Vol. 11, January, 2002

ventes cialis andorre 1/11 RESPONSE OF PISUM AND TRIGONELLA TO LARGE DOSES OF COPPER DURING 14 DAYS GERMINATION

M.E. Eleiwa

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University.

The effect of large doses of copper sulphate on growth, pigmentation and activity of selected enzymes in le prix du viagra en algerie Pisum and bipreterax et viagra Trigonella during 14 days germination were studied. Large copper doses did not affect catalase activity but severely attenuated that of peroxidase whereas the low IAA-oxidase activity favoured an increase in IAA content. viagra est il rembourse par la secu Pisum seedlings gained dry biomass, coupled with low chlorophyll content indicating the possible stimulatory effect of copper on photosynthetic activity. In Trigonella, copper induced minor fluctuations in its chlorophyll content coupled with low soluble protein content, an indication of an impairment in protein accumulation.

information sur medicament cialis 2/11 LEAD AND SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF WHEAT AND LUPIN DURING TWO WEEKS GERMINATION PERIOD.

M.E. Eleiwa

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University

Root growth of either wheat or lupin seedlings was inhibited by 10-3 M lead acetate and continued by progress of age. Higher lead levels initiated radicle protrusion after 11 and 14 days germination. The toxic effects of lead differed between the two test plants. Germination and root formation continued in wheat and arr-ested in lupin with increased lead level. Shoot growth inhibition was stronger in wheat than lupin with progress of age. In the mean-time, 10-3M lead lowered the dry weight of seedlings with duration of the experimental period. The soluble monosaccharides content of wheat and lupin was slightly affected, increased in control plants and decreased in treated wheat , with progress of age. 10-3M lead slightly, if at all, affected the free amino acids content of either plants but higher levels attenuated amino acids accumulation, almost to the same extent, during the second growth period, then finally drastically dropped by the end of the experiment.

3/11 PRODUCTION OF ANTIMICROBIAL METABOLITES BY

BACILLUS SPECIES

M.O. Abd El–Monem and R.M. Metwali

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Egypt.

Fourteen bacterial isolates were divided into two groups, red-pigmented group, contained five isolates were identified as isolates of Bacillus subtilis, non-pigmented group, contained nine isolates, eight of which were identified as isolates of Bacillus badius and one isolate was identified as Bacillus polymyxa. The antimicrobial activity of 14 bacterial isolates were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ATCC 10145, Klebsiella Pneumoniae NCIB 9221, Escherichia coli, BPP 010, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, Staphylococcus aureus, NCTC 7447, Salmonella typhi IMRU 7010, Serratia marcesscens ATCC 1800, Candida albicans, IMRU 3669, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium solani. The activity of the bacterial isolate No. B307 which showed a broad spectrum was tested on four different media where PDB medium was the most suitable substrate for high production. The incubation of the isolate No. B307 for three days revealed higher antimicrobial metabolites production.

achat viagra online 4/11 GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION AND PHENOTYPIC PLASTICITY IN PLANTAGO MAJOR AS AFFECTED BY NITROGEN SOURCE AND SALINITY.

I. Hammad

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University.

Inbred lines of Plantago   major were grown in different nutrient solutions, with nitrate, ammonium or without nitrogen. In vivo nitrate reductase activity in shoots of line 1 responded slowly after transfer from NO3¯ nutrient solution to the NH4 Or -N nutrient solution, while no difference was observed in nitrate reductase activity in the roots upon a similar transfer. A rapid response was observed in the plants of line 4 , in both roots and shoot. Besides the slow response of nitrate reductase activity, the shoot to root ratio of line 1 did not react upon a transfer. Plasticity of shoot to root ratio was found in plants of line 4. The adaptive values of the different responses and possible differences in regulation of nitrate reductase activity are discussed. Experiments, where 50 Mm NaCL was added to the nutrient solution of part of the plants of the inbred lines, revealed genetic differentiation for salt. Line 2 has been recognised as more salt tolerant, compared with the other lines.

effet du cialis à long terme 5/11 EFFECT OF SEED SOAKING IN PACLOBUTRAZOL ON GROWTH PARAMETERS, PRODUCTIVITY, PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS, IONS CONTENT OF FABA BEAN, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PROTEIN PROFILE OF THE HARVESTED SEEDS

M. Abd El-Hamid

Department of Biological and Geological Sciences, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

