Vol. 39, October, 2011.

quel risque avec le viagra 1/39 BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT AS A PROMISING TOOL FOR NUTRITIONAL UPGRADING OF SOME AGRICULTURAL CROP RESIDUES

Galila, A.H.A Darwish, Adel A. Bakrand Mmdoh M.F. Abdallah*

Regional Center for Food and Feed, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

*Horticulture Dept., Faculty of Agric., Ain Shams Univ., Cairo, Egypt

Ground rice straw and maize stalks containing 60% moisture were mixed with different amounts of date stones (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 100 gm/100gm). The combined mixture were subjected for solid state fermentation by using acheter du viagra generique Pleurotus ostreatus to evaluate the resulted feed product on the in vitro digestibility of dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM), neutral and acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose, cellulose and crude protein. The crude protein content of the fermented rice straw increased by 9.80% and 11.00% when it was mixed with 20% and 25% date stones. The corresponding figures for maize stalks were 10.50% and 11.60%, respectively. A decrease in lignin content of both crop residues was determined. Digestibility of dry matter and organic matter was significantly improved when date stones, forum cialis quebec Pleurotus ostreatus treated rice straw and maize stalks were fed in comparison with the control treatment.

cialis remboursé sécurité social 2/39 PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS, ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ZIZYPHUS VULGARIS LEAVES EXTRACT

Abeer F. Ahmad, Zeinab M. Abd-El-Ghany, Eman S. Ramis and

Ghadir A. El-Chaghaby

Regional Center for Food and Feed, Agricultural research center, Giza, Egypt

formula semidesarrollada de la viagra Ziziphus vulgaris is a medicinal plant used in folke medicine in Africa and Asia. The present study was conducted to identify the presence of phytochemicals, antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities of methanolic extract of the plant leaves. The phytochemical components were determined using standard phytochemical screening methods. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities were evaluated by using the disc diffusion method, while antioxidant activity was determined using phosphomolybdenum method. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroids, phenols, tannins, Phlobatinnins, saponins, flavonoids. The total antioxidant activity was found to be very close to the total antioxidant activity of same concentration of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) taken as antioxidant reference. The total phenolic content was found to be 202 mg gallic acid equivalents per Gram. A concentration of 25 μg/ml of the extractwas shown to have thecapability of scavenging hydrogen peroxide by 41.084 %. The extracts exhibited moderate activity, compared to a standard antibacterial agent, against three gram positive pathogenic bacteria and three Gram negative pathogenic bacteria. It also inhibited the growth of one type of fungi of the two tested fungi. The results collectively suggest that effets du viagra chez les femmes Z. comment se procurer du kamagra vulgaris leaves is not only reliable natural sources of antimicrobials but also potential sources of phenolic antioxidants and hence could be nominated for future intensive studies.
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viagra livraison tres rapide 3/39 IMPROVEMENT OF RICE STRAW NUTRITIVE VALUE AS FEED FORMULATION

Galila A.H.A. Darwish, Adel A. Bakr and Mmdoh M.F. Abdallah*

Regional Center for Food and Feed, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

*Horticulture Dept., Faculty of Agric.; Ain Shams Univ., Cairo, Egypt

Up grading of nutritive value of rice straw was accomplished by using combined mixture technique with sesame stalks, are rich in calcium, phosphorus, vitamins B and E. Phosphorus supplementation is important for rumen fermentation and growth of rumen micro organisms, therefore, the current study was aimed to evaluate impact of sesame stalks addition on fermentability, synthesis of microbial protein and degradability of rice straw in vitro. Significant improvements of nutritive value of rice straw as a result of combination treatment with sesame stalks were recorded. Data showed changes in crude protein content, dry matter degestibility, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents. Combined treatment succeeded to reduce the contents of cellulose and lignin from 39.70% and 10.37% to 34.80% and 4.38% as well as increasing the crude protein from 2.00% to 8.38% compared with control treatment. The in vitro dry matter digestibility of combined mixture of straw with sesame stalks (58.16) was enhanced relative to untreated straw (20.57).          

cialis au portugal 4/39 RESPONSE OF FABA BEAN PLANTS GROWN ON SALINE SOIL TO AZOLLA, CYANOBACTERIA AND YEAST EXTRACTS APPLIED AS FOLIAR BIOFERTILIZERS

Elham M. Aref

Agric. Microbiol. Res. Dept., Soils, Water and Environ. Res. Inst. (SWERI), Agric. Res. Center (ARC), Giza, Egypt.

