recommended to be released as new jute cultivar and extent its cultivation area under the Egyptian conditions. The recessed line 3/5/9/40 had the highest germination percent (97.0), while the strain DC 9105 had the lowest germination (87.2 %). Accelerated ageing germination ranged from 61.5 % in strain DC 9105 to 69.7 % in line 1/40. The electrical conductivity was higher in strain IRC 212 (18.8 µS cm-1g-1) than in line 1/40 (10.7 µS cm-1g-1). On the other hand, seedling characteristics such as radical length shoot length, seedling dry weight and seed vigor index slightly varied among genotypes, but seedling vigor index significantly varied over all genotypes. Crude protein of different jute genotypes ranged between 18.3 % (strain 25) to 20.8 % (Line 3/5/9/40), strain DC 9105 had the highest total carbohydrates (42.4 %) but Line 1/3/70 had the lowest (39.8 %) compared with other genotypes. Ash % ranged from 6.2 (strain UPC 94) to 6.8 % (line 3/4/2/50) while, fiber percentage ranged from 4.6 (strain 25, line 5/4/5/30, line 1/40 and line 3/4/2/50) to 5.8 % (strain IRC 212). Strain DC 9105 surpassed other genotypes for oil content (19.3 %), whereas the lowest value (16.6 %) was recorded for (line 5/2/2/6/40). There was clear variability in morphological characters among all jute genotypes. Both RAPD and ISSR techniques successfully fingerprinted the studied genotypes with slight superiority of ISSR in detecting larger number of specific markers. A total number of 114 fragments were generated, 73 were polymorphic while the remained were monomorphic. Number of detected bands ranged from 4 to 15 bands /primer. The highest level of polymorphism was observed for primer OPB-03 (RAPD-7), reaching 92.86%. Some fragments were detected, scored as specific markers and were used to differentiate certain genotype from the tested set.

 

5/37 AZOLLA INOCULANT CONTRIBUTION TO IMPROVE SOME SOIL PROPERTIES AND ZEA MAYS YIELD IN SALINE SOIL

Reda M. El-Shahat, Hanaa A. Abo-Kora and El-Hossiny E.E. Khafaga

Soils, Water and Environ. Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt.

The effect of application of Azolla pinnata amended with different rates of mineral nitrogen (46.5% urea) on soil characteristics and maize yield was studied in saline soil during two summer seasons. Addition of dry Azolla combined with urea at a rate of 90 Kg / fed, showed an increase in soil biological activity. Moreover, it revealed a decrease in Ec and pH of tested saline soil as compared with other treatments (foliar or fresh- Azolla) and untreated control. Also, a highest values of plant height, ear lengths and kernels and grain yield were observed in both seasons in treatments applied with Azolla and urea. Results also indicated that treatment with Azolla either (fresh or dry) significantly increased protein, oil and carbohydrates in grains and kernels of maize compared with untreated control .

 

6/37 RICE STRAW BIODEGRADATION BY PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS AND PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

Galila A.H.A. Darwish

Regional Center For Food and Feed, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were tested for their potentailities to degrade lignocellulosic fibers for increasing nutritive value as well as digestibility of rice straw. The tested fungi were grown on rice straw for 2,3 and 4 weeks using solid state fermentation. Pronounced amount of crude protein obtained was 9.75%, when rice straw was treated with combined mixture (3:1) of Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. White rot fungi succeeded to increase in vitro dry matter digestibility of rice straw as well as up grading nutritive value after incubation for 4 weeks in solid state fermentation.

7/37 GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG FIVE NATURAL ORIGANUM SYRIACUM POPULATIONS USING ISSR AND RAPD MOLECULAR MARKERS

Doaa Abd El Raof, El-Fiky, F. A,* Zakia Abo El Kheir**

* Biotechnology Dept., Faculty of Agricultural, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

** Botany Dept., Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls Branch), Egypt.

Origanum syriacum is native to the eastern Mediterranean, southern Europe and western Asia and is cultivated in many parts of the world and commonly called Syrian oreganum, bible hyssop, oregano or wild marjoram. It has been used in folk medicine to treat colds, cough, and gastrointestinal problems. Beside its antimicrobial properties, it has many commercial uses. In this study five bulked samples from five natural populations of this species were collected at an elevation of 1659-1902m of Saint Catherine region, Egypt. Molecular analysis of the studied samples was verified using RAPD and ISSR markers. Selected five random primers out of 20 yielded 75 % polymorphic bands while those of ISSR primers produced 70 % polymorphic bands. Dendrogram generated by the UPGMA method via Nei's genetic distance based on RAPD and ISSR data revealed 2 groups, population of   Wadi Gebal (c) and Wadi Gebal (d) cluster together while those of Wadi Gebal (a), Wadi Gebal (b) and Wadi El Arbeen in a second group. The latter 2 populations showed closest genetic distance reflecting high value of genetic similarity. The obtained results from the selected RAPD and ISSR primers which exhibited some of genetic characterizations showed the extrinsic environmental factors, tested, on the genetic makeup of natural population of Origanum syriacum species.

