Vol. 1, January, 1997.

photo boite viagra 1/1 IMMUNOGENICITY AND EFFICACY Of rDNA HB levitra et mal de dos VACCINE IN EGYPTIAN HEALTHY ADULTS

M.S.E. Ashour, K.S.E. Abd El-Wahab,* M.M.Ashour**

and S.F.M. El-Kastaway

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, * Microbiology Department,

Faculty of Medicine (Girls), Al Azhar University. ** Tropical Medicine Department,

Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University.

Hepatitis B virus (HB V) causes systemic infection, with major pathology in the liver. It is estimated that almost one billion individuals worldwide were exposed to HBV at one time. The frequency and seriousness of hepatitis B infection and the absence of efficient antiviral treatment has led to a search for a sure the only effective way to control hepatitis B is by vaccination. The result revealed that the seroconversion rate against hepatitis B vaccine in 112 healthy vaccinated individuals increases after every dose, it was found that, 16.07%, 16.07% and 88.39% were good responder individuals after first, second and third dose respectively; 19.64%, 66.07% and 10.71% were weak responder after first, second and third dose respectivly, while 64.29%, 17.86 and 0.9% were non responders after first, second and third dose respectively. While according to protective level can be classified into two groups, protective and non protective individuals., 35.71%, 82.14% and 99.1% forming a protective level, but, 64.29%, 17.86% and 0.9% not formed a protective level after first, second and third dose respectively. Regarding the immune response to hepatitis B vaccine in HBsAb positive individuals before vaccination, (due to past infection & immunity) . It was found that there is significant diference between HBsAb positive and negative individuals to immune response against hepatitis B vaccine after first & second dose, but there is insignificant difference between the degree of immune response in both groups after third dose which recorded 15.15% & 8.86% formed anti-HBs level> 10 mlU/mlfor HBsAb positive qnd negative individuals respectively, but, 84.85% & 89.87% formed anti-HBs level> 100 mlU/ml for HBsAb positive and negative individuals respectively. The study recomend that the Immune response to rDNA HR vaccine used in Egypt recorded very excellent results, and complete vaccination schedule is very important and required for long duration time for protection against HBV injection.

site recommandé pour cialis 2/1 INTERACTION OF SOME ANTIDIARRHOEAL DRUGS WITH SOME COMMONLY USED ANTIBIOTICS

K. A. E. Abou-Ali

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

Three antidiarrhoeal drugs (lopramid, diphenoxylate, and diiodohydroxy-quinoline) and seven antibiotics (ampicillin, cephalexin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, neomycin, and kanamycin) were used in this study. The antimicrobial activities of these drugs were determined using kamagra oral jelly durée E. coll, Salmonella spp., medicaments comme viagra Shigella spp. ou acheter levitra generique and Staph aureus. The results showed that the antidiarrhoeal drugs were effective as antimicrobial agent at concentration (3-200 ug/mi) and the MIC of the antibiotics were in the range of (0.1-20 ug/ml). Interaction between the antidiarrhoeal drugs and the antibiotics was tested by checkerboard broth dilution method. The results of interaction were recorded as synergestic, antagonistics or additive effect. The results of interactions of ampicillin, tetracycline, cephalexin or chloramphenicol were additive when combined with lopramid or diphenoxylate Synergestic effects were observed with ampicillin or cephalexin when combined with diiodohydroxyquinoline (DIHQ). The antagonistic effects were observed with tetracycline or chloramphenicol when combined with DIHQ.

vente de kamagra en ligne 3/1 STUDIES ON THE MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF kamagra temps SOME BOTTLED AND TAP WATER SAMPLES

K. A. E. Abou-Ali

Microbiology Department, Faculty Of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University

Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

Thirty samples of water were examined. Twenty four were of mineral water from four different sources (A, B, C and D) and six samples were tap water. A study of bacterial population in mineral and tap water was carried out. Samples were stored at 10°C and the colony count was determined on yeast extract agar plates incubated at 37° C and 22° C for 24 h and 48 h. The population of microorganisms in mineral water was <30-400 CFU/ml after 24 h and increased to <30-500 CFU/ml after 48h. In case of tap water, the number of microorganisms was 2 x 102 - 5 x 10 CFU/ml after 24 h and after 48 h was 5 x 102 - 4 x 106 CFU/ml. The faecal indicator microorganisms were not observed in these samples. The most prevalent organisms in some tested waters were pourquoi un chauve prend du viagra Bacillus spp., existe il un generique du cialis Klebsiella spp., Micrococus lutea and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

4/1 SYNTHESIS AND RADIATION STABILITY OF CERTAIN

1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES OF EXPECTED

ANTICONVULSANT ACTIVITY

S.G. Abdel-Hamide*, M.M. Ghorab** and O.A. Badary***

*Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

** Department of Drug Radiation Research, Biotechnology Branch, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo, Egypt.

***Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University,

Cairo, Egypt.