Two field experiments were conducted at the experimental farm of Al- Areesh Res. Station during two successive winter seasons to study the response of faba bean (Viciafaba L. cv. Giza) to inoculation with Azolla, cyanobacteria and yeast individually or mixed with urea under salinity of water and soil.Using Azolla, cyanobacteria and yeast extract as foliar spraying led to increase significantly faba bean yield components in comparison with control. In addition, the application of T8 gave positive correlation with grains yield. Furthermore, cyanobacteria, Azolla and yeast extract led to increase the soil available N P K. All the applied biofertilizers reduced pH and that encounters the salt stress leading to decrease the soil EC degree., consequently increased soil biological activity in terms of increasing counts of the soil total bacteria, total cyanobacteria, rhizobium as well as, CO2 evolution, dehydrogenase activity and nitrogenase activity. This increase of the biological activity increased the soil fertility that in turn is reflected positively on the faba bean yield production.

5/39 Integrated effect of mineral nitrogen, bio and organic fertilization on soybean productivity

Mohammed H.H. Abbas, Ahmed O.A. Ismail*, Manal A.H. El-Gamal*

and Haytham M. Salem

Faculty Agric., Moshtohor, Benha Univ., Egypt.

* Soils, Water & Environ. Res. Inst. (SWERI), Agric. Res. Center (ARC), Giza, Egypt

Partial substitution of mineral nitrogen fertilizers (MNF) by using inoculation of soybean seeds with Bradyrhizobium japonicum as a biofertilizer in the presence of low dose of mineral nitrogen fertilizer (48 kg N ha-1) or complete substitution by using biofertilizer inoculation combined with two rates of farmyard manure (24 and 48 m3 ha-1) as a N organic source were the main purpose of this investigation. For this purpose, a field experiments conducted for two successive summer growing seasons of 2009 and 2010. Obtained results revealed that inoculation of soybean seeds with Bradyrhizobium japonicum, in general, increased nodule numbers, nodules dry weight and nitrogenase enzyme activity as well as microbial population, compared to uninoculated. These increases were associated with increasing in N, P and K contents of straw and seed and therefore enhanced yield and yield components of soybean plant. Biofertilizer inoculation + low N dose of MNF, gave the highest values of both nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) i.e. 28.07% and nitrogen uptake efficiency (NPE) i.e. 22.54%. On the other hand, combined treatments of biofertilizer inoculation+48 m3 FYM ha-1, which represents one of the choice of complete MNF substitution, recorded significant values and best results in both seasons for all the abovementioned parameters.

6/39 ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND PRODUCTION OPTIMIZATION OF ANTIFUNGAL COMPOUND(S) FROM LOCAL ISOLATE OF ACTINOMYCETES ACTIVE AGAINST TRICHOPHYTON MENTAGROPHYTES

Alaa M.Saleh, Heba A. El-Refai, Abd El-Gawad M. Hashem* and Hesham Abdulla**

Department of Chemistry of Natural and Microbiological Products, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

*Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University.

**Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University.

Ten actinomycetes strains were isolated from ancient stone monuments in Tell Basta Tombs, Zagazig city. The isolated strains were screened for their activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The actinomycetes isolate No.1, which exhibited antitrichophyton activity, was selected and identified. The cultural and physiological characteristics of the isolate of choice identified it as a member of the genus Streptomyces. Fermentation and nutrition studies were done for maximum antifungal production. The studies emphasize that optimum production (34mm inhibition zone) was achieved after 9 days of incubation period on a rotatory shaker (200 rpm) at 30oC and buffered pH value 7.0 using phosphate buffer. The best carbon and nitrogen sources were glucose and casein/KNO3 respectively. The mycelial cake ethyl acetate extract was subjected to chromatographic fractionation and cytotoxicity tests.