 

8/37 EFFECT OF SOME HEAVY METALS OF AIR POLLUTION ON THE ANTIOXIDATIVE SYSTEM OF SOME PLANTS

Abdel Haleem M.A. Mohammed, Ali A.A. El-Mashad, Amin E. Dowidar, Laila M. Zaky and Rania S.H. Amin

Department of Biological and Geological Sciences, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Leaves of three different plant species (Dodonaea viscosa, Bougainvillea spectabilis and Ficus nitida) have been collected from three sites between Al- Kobba and Al-Obour city (The University area, Al-ObourMarket and Al-Tagnid square) differ in the densities with heavy metals during 2 seasons (Winter; December and Summer; July). All samples were analyzed to determine four elements (Pb, Cd, Zn and Mn). The high levels of pollution at these sites are reflected in the chemical composition of all plant leaves. One of their adverse effects on plants is the generation of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative stress. During heavy metal stress a significant increase in proline, phenol, lipid peroxidation, anthocyanin, antioxidant substances "ascorbic acid, glutathione, α-tocopherol", antioxidant enzymes "superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)" and ABA were detected in leaves of stressed plants.

9/37 MICROBIAL PROFILE FROM GUT OF RED PALM WEEVIL RHYNCHOPHORUS FERRUGINEUS OLIVIER (CURCULIONIDAE: COLEOPTERA)

Abdel-El-Aziz M.A. Ibrahim, Gamal H. Sewify, Eman B. Moursy

and Jamal M. Hassan

Dept. of Microbial., Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

Several studies have been performed due to the function of the intestinal microbiota. The digestive systems as well as the absorption of the nutrients are highly dependent on a balanced intestinal microbiota. Where, the intestinal microbiota produced useful compounds such as vitamins and enzymes. In this study is focused on the distribution and the percentage of aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria in red palm weevil larvae. Low number of forty microbial isolates was isolated; identification and classification from the gut of larvae grew on Sugar cane sticks, Palm hearts and leaves diets. The taxonomical studies on the forty isolates revealed that the microbial isolates represented eight genera; Bacillus spp. (8 isolates); Actinomycetes spp. (2 isolates); Enterococcus spp. (6 isolates); Saccharomyces spp. (2 isolates); Lactobacillus spp. (3 isolates) and Pseudomonas spp. (5 isolates); Enterobacter spp. (13 isolates) and Xanthomonas spp. (1 isolate). Neither enrichment selective media nor conditions were adequate for red palm weevil gut microflora.

10/37 Use of Vinasse (Byproduct of Sugar Industry) in Improving Biological Properties in salt affected Soils

Faten M. Mohamed

Soils, Water and Environ. Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center (ARC), Giza, Egypt

