Vol. 40, February, 2012.


Waleed S. Fouad, Fawzy E. Amer*, Yousry A. Dowidar and Ali M. El-Refy

Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University,

Cairo, Egypt

*Computer Science Department, Military Technical Collage, Cairo, Egypt

Random Amplified Polymorphism DNA (RAPD) analysis is a well known method for studying genetic relationships between individuals. In this study, enhancement of the RAPD images captured by a digital camera is a quite difficult problem. A method for enhancement RAPD images is proposed, which aims to improve the detect-ability of objects in these images and the evaluations of the enhancement algorithms effect on tested images by compare them with the images captured by gel documentation system. Image processing toolbox of MATLAB software version (R2010a) was used as the main software package. To achieve the study results, the following tasks were performed: Four RAPD gel images captured by a digital camera were used as testing samples. The shape of generated histograms indicated that the type of noise introduced into the tested images is Gaussian noise. Adaptive noise filter was used for noise elimination of the tested images. There was no significant difference after applying this filter, since this noise filter gave approximately similar visual quality of RAPD gel images captured by a digital camera. A morphological opening operation was used to estimate the background. Morphological opening is erosion followed by dilation, using the same structuring element for both operations. Rectangle shape with size of 15 x 60 pixels was used as a probe of DNA bands in RAPD gel images. The background image subtracted from the original image to create a more uniform background. The morphological opening operation with creating rectangle shape of structure elements could estimate the background. Intensities of subtracted images were mapped to increase the contrast of these images. The results indicate not only that Contrast enhancement makes the images more detectable of DNA bands but also do not affect on the original structure of the RAPD images. The calculated quality measures indicated that the proposed enhancement algorithm have strongly effect, since the enhanced images that were captured by a digital camera become similar to the reference images that captured by a gel documentation system.


Sawsan Abd El-Ghany, Hesham M.A. Soliman*, Usama Beshay and

Mona El-Demellawy*

Bioprocess Development Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute (GEBRI), City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Alexandria, Egypt.

*Nanotechnology and New Composite Materials Department, Advanced Technology and New Materials Research Institute, City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Alexandria, Egypt.

Triethoxysilylpropylamine has been utilized as the silicon precursor in a sol-gel route to react with acetylacetone in ethanolic solution to give an isomeric mixture of carbon-functionalized organosilicon compounds as inorganic-organic hybrid network, which was capable of polymerization. Three different mesoporous/macroporous organic-silica, or organic-silica combined with either calcium or gold were obtained after annealing at 350°C to give matrix 1, 2, and 3. Batch and repeated-batch experiments were carried out for glucanase production using immobilized Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells. Matrix 1 was found to be the most suitable immobilizing agent with a cell loading of 37.8 g cells (dry wt)/L of matrix 1. The stability of the immobilized cells was examined in repeated-batch culture and activity was stable over three successive cycles of cultivation and did not show any decline in production upon reuse. Maximum enzyme activity (690 U/ml) was produced when the fermentation was carried out in repeated-batch mode using matrix 1 and allowing each cycle to persist for 48 h. E. coli cells immobilized on different matrices were observed by scanning electron microscopy to study the distribution of the cells on each matrix used. Matrix 1 has been characterized using XRD, FT-IR, BET, and SEM-EDS techniques.


Magdy M. Afifi*, Tahre M. Taha, Usama M. Abdul-Raouf and Arafa M. Emam**

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assuit 71524, Egypt and *Department of Medical Science, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, King Khalid University, Bisha 551, Saudi Arabia. **Environmental Affairs Association (EAA), Assuit, Egypt.