7/39 PHYTASE PRODUCTION DURING SOLID STATE FERMENTATION OF SOME FEED STUFFS USING ASPERGILLUS NIGER

Ahmed A. Shindia, Azza A.M. Abou Zeid, Ali A.I. Hamad*, Shaban A. Taha* and Khalid El-S.M. Shalaby*

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

*National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr city, Cairo, Egypt

Phytase production during solid state fermentation (SSF) of some feed stuffs (rice bran, soy bean and wheat bran) using Aspergillus niger was investigated. Maximum phytase production occurred after 4 days incubation in case of rice bran while in other feeds 5 days incubation gave maximum phytase production. Moisture content required for the maximum production of phytase was 50 % for soy bean and 60 % for both wheat bran and rice bran. The effect of inoculum age was investigated and 5 days inoculum age gave maximum phytase production except soy bean gave maximum enzyme production using 6 days old inoculum. Glucose concentration up to 6 % for soy bean and rice bran and 10 % in wheat bran increased the production of phytase. Increasing glucose concentration had an adverse effect. Phytase production increase with increasing phosphate concentration from 0.1 to 5 mg / 100g solid state culture depending on the feed, increasing amount of phosphorus resulted in an inhibition in phytase production. Tween 80 at concentration 0.6 to 0.9 had stimulating effect on phytase production depending on the feed stuff. Using low radiation dose (0.5 KGy) gave highest phytase production. Meanwhile doses above 1 KGy rapidly decreased phytase production.

8/39 GENETIC CONSTRUCTION OF SUPERIOR STRAINS OFSTREPTOMYCES KANAMYCETICUSFORKANAMYCINPRODUCTION

AbdEL- Nasser A. Khattab

Genetic and Cytology Dept., National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

Antibiotics are secondary metabolites of microorganisms and are usually produced in the stationary phase of growth. Streptomycetes produce two-thirds of the clinically useful antibiotics of natural origin. Kanamycin is produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus NRRL 2535 and have a broad-spectrum antibacterial compound. This studies deals with the isolation of new superior mutants and new recombinant fusants for kanamycin production by Streptomyces kanamyceticus strain. Our results indicated that, the majority of the resistant mutants to 250 µg/ml of Kanamycin obtained after different UV-doses were produced kanamycin higher than their original parental strain. The highest Kanamycin producer mutant was K12/4 since it showed 66.67 percent production higher than the original strain. The obtained results the UV-resistant mutants to 350 µg/ml of Kanamycin showed an opposite trend to those obtained after exposure the UV-treated cells to 250 µg/ml of Kanamycin, since the all of the tested mutants produced kanamycin higher than their original parental strain. The highest record of the kanamycin production was 210 µg/ml (with 75.00% more than the original untreated strain) which was obtained from the mutant K8/13. Through antibacterial resistance study of the highest producer mutants, only 4 of them were selected and intraspecific protoplast fusion between them was carried out using two crosses. All fusants showed higher activities (from 175.00 to 183.33%) than the original strain. Moreover, among 10 isolated fusants, 4 showed higher activities than their corresponding higher parent strain.

9/39 POTASSIUM AMELIORATES WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF MODERATE WATER STRESSED SUNFLOWER PLANTS

Zeinab Ahmed Khidr, Fawzia Abo Syrea Ahmed Ebad, Mosad Abd-Elaty El-Batal* andHanna Shaban Abd-Elsamea*

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

*Crop Physiology, Crop Research Institute, Giza, Egypt.

The present experiments were conducted in the greenhouse of Crop Physiology Department at Giza Experimental Research Station, ARC, Egypt during the two successive summer seasons of 2007 and 2008 to increase crop productivity and water use efficiency of (Helianthus annuus L.) sunflower variety “Giza 102” grown under water deficit and foliar spraying with potassium . Four treatments of water amounts; 100%, 90%, 80% and 70% of water requirements were applied in the main-plots. Four concentrations of foliar spraying with potassium were applied in the subplots at the rate of 1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm, in addition to water as control.Both 80 and 70 % irrigation treatments significantly decreased shoot dry weight, leaf area index (LAI), absolute growth rate, each of biological, seed and oil yields as well as harvest index, while significantly increased root dry weight, net assimilation rate during the first growth period compared with the control in both seasons. Foliar spraying with K at the level of 2000 and 3000 ppm significantly increased both shoot and root dry weights, LAI and yield traits studied in both seasons. Combination between 90% irrigation and 3000 ppm K treatment significantly increased oil yield. Increasing irrigation water increased oil percentages. Iodine number was increased as water stress increased. Increasing K spraying from zero to 3000 ppm under different soil moisture content decreased transpiration rate. As K concentration increased under 80% and 70% irrigation treatments, water consumptive use was decreased. The data showed significant increases in water use efficiency with increasing K concentration.

