Vol. 3, January, 1998,

parole le tango du viagra 1/3 R1BOTYPING OF TRIBE PROTEEAE STRAINS WITH A 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA GENE PROBE

M.S.E. Ashour, M.I. Khan* and M.S. Mansy

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Al-Azhar, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt and *Department of Pathobiology, College of Agriculture

and Natural Resources, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3089, USA.

Ribotyping with a 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) probe was used as a tool for differentiating strains of tribe Proteeae spp. Forty nine ribotypes were established by ribotyping in 59 strains of tribe Proteeae spp. Deoxyribonucleic acid of tribe Proteeae strains were cleaved by different restriction endonucleases, electrophoresed in agarose and transferred to nylon membranes. The DNA fragments carrying rRNA gene (rDNA) were localized by hybridization with a32P-labeled 16S rRNA probe. A pattern of hybridized fragments was obtained for each DNA tested. Of five restriction endonucleases digested DNA of tribe Proteeae strains screened with the probe rRNA genes, restriction endonnclease EcoRl provided the best discrimination between strains. The tribe Proteeae rDNA fingerprints provided a more sensitive measure of genomic differences than total DNA digests aid. Ribotyping method can be a useful tool for epidemiological studies for the differentiation of tribe Proteeae strains.

viagra naturale per le donne 2/3 PREFORMULATION STUDIES ON CONTROLLING THE acheter viagra dijon RELEASE OF VERAPAMIL HCI FROM TRANSDERMAL DRUG

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viagra pour homme prix PART I: IN-VITRO RELEASE FROM OINTMENT caractéristique du viagra AND GEL BASES

H.H. El-Shattawy, A.A Kassern, A.M.S. Ahmed and B.S. Mohamed

Dept. of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar

University, Nasr City, Cairo, EGYPT.

The in-vitro release of Verapamil hydrochloride from prepared traditional ointment bases, viz. Oleaginous, Absorption, o/w. Emulsion and Water-soluble bases; and Gel bases, viz. Carbopol 934 (0.5, 1 and 2%) neutralized by different volumes of triethanol amine (TEA), Eudispert low viscosity (nv) and high viscosity (mv) fully neutralized by TEA and Methylcellulose (3, 5, 7 and 10%) was studied by using USP dissolution test apparatus II (Erweka, DT6R). The viscosity of the prepared bases was evaluated by using rotary viscometer (Brookfield, TC 500 Rheometer), also, kinetic treatment for the in-vitro release data was done by using Quattro Procomputer program (IBM). In-vitro release of verapamil hydrochloride from traditional ointment and gel bases obviated that increasing the level of the gel forming agents, viz. Carbopol 934, Eudispert or methylcellulose, increased the viscosity of the gels formed and decreased the in-vitro release of verapamil hydrochloride from these bases. Increasing the level of the neutralizing agent, TEA, added to the Carbopol 934 gels also increased the viscosity of the formed gels and decreased the in-vitro drug release. Gel bases showed promising in-vitro verapamil hydrochloride release (up to 97.2%) followed by the traditional water-soluble (33.2 %), o/w emulsion (25.4 %), absorption (5.8%), and the oleaginous (4.3 %) bases. Methylcellulose 3 % gel showed the highest amount of drug released in 3 hours (97.2%) followed by the gel containing Carbopol 934,. 0.5% +J% TEA (92.4 %), then Carbopol 934; 1% + I % TEA (89%). Eudispert gel bases, either nv or mv, showed intermediate in-vitro drug release ranging about 50 %for the 2 %, 40 %for the 4 % and 30 %for the 6 %. The in-vitro release of verapamil hydrochloride from the traditional ointment and gel bases followed different kinetic orders and no one kinetic order can express the drug release from a specific type of gels.

ce que fait le viagra 3/3 PREFORMULATION STUDIES ON CONTROLLING THE

viagra d'afrique RELEASE OF VERAPAMIL HCL FROM TRANSDERMAL

trouver levitra pas cher DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM (TDDS)

comparateur prix cialis PART II: IN-VITRO RELEASE FROM DIFFERENT EUDRAGIT

FILMS

H.H. El-Shattawy, A.A. Kassem, A.M.S. Ahmed and B.S. Mohamed.

Dept. of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar

University, Nasr City, Cairo, EGYPT.