Microbiological profile of Nile water and sediment from eighteen sites along the river from Aswan to Damietta and Rosetta during autumn 2009 to summer 2010 was investigated. The highest total bacterial counts (TBCs) in water at 37°C and 22 °C was 502 × 103 colony-forming unit (CFU)/ml and 386 × 103 CFU/ml at Aswan and Qena, respectively during summer. The bacteriological indicator of fecal contamination of water resulted in most probable-number (MPN)/100ml of total coliform (TC), fecal coliform (FC), and Fecal streptococcus (FS) reached maxima of 11 × 103 MPN/100 ml at, almost sites from winter to summer, Assuit during summer, and at Assuit during spring, respectively. Physico-chemical properties of Nile water indicated that electrical conductivity, total organic carbon, cadmium, and lead were reached the highest values at Garbiah during winter. In Beni Suef the turbidity reached up to 16 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) and nitrate to 3.94mg/L at autumn, followed by 2.37 mg/L of ammonia at spring, and 2.17 mg/g of cadmium in sediment at summer. Water pH and lead in sediment was at highest value at Garbiah during summer, while the organic matter content in sediment was up to 187 mg/g at Aswan and Beni Suef in all seasons. The microbial pollution in the river sediment revealed that the total number of bacteria at 37°C and 22 °C ranged from 364 × 107 to 670 × 107 CFU/1g at Aswan during summer, and winter, respectively. MPN of bacterial indicator in sediment has reached, 11 × 107 MPN/1g for total coliform (TC) at five sites from the north to the south of the river Nile, and 4.6 × 107 MPN/1g for fecal coliform (FC) at Al-Wasta, Beni Swef during spring, and for Fecal streptococcus (FS) at Al-Fation, Beni Swef during summer. Numerous positive correlations have been found among some parameters in water and sediment. The water quality index confirmed the presence of an excellent water quality at 6 sites, good at other 6, poor at 5, and marginal quality of water at one site.


Heba Shahin, M. Bekhit, Yasseen Mohamed Yasseen and Ibrahim A. Ibrahim

Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute (GEBRI), Menoufiya University, Sadat City, Egypt.

This study reports an efficient in vitro propagation of white squill (Urginea maritima (L.) Baker), an important medicinal plant of Mediterranean region, from double scale explants. Phase 1 (initiation) and phase 2 (multiplication) in micropropagation of the medicinal bulbous crop Urginea maritima were examined. A 1h hot water treatment (HWT) of bulb segments at 50˚C reduced contamination during initiation from 70% to less than 20%. After the HWT at 50˚C, all explants survived and regeneration increased from 60% to almost 100%. Bulblets generated during initiation were cut into halves and used as secondary explants. The auxin transport inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), and the antiauxin p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB) significantly (P<0.01) increased regeneration (the total number of new shoots and meristems) but the outgrowth of meristems into shoots was inhibited with increasing concentration. Histological observations showed that the increase of the number of shoots and meristems corresponded to an increase in the number of vascular bundles originated from provascular bands near preexisting axillary meristematic cells.


Abd El- Nasser A. Khattab and *Ahamed .M. Ihab

Genetic and Cytology Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

*Food Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Many mutants of Mucor miehei were selected for low lipase activity after mutagenesis using UV-irradiation were screened for extracellular milk clotting enzyme (MCE) and lipase enzyme activities. Out of 28 obtained mutants, 10 of these exhibited higher milk clotting activities (from 108.33 to 204.17%) than original strain and at the same time it produced lower lipase than the original strain. Through antifungal resistance study of the highest producer mutants, only 4 of them were selected and intraspecific protoplast fusion between them was carried out using two crosses. All fusants showed higher MCE activities than the original strain. Moreover, among 20 isolated fusants, 5 showed higher MCE activities than their corresponding higher parent strain. and also it produced lower lipase than the original strain.


Salah H. Abou Raya, Ahmed T. El-Akel, Badawy M. Darwesh* and

Gehan F. Galhoum*

Food Science and Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Gamaa St. Gizza, Egypt

*Food Technology Institute, Agriculture Research Center, 9 El Gamaa St. Gizza, Egypt

Strawberries were coated with 1% of chitosan acetate, chitosan lactate and chitosan citrate combined with edible coating materials such as (Arabic gum, gelatin, pectin and carboxy methyle cellulose). The samples were then stored for 18 days at 4ºC and 90 % ± 5 relative humidity. The effectiveness of different treatments on shelf-life was studied. No sign of fungal decay was observed for fruit coated with chitosan acetate+pectin during storage. Meanwhile, 12% of the uncoated fruit samples were infected after three days of storage. The chitosan treatment significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the respiration activity, delay ripening and the progress of fruit decay. Chitosan coatings delayed weight loss, firmness and external color changes compared to the untreated samples. Adding gelatin and pectin to the chitosan solution increases the firmness and shelf life of fruit samples. The samples coated with chitosan+pectin and chitosan+gelatin had the greatest visual acceptability.


Heba Shahin, M. Bekhit, Yasseen Mohamed Yasseen and Ibrahim A. Ibrahim

Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute (GEBRI), Menoufiya University, Sadat City, Egypt.