Salt affected soil is a problem to mange in North Sinai, Egypt. There are large amounts of industrial byproducts produced in sugar cane factories such as vinasse (V). Vinasse is rich in organic matter, polysaccharide, macro and micronutrients, low pH. Annual increase of this product is causing environmental pollution. Two field experiments were conducted in village (4) at El-Tina plain, North Sinai during (2007-2008) and (2008-2009) winter seasons, to evaluate the effect of vinasse as an amendment on affecting biological soil properties and soil fertility. Vinasse was enriched with some beneficial microorganisms, i.e., N2-fixing bacteria and planted with barley c.v. (Giza, 123). The treatments were: (1) applied N-levels, as 75 and 100% of the recommended dose. (2) Soil application with vinasse at rates of 1, 2 and 3 ton/fed. (3) Five biological treatments by using procedures of (soaking + spray both plants and soil three times after 20, 40 and 60 day from sowing with tap water (union.), with a mixed liquid culture without bacteria (M. L.), with diluted and autoclaved vinasse as a liquid carrier without bacteria (v. car.) inoculation with a mixed liquid culture of halotolerant N2-fixing bacteria (inoculum 1) and inoculation with   halotolerant N2-fixing bacteria, which grown on vinasse as a carrier (inoculum 2). Application of vinasse and bacterial inoculants and inorganic N-fertilization improved parameters of soil fertility, barley yield and N-fertilizer use efficiency. Vinasse also enhanced total count bacteria densities of both Azotobacter spp. and N2-fixing bacilli, nitrogenase activity in rhizosphere and phyllosphere of barley plants, dehyrogenase activity in rhizosphiric soil, available N, P and K in soil, grain and straw yields, plant height. N-fertilizer use efficiency was increased relative to control and uninoculated treatments. Best treatments were soil application with 2 ton/fed vinasse accompanied by soaking and spray both plants and soil with halotolerant N2-fixing bacteria, i.e., Azotobacter chroococcum and Bacillus polymyxa,which were added to vinasse, particularly in the presence of 75% from the recommended dose of inorganic N-fertilizer. Therefore, inoculation with halotolerant N2-fixing bacteria amended with vinasse can be save 25% of inorganic N-fertilizer under saline sodic soil.

11/37 STUDY ON THE FLORA OF ASWAN BOTANICAL GARDEN

Ahmed M. Fawzy, Abd El-Halim A. Mohamed, Hafeez R. Habeeb

and Safwat A. Azer

Flora & Phyto-Taxonomy Researches Department, Horticultural Research

Institute, Agricultural Research Centre, Dokki, Eygpt.

The study on the flora of Aswan Botanical Garden recorded the presence of 65 species belong to 27 Angiospermae families. The percentages of represented families were: Gramineae by 18.5%, Leguminosae 15.5%, Compositae 9.3%, Euphorbiaceae 7.8%, and Convolvulaceae 6.3%, each of Chenopodiaceae, Cyperaceae, Malvaceae, Palmae, Salicaceae and Solanaceae were represented by 3.1%. While the percentage was 1.5% in each of Amaranthaceae, Boraginaceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Cruciferae, Mollunginaceae, Oxalidaceae, Plantagoniaceae, Polygonaceae, Portulacaceae, Primulaceae, Salvadoraceae, Tamaricaceae, Tiliaceae, Umbelliferae, Verbenaceae and Zygophyllaceae. The percentages of the annuals and perennials species in the studied area were 52.31 and 29.2 %; respectively, while the tress and shrubs were represented by 10.7 and 7.69 %; respectively. One annual parasite species was recorded: Cuscuta campestris Yunck. Two wild species: Salvadora persica L. and Cordia sinensis Lam. were cultivated in the studied area.

 

 

12/37 EFFECT OF AGAR AND DIAZOTROPHIC BACTERIA ON PRODUCTION OF PEANUT PLANT (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA) IN SANDY SOIL

Eman A. Tantawy and Abd El-Aziz M.M. Ragab

Soils, Water and Environ. Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center, Giza (EGYPT)

In the natural state, agar occurs as structural carbohydrate in the cell walls of agarophytes algae. Commercially it is extracted primarily from Gelidium amansii. It is a complex mixture of polysaccharides composed of two major fractions agarose and agaropectin. At the same time microorganisms producing exo-polysaccharides (EPS) which documented previously as a good soil binding agents, and they both can form clotting in sandy soil during cultivation time making adhesion between soil particles and plant roots leading to increase in soil microbial activity and helping in elements availability for plant. This study use Agar and diazotrophic bacteria to increase peanut production and nutrients uptake by plant and soil nutrients saving. The agriculture trail results scored increasing in total and nitrogen fixing bacterial counts in soil consequently increasing in nitrogenase enzyme activity and amount of nitrogen fixation with Agar and inoculation treatment. Agar helped inoculation increasing the peanut production and all tested plant parameters in addition to increase Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) were up-taken by plant and available in soil after harvest and these results was increasing significantly by treatments. Inoculation and Agar when used separately scored results increasing over the control respectively. Results in laboratory showed a high amount of polysaccharides and pectin that contains in Agar suspension and existing in bacterial media (excreting by the using diazotrophic bacteria) and do the main act to form seasonally aggregates in soil particles.


 

13/37 EFFECT OF PLANT EXTRACTS ON TOXIGENEIC FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH RICE SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT EGYPTIAN GOVERNORATES

Rasha Y.A. Mohamed, Mahmoud A. Swelim, Eman M. El-Taher*,

Hassan M. Emara and Mosaad A. Abdel-Wahhab**

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha, Egypt.