6-Iodo-2-mercapto-3-phenyl-4(3H)quinazolnione (I) was reacted with methyl chloroacetate to yield the ester derivative (II) which was reacted with hydrazine hydrate to furnish the hydrazide derivative (HI). Compound ('II) was used as starting material for the synthesis of the hydrazones (IVa-j). Cyclization of (IVa-j) by treatment with acetic anhydride resulted in the formation of2-(4-acetyl-5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoline-2-ylmethylthio)-6-iodo-3-phenyl-4(3H)quinazolinones (IVa-j). The hydrazide (HI) was also reacted with carbondisulfide in ethanolic potassium hydroxide and/or benzole acid derivatives in phosphorus oxychloride to furnish (VI) and (Vlla-d) respectively. Structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 'ff-NMR, MS and elemental analyses. Compounds (Vd) and (Vg) exhibited good anticonvulsant effects against pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion in the mice. The radiation stability of the pharmacologically active compounds (Vd) and (Vg) is discussed.


5/1 COMBINATIONS OF NATURAL TREATMENTS USED FOR IMPROVING QUALITY OF CERTAIN SPICES

S.E.A. Farag*, N.H. Aziz* and A.Y. Abu-Daya** *National Centre for Radiation Research & Technology

Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt and ** Faculty of Education in Gaza Strip, Palestine State

Famous spices in Palestein markets were collected and exposed separately to different types of treatments for improving its quality. The suggested treatments included gamma irradiation (5.0 kGy), washing with tap water then drying directly under sun-rays or using oven temperature at 70°C/I5 minutes. The microbiological tests proved that high levels of microbial contamination was clear naturally, i.e., the total bacterial count was in coriander (51 x I06 cells/g), black pepper, cardamom and anise in the average count ranging from 68 x 10s to 15 x 105 cells/gram while cumin, fennel, nigella and cinnamon had range from 71 x 104 to 31 x 104 cells/gram. Whereas fungal counts ranged from 36 x 104 to 9 x 104 cells/gram on coriander, anise, and fennel while black pepper, cumin, cardamom, cinamon, nigella had fungal counts ranging from 85 x 103 to 16x 10s cells/gram and clove had the lowest count of fungi, whereas, the coliforms counts were higher in black pepper, coriander, anise, cumine besides fecal coliforms are present in the same seeds. Clostridium perfringens was found in all tested spices at average from ISxlO3 to 13x10 cells/gram. The used treatments were sufficient to eliminate the pathogenic microbes besides reducing the bacterial and fungal counts by an average of 2 to 3 log cycles by washing plus oven drying, whereas irradiation reduced it by 2 to 4 log cycles. Also, it was sufficient to eliminate most moulds and yeasts. Analysis of volatile oil of black pepper, cumin   using gas chromatography proved presence more than 16 compounds in the first one mainly monoterpenes (33.3%), sesquiterpenes (5.09%), oxygenated (7.35%) and derivatives (54.1 7%) besides high content of Limonen, Linalyl acetic and anise aldhyde. Monoterpenes, oxygenated terpense increased with different rates after   using the treatments against decreasing the sesquiterpense and the terpen derivatives. But the only treatment resulted with less changes and had same flavour components near control was washing plus drying at 70 C/15 minutes. Fortunately same trend was observed with cumin. It can be concluded that combination of natural treatments can be considered as alternative methods of irradiation to improve quality of seed spices to get at safe levels free from pathogenic microbes with less changes. These techniques can be use in lake of irradiation sources in undevelopment countries as Palestine or like that.

6/1 EFFECT OF IRRADIATION ON MICROBIAL INDICATORS DURING SEWAGE TREATMENT

H. Abdel Karem* and Thomas D. Waite*

*National Center for Radiation Research and Technology,Cairo - Egypt **University of Miami, Coral Qables, FI.33124 USA

A study was carried out to assess the changes in the population densities of certain microbial groups of hygienic significance throughout the successive steps of treatment in Virginia Key Wastewater Plant in Miami, Florida during November, 1993. Samples were taken from raw sewage, oxygenated tanks, settling tanks and chlorinated effluent. Total count, total coliform, Streptococcus faecalis, Aeromonas hydrophila and coliphage increased or remained unchanged after oxygenation but they sharply decreased in settling and chlorination tanks where more than 99% reduction in counts initially present was observed. A. hydrophila and coliphage were still detected in the final effluent. With respect to the last stages of treatment till the production of dewatered sludge, all tested groups of microorganisms attained their highest values in the effluent of concentration tanks. They decreased throughout the steps of treatment till the dewatered sludge to attain IO6 - 105 cfu/g for total counts and total coliform as well as 104 cfu/g for A. hyrophila and S. faecalis and 103 cfu/g for coliphage. An experiment was conducted to study the efficiency of gamma radiation in reducing the microbial load in the chlorinated effluent and dewatered sludge.   In the chlorinated effluent, total counts, S. faecalis and coliphage were eliminated with 2 kGy while J kGy was sufficient to eradicate total coliform and A. hydiophila. Regarding the dewatered sludge, a dose of 6 kGy was quite sufficient to decrease total counts from 6x1 (f to few cells/g. Whereas, total coliform, S. faecalis and A. hydrophila could not be detected after irradiation with 2, 4 and 1 kGy respectively.   Coliphage was eliminated after irradiation   with 6 kGy. Another experiment was carried out to compare the effect of gamma radiation with that of electron beam on microbial groups in chlorinated effluent. At any given dose of radiation, gamma rays proved to be more lethal than electron beam for all types of organisms tested.