The in-vitro release of verapamil hydrochloride from six acrylic resins, viz. Eudragit L 100, L 100-55, S 100, RLPM, RSPM and NE 30 D will be studied. The effect of different plasticizers, viz. polyethylene glycol, propylene glycol and castor oil, on the drug release from such films will be also investigated. The effect of temperature on the Eudragit films with and without plasticizers, will be evaluated in order to calculate the thermodynamic parameters of drug release. The kinetic parameters of the drug release will be also determined by using Quattro Pro computer program (IBM). In-vitro release of verapamil hydrochloride from different Eudragit films obviates that plain Eudragit films can be arranged, descendingly, regarding their ability to release verapamil HCI into citrate buffer ofpH 5.4 after 180 minutes; as follows RLPM(59%), NE3OD (51.4%), RSPM(32.6%), LI00 (16.2%), 5100 (15.8%) and LI 00-5 5 (6%). Propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 400, as hydrophilic plasticizers, and castor oil, as hydrophobic plasticizer, increased verapamil HCI release from Eudragit films. The increase is pronounced in case of low drug reelease films, viz. Eudragit L100, L100-55 or 5100. Increasing PG or PEG level consistently is accompained by an increase in drug release. The best six plasticizer-containing Eudragit films can be arranged, descendingly, regarding theirability to release verapamil hydrochloride into citrate buffer of pH 5.4 after 180 minutes, as follows: RLPM + 20% PEG (70.4%), RLPM + 10% PEG (64%), RSPM +20% PEG (60.8%), RLPM + 20% PG (60.3%), RLPM +20% castor oil (59.8%) and RLPM + 10% PG (59.33%). The in-vitro release of verapamil hydrochloride was found to increase linearly as a function of temperature increase. The free energy (AG) values are large and negative for all the Eudragit films and they became more negative by increasing the temperature, as well as, by incorporation ofplasticizers. The best six thermodynamically stable Eudragit films can be arranged, descendingly, on the bases of the AG, as follows: RLPM +20% PEG (-10.95), RLPM + 10% PEG (-10.78), RSPM + 20% PEG(-10.59), RLPM+20% PG (-10.54), RSPM+20% PG(-10.53) and RLPM + 10% PG (-10.4). The in-vitro release of verapamil hydrochloride from the investigated Eudragit films followed different kinetic orders and no one kinetic order can express the drug release from a specific Eudragit film.

4/3 AFLATOXIN DETECTION IN BAKER'S WORKERS IN

EGYPT

A.S.A. Ahmed* and M.M.A. EI-Bana

Microbiology Department* and Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine,

Ain Shams University

Detection and quantitation oftheAflatoxin Bl-N7 guanine (AFBJN7-gua) adduct in urine is a good biomarker for AFB1 exposure. Immunoaffinity analytical high performance liquid chromatography analysis (HPLC) was done here, in this study to detect AFBJ exposure in Baker's workers. The possible role for AFB N7-gua in the cancer initiation process provides the justification to study this agent as a molecular dosimeter in humans. The data from this limited number of workers in this study suggest that this method is going to be more reliable to assign exposure and risk for aflatoxins especially for population studies in chronic exposed people. The range of aflatoxin excretion in urine ranged from 5-150 pg/mg albumin adduct. 38% of the studied workers had AFBJ N7-gua in their urine (28% males and 10% females). About half of the positive cases had 5-25 picogram (pg)/mg albumin adduct of AFB 1 N7-gua in their urine. 21% had 26-50 pg/mg albumin adduact, 10.5% had 51-75 pg/mg albumin adduct, 10.5% had 76-100 pg/mg and 5.2% had more than 100 pg/mg albumin adduct. Further studies are needed in th is field on those workers and on long run to detect the possible relation with cancer.

5/3 MOLE CULAR STUDY ON U.V. MUTANT STRAIN OF

ASPERGiLLUS FUMIGATUS RESISTANT TO

AMPHOTERICIN B.

A.S.A. Ahmed

Microbiology & Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University

Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungul pathogen responsible for invasive aspergillosis which is a fatal disease most often acquired within the hospital environment. In recent years several molecular methods have been developed to study the virulence of different Aspergillus fumigatus strains. In this study a trial was done to compare wild, sensitive strain to Amphotericin B (Am. B), and two Ultra violet mutant-amphotericin B resistant-strains. This was done by PCR with specific primers, and it was noticed that there is over expression of 0.95-kb DNA fragment and suppression ofO. 35-kb fragment in resistant mutants than wild sensitive strain. These findings support the hypothesis that certain isolates of A. fumigatus are more virulent than others and that their virulence appears to be associated with some genetic molecular markers. Also it was noticed after being recultured, the mutant U Vstrains had brown conidial colour instead of the green normal one.


6/3 HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES OF FUNGI ISOLATED FROMCERTAIN EGYPTIAN ANTIQUITIES OBJECTS WHILEUTILIZING THE INDUSTRIAL WASTES OF SUGAR ANDINTEGRATED INDUSTRIES COMPANY (SIIC).