10/39 ENHANCEMENT OF CHROMIUM REMOVAL FROM INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT DRAIN BY PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENSSC106 AND BACILLUS SUBTILIS SC106 CONSORTIA

Youssef A. Mawgoud and Mohamed E.A. Dawoud

Botany Dept., Fac. of Science, Cairo Univ., Giza, Egypt.

Two bacterial strains capable to remove chromium (Cr VI) ions from tanneries effluent were isolated from contaminated soil in the present work and identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens SC106 and Bacillus subtilis SC106. The isolates are capable to remedy Cr (VI) as mono cultures and in consortia and their efficiencies were compared.Agarose gel analysis revealed that the resistance geneis a chromosomal gene in Pseudomonas fluorescens SC106 and a plasmid-borne gene in Bacillus subtilis SC106 (about 24 kb). The isolates were examined for their tolerance to hexavalent chromium and their ability to reduce Cr (VI) to Cr (III).Utilization of Cr (VI) reducing microbial consortium has enhanced the efficiency of the process of detoxification of Cr (VI) to Cr (III). The results indicate that the microbial consortia and the mono cultures of the above isolates can be useful for Cr (VI) detoxification of chromium contaminated environment. Before remediation, the chromium content of the effluent was 570 mgL-1, after which, it reduced to 2.8 – 6.3 mgL-1. The superlative removal activity was observed by immobilized beads consortia of P. fluorescens SC106 and B. subtilis SC106 (99.63%).

11/39 GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME INDIGENOUS CHICKEN POPULATIONS IN EGYPT USING ISSR MARKER

Ismael A. Khatab

Department of Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafr elsheikh University, Egypt.

Understanding the genetic diversity at molecular level is a requirement in developing strategies for effective conservation and utilization of chicken genetic resources. Genetic variability was studied on four Egyptian indigenous chicken populations using Inter Specific Sequence Repeat (ISSR) marker, to analyze genetic variation among four Egyptian indigenous chicken populations and to reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree for these populations. Ten ISSR primers were used in this study, seven out them gave polymorphic bands. Forty eight bands ranging between 200 and 1500 bp were amplified. The banding patterns were differ among populations and each population has unique bands. Dendrogram resulted in two main groups. First group have two subgroups, the first subgroup contains Mandarah and Dokki-4 populations and another subgroup have only Anshas population. The closest genetic distance was found between Mandarah and Dokki, which were first clustered together, the similarity was 72.9, since they have shared the common ancestor. On the other hand, the second group includes El-Salam strain population which was the highly diverged breed. Hence, conservation of Mandarah and Dokki, strains should be an urgent situation.

12/39 AN ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS POLLUTION IN VEGETABLES GROWN IN SEWAGE WATER –IRRIGATED AREA OF SHEBEEN EL QANATER, EGYPT

Sawsan Abdel Rahman Abdel Rahman, Zeinab Ahmed Elsaid Khidr, Hedaya Ahmed Kamel* and Hend Mustafa Ali Habib*

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

*Radioisotope Department, Nuclear Research Center Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt.

This study was conducted at treated sewage water irrigated site, 30 kilometers from Cairo, while 3 kilometers was the distance between control (fresh water irrigated site) and treated wastewater irrigated site. Al- Gabal Al- Asfar sewage treatment plant (STP) was the source for irrigation of vegetables. The physicochemical characteristics for both water and soil were evaluated. Although chemical oxygen demand of sewage water was more than 5 folds that of fresh water, the biological oxygen demand of the latter was twice that of the former. Total solids, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids in sewage water were higher than that of fresh water. Electric conductivity of wastewater irrigated soil was about five times that of fresh water irrigated ones. Zinc was the most abundant among detected heavy metals, in leaves of the plants, followed by Cu and then Pb. The difference in Pb concentration between wastewater treated and control plants was great. So it had the highest enrichment factor (EF).The EF of the heavy metals in cabbage, garden rocket and spinach was in the sequence: Pb> Zn > Cu, while in lettuce and parsley, it was Pb> Cu> Zn. With increase in transfer factors (TF) of both Pb and Cu in wastewater treated plants, the TF of Zn was decreased compared with their values in control plants. Antagonistic and synergistic relations were manifested among various metal ions for different plants.