* The Regional Center for Mycology & Biotechnology, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

** Food Toxicology & Contaminants Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

Rice is one of the most important crops at Egypt and considers the main food for the Egyptian population. The aims of the current study is the survey of the toxigenic fungi associated with rice collected from different Egyptian governorates and the use of different plant extracts to inhibit fungal growth on rice. Rice samples were collected from the highest producer governorates i.e. Sharkia, Dkahlia, Behira and Kaluobia during the season of 2008. Total fungal counts were estimated using two different media for sterile and non sterile rice grains and three isolated fungi were tested for mycotoxins production. Moreover, the antifungal activity of the ethanol and water extract of theme, ginger, cinnamon and black seeds was investigated. The results indicated that all the samples were infected with fungi and the samples from Sharkia were the most infected and contain the higher total fungal counts followed by Behira governorate regarding the fresh rough rice samples. However the fresh polished rice samples collected from Behira contained the higher total fungal counts. The total fungal counts in all samples after one year of storage were increased dramatically and recorded the highest number in the samples of Behira governorate. The isolated Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasictus and Fusarium moniliform were found to have the ability to produce aflatoxins and fumonisin in significant concentrations. The antifungal effect of the water and ethanol cinnamon extracts revealed that the most effective against the three isolates and the MIC recorded 10 g/kg It could be concluded that the contamination of rice with the toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins may induce risks to consumers and the treatment with cinnamon during storage and/or cooking may decrease or prevent these risks.

 

14/37 ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTIOXIDANT AND THE IN VIVO STUDIES OF ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITYOF ROSEMARY ESSENTIAL OIL

Mona M. Abd El-Mageid, Shahinaz A. Helmy and Nesren El-S. Mohamed

Food Science and Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Rosmarinus officinalis L. was extracted by steam distillation for its essential oil. Rosemary essential oil yielded 0.35 % v/w. The essential oil was characterized by using GC/MS. Thirty-two components were identified in rosemary essential oil. The main components were α-pinene (25.21%), 1,8 cineole (17.87%), camphor (10.69%), verbenone (4.40%), camphene (4.32%) and borneol (4.01%), respectively. The tested oil was examined for its antimicrobial activity against five bacterial and five fungal strains by using Disc –Diffusion technique .Results indicated that Gram-negative bacterial strains were susceptible towards the rosemary essential oil than Gram- positive ones. On the opposite side Saccharomyces cerevisiae was resistant to rosemary oil. Molds, represented in Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus exhibited highly sensitivity. It was noticed that the potential effect depends on essential oil concentration. Radical-scavenging activity was determined by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH). The radical scavenging performance of rosemary essential oil recorded (82.33%), at 30µl /ml compared with that of Butylated hydroxy toluene (80.40%) at 0.2mg /ml. This study was also designed to examine the hypoglycaemic effect of oral administration of various doses of rosemary essential oil 0.1, 0.15 and 0.17 mg/kg body weight .The acute effect of rosemary essential oil indicated that as the orally administrated doses of rosemary essential oil increased for the diabetic tested rats, the blood glucose levels of the corresponded rats decreased. The subacute effect of rosemary essential oil was examined for 8 days .The diabetic rats administrated orally with different doses of rosemary essential oil showed a reduction in blood glucose levels on the 8th day of the experiment.

 

15/37 PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON FERMENTATIVE PRODUCTION OF GLUCONIC ACID

Hashem, S. Ahmed, Hassaan A. El-Menoufy*, Mona S. Shafei*

and Neveen M. El-Metwally*

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

*Department of Natural and Microbial products Chemistry, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

A Screening using a number of different fungal species was carried out to identify promising products of gluconic acid (penta-hydroxy caproic acid). The best fungal species producing gluconic acid (GA) was Penicillium funiculosum. Furthermore, different sets of experiments were conducted to enhance the activity of the tested organism and consequently the production of GA. The effect of medium components and other culture requirements on the production of GA by Penicillium funiculosum was also investigated. The maximal GA concentration was obtained after 4 days of fermentation time, 48h inoculum age and 3% inoculum size. The suitability of different carbon and nitrogen sources for GA production was studied. Glucose (125 g/l) and yeast extract (7 g/l) were the most suitable carbon and nitrogen sources respectively. Optimization of pH of medium for GA production by P. funiculosum was also investigated. The effect of some additives was also studied.
 
 
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