It was found that soaking the seeds of medecin ordonnance viagra Vicia faba cv. Giza 3 in the relatively low concentrations of paclobutrazol (10 & 50 ppm) prior to sowing resulted in high significant increases in shoot length, number of internodes and their lengths, circumference of stem, number of leaves and their area, number of lateral roots, and fresh & dry weights of shoots and roots of the produced plants as being compared with those of the respective controls throughout different stages of plant development. Root length was shown to be either depressed or enhanced during the vegetative or flowering & fruiting periods respectively. Moreover, the aforementioned growth parameters exhibited mostly either non-significant change or high significant reduction on using 250 ppm or 1000 ppm of paclobutrazol. Whereas the number of lateral branches was highly significantly increased with all concentrations applied, that of bacterial nodules underwent a similar manner of change at 10, 50 & 250 ppm and oppositely responded at 1000 ppm of paclobutrazol. In addition, the number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod, number of seeds/plant and weights of pods & seeds/plant were shown to be either significantly increased or reversely changed in plants produced from the seeds soaked in 10, 50 & 250 ppm or 1000 ppm of paclobutrazol. Yet, weight of 100 seeds exhibited a high significant increase in plants produced from the seeds soaked in various concentrations used. Except for the concentration (1000 ppm) of paclobutrazol which reduced chlorophylls a and b during the vegetative stage, all concentrations applied induced high significant increases in chlorophylls a, b and carotenoids contents throughout the experimental period. The uptake and translocation of P, Mg, Ca, K, Zn, Fe and B ions were found to be either enhanced or depressed using 10 & 50 ppm or 250 & 1000 ppm of paclobutrazol, respectively throughout the vegetative period of plant growth. Moreover, those of Mn ion underwent a reverse manner in response to the lowest concentration used (10 ppm) or the higher ones (50, 250 & 1000 ppm) respectively. During flowering and fruiting periods of plant growth, the uptake and translocation of Mg, Ca and B were enhanced with all concentrations applied. Whereas the uptake of P and K went parallel to that induced during the vegetative period of plant growth, their translocation was shown to be stimulated with all concentrations used. Moreover, the pattern of uptake and translocation of Zn and Fe was shown to be closely similar to that occurred during the vegetative period of plant growth. Whereas the uptake of Mn ion was enhanced with all concentrations used, its translocation exhibited either a high significant reduction at 10 ppm or a reverse pattern of change at the higher ones (50, 250 & 1000 ppm). Analysis of the harvested seeds revelaed that the contents of total sugars, total–N, DNA, RNA and mineral ions viz. P, Mg, Ca, K, Zn, Mn, Fe and B were highly significantly increased on using various concentrations of paclobutrazol compared to those of the respective controls. Moreover, the electrophoretic banding pattern of protein extracted from such yielded seeds exhibited that the number of protein bands was found to be either non-changed or markedly increased on using 10 ppm or 50, 250 and 1000 ppm of paclobutrazol respectively. These changes were accompained by the appearance of specific protein bands having different molecular weights and protein intensities for each of the applied treatment. Consequenly, it is suggested that the efficiency of paclobutrazol in controlling the vegetative growth of faba bean plants coupled with increasing their productivity might come from its potentiality to trigger the appearance of such protein bands which might act as pacemakers or even stimuli for various apparent responses of plant.

6/11 ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES INDUCED BY TWO DIFFERENT TMV STRAINS ON SAMSUN TOBACCO LEAVES

M.M El-Shamy

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University

Electron microscopy of mesophyll cells of Samsun tobacco leaves systemically infected with two different strains (Vulgare strain and Ni 118 strain) of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) showed several ultrastructural changes. Accumulation of virus particles in the cytoplasm of both palisade and spongy cells was detected. Virus particles were shown in sieve tube, companion cell and phloem parenchyma. In case of Vulgare strain, starch grains appear great in number and large in size. The palisade cells infected with Vulgare strain showed large nucleus with one or more nucleoli while that infected with Ni 118 strain showed smaller nucleus without nucleolus. In case of Ni 118 strain, the number of microbodies was increased. The appearance of the two strains virus particles in longitudinal profile and sometimes in cross-section. Infected chloroplast with each of the two strains showed degeneration of grana and disorganization of intergrana lamellae. Mitochondria were deformed and increased in number. Many cytoplasmic vacuoles of various sizes were found in the cytoplasm. Sometimes these vacuoles filled with virus particles. Osmiophilic globules and X-body were greater in number in case of Vulgare strain while the palisade cell wall appeared more thickened in case of Ni 118 strain.

7/11 MORPHOLOGY AND ANATOMY OF THE SPERMODERM OF SOME ALLIUM SPECIES

K.A. Hamed

Botany Department, Faculty of Science Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

            The morphology and anatomy of the spermoderm of five wild and three cultivated cialis est il remboursé Allium species were investigated by SEM to show vartiations in the sculpture and the aspect of both the anticlinal and periclinal walls. The observations reached at led to the suggestion of an identificatory key for the species studied.

cialis rezeptfrei in griechenland 8/11 SCREENING FOR ACTINOMYCETES CONTROLLING CHOCOLATE SPOT DISEASE OF FABA BEAN PLANT