Fluridone, an inhibitor of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, applied during in vitro culture, strongly stimulated adventitious shoots and small bulblets formation of Urginea maritima scale explants were cultured on MS medium. At middle fluridone concentrations (3µM), the scales gave the highest adventitious shoots number (4.58). The whole explants with the new plantlets were transferred to MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of sucrose (3, 6 and 9%) and supplemented with 10 µM BAP and 0.5 µM NAA with 0.2 % gelrite as solidified agent under the normal condition. At 6% sucrose it was shown that the highest numbers of new bulblets were formed with the highest fresh weight (0.943 gm) with the previous treatment of 3µM fluridone.


Hamdy G. Soliman, Hala A. Hussien*, Mohamed R. ElShhawy* and

Mohamed A. Ahmed*

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science (Boys) Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

*Department of Radiation Microbiology, National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority.

Two hundred five isolates of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from Dairy Products, Pickle, Sourdough, Grasses and Soil. The isolates were screened for their antifungal activities against Aspergillus fumigatusas indicator mould. Only 13 isolates showed antifungal activity. The 13 LAB isolates were screened against Aspergillus flavus,Aspergillus parasiticus,Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium commune and Fusarium spp. to select the strongest and wider spectra antifungal producer isolates. The most 3potent antifungal isolates were identified biochemically andmolecularly by16s ribosomal DNA genotyping as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei and Enterococcus faecium.


Bakry M. Haroun, Esam H. Abd El-Shakour, Ahlam E. Abd Latif, Mohmed E. Abou El-Atta, Fathy I. Abd-Allah and El-Sayed M. Abd El-Hamid

Botany & Microbiology Dept., Al Azhar University (Boys) Ccairo. Animal Health Institute Zagazig. Chief Pharmaceutics Dept., Al Azhar University (Boys) Cairo - Researcher of Fish Health.

Tow hundred and fifty Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were subjected to clinical, postmortem and bacteriological examination. Clinically the fish exhibited that hemorrhage at the base of the fins, and at different parts of the body around the mouth and the anal opening, uni or bilateral exophtholmia roughness of the scales and sometime scale losses. The postmortem examination revealed that lesions of septicemia, congestion of all internal organs – specially liver, spleen and kidney, the gall bladder distended with bile and accumulation of blood tinged exudates in abdominal cavity. The bacteriological examination of fish samples revealed that isolation of Gram negative (-ve) bacterial genera, according to morphological, biochemical characters and API20E system are Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter fernudii, Entrobacter aerogene and Klebsiella pneumonia. The antibacterial sensitivity tests were conducted using the antibiotic discs and indicated that A. hydrophila is sensitive to, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, chloramphenical, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, and kanamycin and resistant to lincomycin, rifampin, streptomycin, colistin and ampicillin, whereas Enterobacter aerogene is sensitive to ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and amikacin and resistant to colistin, rifampin, Lincomycin, nalidixic acid, and ampicillin, but Citrobacter frenudii is sensitive to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, ampicillin, chloramphnicol, nalidixic acid, tetracycline - amikacin and resistant to lincomycin, rifampin and colistin and Klebsiella pneumonia is sensitive to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, ampicillin chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid and tetracycline and resistant to amikacin, lincomycin and rifampin, Effect of natural secondary metabolites of Origanium vulgare and Zingbare officinale were carried out against the bacterial isolates after sepration of secondary metabolites and determined by the physico - chemical characters of the active metabolites IR, UV, NMR and Gcmass were determined.


Zeinab A. El-awamry, Afaf S. Fahmy*, Nevin M. Farid*, Ebtsam N. Hossiny, Somia S. Abdel-Ghany*, Roqaya, I. Bassuiny* and Saleh A. Mohamed*

Botany and Microbiology Dept., Faculty of Science for Girls, El-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

*Molecular Biology Dept., National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

The ability of some Trichoderma spp. to produce amylase was screened under submerged fermentation conditions using each of rice straw, sugar beet pulp, Citrus sinensis (abosora and balady) peel as a growth medium. T. reesei grown on either rice straw or sugar beet pulp was the most potent producer of α-amylase. Therefore, it was selected throughout this work for studying the physiological conditions affecting the enzyme synthesis. T. reesei amylase was found to be of the α–type based on: (1) Rapid hydrolysis of starch associated with a slow formation of reducing materials. (2) Formation of glucose and maltose as starch degradation products. Maximum formation of α-amylase by T. reesei grown on rice straw or sugar beet pulp was obtained after four days incubation. The optimal pH for α-amylase synthesis by the fungus grown on rice straw and sugar beet pulp was 3.8 and 6.3, respectively. The optimum concentration of either rice straw or sugar beet pulp for production of T. reesei α-amylase was 5%. The enzyme formation by the fungus grown on rice straw or sugar beet pulp was suppressed by Co2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Mg2+,Ca2+ and K+ . α- Amylase synthesis by T. reesei grown on rice straw or sugar beet pulp was repressed by all the tested concentrations (0.025M - 0.3M) of KH2 PO4. This study showed that each of the agricultural wastes rice straw and sugar beet pulp, represents a low-coast medium that could be of industrial value and could contribute in solving pollution problems.