7/1 SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF LOW IRRADIATION DOSE

AND CHEMICAL PRESERVATIVES ON YEAST GROWTH

(CANDIDA TROPICALIS) IN CONCENTRATED GUAVA JUICE

H. Abdel Karem

National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr city, Cairo - Egypt

The effect of gamma' radiation as well as two chemical compounds as preserving agents for concentrated guava was investigated. Candida tropicalis strain, highly resistant to gamma irradiation, was introduced in the juice as a test organism. Batches of the inoculated juice were provided with sodium benzoate or potassium sorbate in concentrations ofO. 01 to 0.05 % or irradiated at doses from I to 5 kGy The combined effect of radiation together with the chemical preservatives at the a forementioned doses was also assessed. Yeast counts were superseded in all treatments and the magnitude in reduction was obviously dependent on the level of the lethal agent applied. Sodium benzoate proved to be more suppressive than potassium sorbate when applied at the same concentration where the reduction in counts at the 0.05 % chemical concentration reached 99.3 and 93.3% respectively. Maximum permissible concentration of both preservatives (0.2%) as a control was quite sufficient to cause complete elimination of the high load of yeast population introduced. Reduction of about 3 log cycles (99.9%) was recorded when irradiation dose reached 5 kGy. Combined effect of radiation together with sodium benzoate was more efficient than potassium sorbate. Complete eradication of the test organism was reached in batches treated with 0.05, 0.04 or 0.03 % sodium benzoate combined with respective radiation doses of 3, 4 or 5 kGy. The same result was recorded in the combined treatment of 0. 05 % potassium sorbate together with 5 kGy irradiation dose. Results obtained from chemical and organoleptic assessments during cold storage for one month showed that juice treated with 0.05 or 0.04 % sodium benzoate combined with respective radiation doses of 3 or 4 kGy could be recommended as the most reliable treatments for juice preservation.

8/1 ANTIBIOTICS PRODUCED BY KIBDELOSPORANGIUM

SPECIES ISOLATION, PURIFICATION AND

CHARACTERIZATION

Z.K. Abd El-Aziz* , S.A. Ghazal and M.E. Abd El-Fattah, ** Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Faculty of Science of

Girls*, Al-Azhar University and chem. Dept Fac. of Science, Suez Canal Univ.**

Glycopeptide antibiotics were extracted from fermentation broth of kibdelosporangium Sp. isolated from soil sample. The antibiotics were obtained as amorphous yellow powder (components A, B and C) and oily yellowish colour substance with molecular weights 984 for A and 994 for oily. The imperical formula of the powder (component A) has been detemined as C^HsoNsOn on the basis of elemental analysis. Maximum UV- absorption bands at 280 nm and 291nm with a shoulder at 443 nm of the two antibiotics were recorded. The powder antibiotic has melting point at 131°C • 133°C. The two antibiotics are active against Gram-positive bacteria and no activity was detected against Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The acid hydrolysis of the powder revealed the presence of seven amino acids.

9/1 MODE OF ACTION AND FURTHER CHARACTERIZATION

OF GLYCOPEPTIDE ANTIBIOTIC COMPLEX PRODUCED BY

KIBDELOSPORANGIUM POLYANTIBIOTICUS SP. NOV

Z.K Abd El-Aziz and M.E. Abdel Fattah*

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science For Girls, Al - Azhar

University

And Faculty of Science, Suez Canal Univ.*, Egypt.

Glycopeptide antibiotic (component A) produced bv Kibdelasporanium polyantibioticus sp. nov is a narrow - spectrum antibiotic active against Gram-positive bacteria with molecular formula C^s ffso NsOs and molecular weight (984) was isolated. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of antibiotic was determined. The effect of different antibiotic concentrations on cell morphology of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, DNA, RNA, protein synthesis, viability and Bacteriostasis were carried out. The antibiotic has bactericidal effect against both Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. In the presence of minimum inhibitory concentration and other lowest concentrations, the morphological response of Staphylococcus aureus was as following, swelling, enlargment, appearance of spheroplasts and finally lysing of some cells. There was no prior inhibition of protein, RNA or DNA synthesis. Further purification and characterization studies using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrum revealed that the complex antibiotic gives two main components (B & C) at retention time 2.29 and 3.26 with area percent 33.511 and 66.486. Mass spectrum showed a positive ion at m/z 719 and 738.4 and the IR spectrum give the same bands for both. The two components exhibit ultraviolet absorption peaks at 276 nm and 278 nm respectively. A potential inhibitors of the cell cycle regulator as cycline dependent kinase (cdc 2 kinase) and (cdc 25 phosphatase) with 1C so were delected as 1000 ug/ml and 7 50 ug/ml respectively.

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