13/39 EFFECT OF SAGE AND NIGELLA ESSENTIAL OIL ON THE MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY AND SHELF LIFE OF KARIESH CHEESE.

Zeinab M. Abd El Ghany, Afaf O. Ali and Ahmed F. Abdel Salam

Regional Center for Food and Feed, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

Thirty five samples (5 groups) of Kariesh cheese were collected from different retail markets and farmers vendors. All groups were examined bacteriologically for total bacterial count, total coliforms, faecal coliforms, total molds and yeasts, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and Campylobacter. The tested samples were examined chemically for protein, moisture, fat, Ca, Fe and Zn content. The addition of sage and nigella essential oils and its effect on bacteriological quality during chilling storage also studied. The obtained results revealed that Kariesh cheese samples were contained total bacterial counts, total coliforms, faecal coliforms and yeasts, ranged from 9 × 10 4 to 2.5 × 10 6, 4 × 10 2 to 3 × 10 5, 2 × 102 to 3× 10 4 and    3 × 10 7 to 6 × 10 7 cfu / g respectively. E. coli and Campylobater were isolated from some groups. Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Staph. aureus and molds did not isolated from any of the examined groups. The concentrate of 0.6 % of sage and nigella essential oils have been shown strong antimicrobial activity for reduction the microbial load and completely eliminated of Campylobacter after 20 days of chilling storage.


14/39 POTENTIAL METABOLIC BIOMARKERS FROM PLANTS SURVIVING IN POLLUTED ECOSYSTEMS.

Eglal M. Galaledin, Sheikha S. Alabdulkareem* and Fawzeya H. Albishr*

Department of Botany & Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Alazhar University (Girls Branch), Cairo, Egypt.

*Department of Botany & Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Dammam, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.

Fourteen plants were collected from inside and around Jubail industrial city, where they are subjected to multistresses inducing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) toxicity in their tissues.Tolerance to air pollution impact was measured,in the investigated plants, by applying the air pollution tolerance index (APTI) method. The recorded APTI ranged from 99.8±2 in Ficus to 72±2 in Leptadenia .This high APTI indicate that all investigated plants are highly tolerant to the impact of air pollution. Determination of the free amino acids (FAAs) in the above-ground tissues of these plants detected (31) FAAs, and revealed that plants tend to synthesize and accumulate FAAs in a species- specific manner. All plants synthesized specific nonprotein amino acids (NPAAs), mainly carnosine and ornithine. On the other hand, the proteinogenic amino acid, proline, was detected only in Phoenix, Zygophyllum and Lygos. Cystine, arginine, lysine,valine and tryptophan were detected in all investigated plants. Histidine, alanine and serine were detected only in some plants.This study discuss the possibility of the above arrays of metabolites to play roles in tolerance of investigated plants to multistresses in their environments .As well,as the possibility to identify some of these FAAs as potential metabolic biomarkers that reflect plant's response to stress.

15/39 MOLECULAR DIVERSITY IN HAPLOID NICOTIANA ALATA IRRADIATED WITH GAMMA RAYS AND SALINITY AS REVEALED BY RAPD

Abd El-Hadi I.H. Sayed, Ayman A. El-Fiki* and Mohamed A. Moustafa*

Faculty of Agriculture, Botany Dept., Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

*National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

Nicotiana alata is ornamental plant.It is a member from family Solanasea. Tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) is one of the most important commercial crops in the world. Wild Nicotiana species as storehouse of genes for several diseases and pests, in addition to genes for several important phytochemicals and quality traits which are not present in cultivated varaities. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to determine the degree of genetic variation in treated haploid Nicotiana alata plants. Total genomic DNAs from different treated haploid plantlets were amplified using five arbitrary primers. Two hundred and seventy bands were detected from irradiated plantlets with doses 15, 20 and 25Gy with polymorphic band number 226 (83.7%). Total number of bands resulted from plant grew on 150 mM and 200 mM NaCl were 260 bands with polymorphic bands 185 (85.6%). However, the total number of bands produced from combined effects between gamma rays and salinity (20 Gy X 50 mM NaCl, 20 Gy X 100 mM NaCl and 25 Gy X 50 mM NaCl) were 270 with polymorphic band number 231 (85.5%). High similarity between treatments was revealed. Treatments relationships were estimated through cluster analysis (UPGMA) based on RAPD data.  
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