Mohamed A. Al Abboud, Mohamed M. Alawlaqi, Abdel Rhaman M. Shater and Tarek M. Abd El- Ghany*

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, KSA.

*Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Increasing NaCl concentrations led to an increase in the growth rates of the Cladosporium herbaroidesup to 2.50 M, then an increasing NaCl concentrations led to a decrease in the growth rate. Fatty acids were detected at high concentratins of NaCl particularly palmitic and stearic acids where the concentrations of palmitic acid were 35.6, 41.2 and 31.67 mg/gm fresh weight of C. herbaroidesat 1.25, 3.75 and 5.0 M NaCl respectively compared with the control, 14.13 mg/gm fresh weight of C. herbaroides at 0.0 M NaCl. Stearicacid sharply increased (19.86 and 18.02 mg/gm fresh weight of C. herbaroides) with increasing NaCl concetrations (3.75 and 5.0 M NaCl respectively) Unusual amino acid such as γ- amino- n- butyric acid (242.63 µg ∕ ml) decreased with increasing concentration of NaCl (3.75 M) and disappeared at high concentration 5.0 M NaCl, while β-aminoisobutyric acid increased with increasing concentration of NaCl. Aspartic and glutamic acidswere detected in low concentration (21.29 and 37.59 µg ∕ ml) at high concentration (3.75 and 5.0 M) respectivelly of NaCl, particularly aspartic acid, while sulfur containing amino acid, cystine and histidine were detected only in the fungus mycelium cultivated on medium without NaCl. Leucine, 1-Methyl-histidine, lysine, valine and tryptophan were detected only in the C. herbaroides mycelium cultivated on medium containing NaCl. Moreover, proline, phosphoserine and arginine were increased with increasing concentration of NaCl particularly at 3.75 M NaCl. Sodium ions accumulated in fungal cells of C. herbaroides as a result of increasing NaCl concentration and reached to maximum concentration of 590 mg/gm of C. herbaroides fresh weight at 2.5M NaCl and then decreased with increasing NaCl concentration. On the other hand potasium ions increased with increasing NaCl concentration and reached to maximum concentration of 1.12 mg/gm of C. herbaroides fresh weight at 1.25 M NaCl.

12/40 AntibacTerial Activity of probiotic Lactobacillus sp. and plant food extracts, and effect on rat colonic microflora

Sahar Y. Al-Okbi, *Magdy A. Amin, **Osama M. Sharaf, *Amal E.A. Mohamed and Asmaa A. Ramadan.

Food Sciences and Nutrition Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

*Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

**Dairy Sciences Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

The objective of the present work was to study the potential in-vitro antibacterial effect of selected probiotics (L. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, L. rhamnosus B-445 and L. reuteri B-14171) and functional food ingredients towards some food poisoning bacteria. The objective included studying to what extent the probiotics and functional food ingredients that showed promising antibacterial effect may improve colonic microflora in normal healthy and in antibiotic treated rats. Using cup-plate technique, all the studied probiotics showed promising antibacterial effect against E. coli O157:H7, Staph. aureus and Salmonella typhimurium. The maximum zone of inhibition was detected for E. coli O157:H7 and Staph. aureus using L. acidophilus, while Bifidobacterium bifidum, showed the most inhibitory effect against Salmonella typhimurium. Chamomile methanol extract elicited the most efficient antibacterial activity against E. coli O157:H7, Staph. aureus and Salmonella typhimurium compared to pomegranate, carob and turmeric extracts. Accordingly, a mixture of Bifidobacterium bifidum and L. acidophilus alone or together with chamomile methanol extract was chosen for in-vivo assay. Bacterial enumeration following ampicillin administration, showed significant reduction of colonic beneficial bacteria (Bifidobacterium bifidum) along with significant increase of C. perfringens and E. coli as pathogenic bacteria compared to control rats. Administration of Bifidobacterium bifidum and L. acidophilus mixture alone or mixed with chamomile methanol extract simultaneously with ampicillin restored the normal level of microbiota. It was noticed that ingestion of probiotic mixture or chamomile methanol extract or both without antibiotic produced significant increase in colon beneficial bacteria together with significant reduction of pathogenic ones compared to control rats.
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