M.S. Ammar*, A.A., El-Esaway**, M.Yassin*** and Y.M.Sherif***

Bot. & Microbiol Depts., AI-Azhar * and Zagazig ** Universities &

Sugar and Integrated Industries Company (SIIC), Egypt.

An investigation concerning the utilization of fungal isolates obtained from different Egyptian Antiquities objects (E.A. 0.) in the course of having a clean environment through the Decontamination of the industrial wastes of Sugar and Integrated Industries Co. (SIIC) has been undertaken. The (E.A. 0.) dealt with in this work were those of TUT Ankh Amen Tomb (TAT), TARI Tomb ([RY) and KUFU Pyramid (KP). Since the reuse of industrial wastes is one of the main goal for controlling the pollution problem, it is very necessary to make use of such recycling process in producing useful microbial products, such as enzymes, which play an important role in industries or medicine and food technology. Thirty different fungalisolates were selected and allowed to attack the raw materials which were supplied to production medium as VAB (Vinasse Acetone Butanol) and VY (Vinasse Yeast) as the still residues of the harvested vinasse (V) due to production of yeast (Y) or acetone-butanol (AB) fermentation processes. In this investigation, a stress was made on production of the (4) hydrolytic enzymes viz. lipase(s), a-amylase, cellulase(s) and protease(s). The most potent fungal isolates were selected and identified completely down to the species level and were documented by the clear cut microscopic photographs. The identified fungal colonies were (4) varieties belonging to Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius, -They were designated as TA T-6 for lipolytic enzyme(s) production, TAT-2 for amylotyic enzyme(s) production, TRT-6 for cellulolytic enzyme (s) production, and KP-5 for proteolytic enzyme(s) production.

7/3 REGULATION OF ALKALINE LIPASE(S) BIOSYNTHESED UNDER BENCH SCALE FERMENTATION CONDITIONS BY ASPERGILLUS FLAWS., S-7 ALLOWED TO GROW ON NILE HYACINTH HOMOGENATES

S.M. Shash Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

Some environmental and nutritional parameters controlling the constitutive biosynthesis of alkaline Lipase(s) from Aspergillus flavus, S-7. attacking the Nile hyacinth homogenates have been investigated under laboratory scale fermentation conditions. The following optimas were recorded for the highest lipase (s) yield, 2 days incubation period at 30°C, pH 10; 3xl(ffungal spores/ml per 500 ml Baxter flask containing 6 gram hyacinth fresh weight and 25 ml tap water. Under these conditions, lipase(s) was secreted at a remarkable rate. However, all supplied amino acids, organic and inorganic nitrogen sources, carbon sources and vitamins failed to induce lipase (s) yield comparable to the control under all the specified fermentation conditions. This situation gives a big hope for the production of lipase from Nile Hyacinth under very sheep costs from the economical point of view. On the other hand, microelements exhibited no effect on lipase biosynthesis Aspergillus flavus., S-7. Furthermore, it was emphasized that Aspergillus flavus., S-7 can tolerate a condition of (2% W/V) of most of the added microelements. So it may play an obvious role together with hyacinth water in controlling environmental pollution in Nile river.

8/3 ASSESSMENT OF THE ROLE OF LISTERIA AS PATHOGEN AND FOOD CONTAMINATION IN CERTAIN LOCALITIES INEGYPT.

M.S.E. Ashour*, W.M. Mahmoud**, F.M.E. Serry**, H.K. Abdellatief* and T.R.

Elkhamissy*.

* Department of Mirobiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University. ** Department of Microbiology, faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University

Listeria spp. were isolated from human, animal cases and food product specimens. Blood specimens from 72 human cases, comprising 61 cases of meningitis and 11 cases of newborn septicaemia from two hospitals at Mansoura region, besides 17 cases of sheep abortion, were used for isolation of Listeria spp. Two hundreds and twenty one samples of various food products, representing dairy products (209), meat (8) and smoked fish (4) were also used for isolation of Listeria spp. Four out of the 72 (5.51%) human clinical cases and 3 out of the 17 (17.64%) sheep abortion cases were positive for Listeria and identified as L. monocytogenes. Out of the 221 food products. Listeria spp. were isolated from only five samples. Three out of 5 food isolates were identified as L. innocua and the other two were L. seeligeri Listeria isolates were serotyped. The antimicrobial susceptibility, plasmid analysis, haemolytic activity and SDS-PAGE analysis for listeriolysin O were tested in the 12 isolates. Tests for pathogenicity using normal and immunocompromised mice were performed to differentiate between pathogenic and non pathogenic isolates.

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