M.A. Swelim; N.M. Abou-Zeid*; M.S. Ahmad**; M.H. Yassin and S. Daboor*

Bot. Dep. Fac. of Science (Benha) Zagazig Univ. Egypt

* Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

**Bot. Depart. Fac. of Science, (Benisewif) Cairo Univ.

Six isolates of actinomycetes capable of growing in the presence of the fungicide kocide 101 were isolated from 3 different soil samples, cultivated with faba bean plant. Isolate T118 was the only organism that tolerated all used concentrations of the applied fungicide. The same isolate was found to be the most active one for controlling the chocolate spot disease. The radial growth of the pathogen (Botrytis fabae) on agar plates (72%), was reduced. On using detached leaves and potted plants (c-v-Giza 3), isolate T118 was found to be the best for controlling the pathogen. The disease severity was reduced to 0.6 and 2.0 compared to control 7.2 and 9.0 respectively. The isolate T118 of actinomycetes was identified as a species related to the genus Streptomyces named S.violaceus T118.

9/11 TAXONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF FLORAL MORPHOLOGY, CHROMOSOME NUMBER AND SEED PROTEIN ELECTROPHORETIC PATTERNS IN SOME SPECIES OF TRIBE VICIEAE (SUBFAMILY: PAPILIONOIDEAE-LEGUMINOSAE)

H.A. Hussein and N.M. George

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt

Six species belonging to tribe Vicieae were investigated in relation to their floral morphology, chromosome number, and the seed protein electrophoretic profiles. The sepals are 3-traced; with the sepal marginals arise conjoint and adnated to the petal traces. Adnation of perianth and stamen traces is, also, very frequent. Fundamentally, the petals are single-traced, but the standard petal shows variation. Each stamen is supplied with a single trace. In Cicer arietinum, ten-lobed nectariferous disc surrounding the base of ovary is provided with ten traces resulting from splitting the opposite stamen-disc strands. In species of Vicia a crescent-shaped disc, below the ovary at the anterior side of the flower, is vascularized by numerous branches that are cutting from the opposite stamen traces. The gynoecium is 3-traced and the ovular traces are cut from the ventral bundles of the gynoecium. The diploid chromosome number (2n) is variable; being 2n=12, 14 and 32. The data obtained from both the numerical analysis of the electropherogram of seed proteins and the floral anatomical attributes, in the species studied, afford an additional support that confirms the previous separation of the genus Cicer from tribe Vicieae.

10/11 PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF SYNECHOCOCCUS LEOPOLIENSIS AND DUNALIELLA SALINA TO PYRETHROIDS AND ORGANOPHOSPHORUS INSECTICIDES

N.H. Noaman, S.H. Shaalan, A.M Khaleafa and W.M.‏‏‏‏‏‏‏‏‏‏ Abd El Aziz,

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

This study evaluated the effect of different concentrations of some pyrethroids (cypermethrin and fenvalerate) and organophosphorus insecticides (diazinon and cyanophos) on growth and some cellular macromolecules (chlorophyll a, total soluble proteins, carbohydrates, RNA and DNA) of the blue-green alga Synechococcus leopoliensis and the green alga Dunaliella salina. In this investigation, the two algae were found to withstand the range of pyrethroids concentration, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 mg /L, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 mg/L of diazinon and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3 mg/L of cyanophos. The treatment of the blue-green and the green alga with cypermethrin led to inhibitory effects on the growth and their cellular macromolecules within the applied concentration range except at 6 mg/L in case of S. leopoliensis where this alga exhibited increase in its growth and cellular macromolecules. Fenvalerate insecticide caused inhibitory effect on both algae at all concentrations used. All the experimental doses of the two organophosphorus insecticides inhibited the growth and cellular macromolecules of the two algae. All cellular macromolecules of the green alga Dunaliella were more sensitive to cyanophos than to diazinon except the nucleic acids, which exhibited different pattern, RNA of the green alga and DNA of the blue-green one were more sensitive to diazinon than to cyanophos.

 

11/11 STREPTOMYCES ALBOVINACEUS AND BACILLUS ISOLATES WITH AND WITHOUT CHITIN AS A BIOCONTROL AGENTS FOR ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE

El-S. A. El-Sayed , G. El-Didamony and E. F. El-Sayed*

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt

*Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt

       Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) plants responses towards M. javanica infestation were investigated concerning resistance and susceptiblity of cultivars. The most resistant cultivars of each legume possessed significantly fewer number of galls than the susceptible ones. With decreasing gall numbers on the roots of both highly resistant cultivars, a highest number of nodules was significantly produced on mung bean (Vc-2719) and faba bean (Giza-3). Therefore, the fresh weights and the total nitrogen content of infected plants with M.javanica were higher in the highly resistant cultivars (Vc-2719 and Giza-3) than that in susceptible ones (L-86 and Misr-1). Furthermore, the highly resistant cultivars to nematode invasion significantly contained greater values of specific N2-fixed in their nodules than in susceptible cultivars. One week after planting, spore suspensions of Streptomyces albovinaceus (S-22) or Bacillus spp. (B10 for mung bean and B1 for faba bean plants) were individually added to the soils of designated pots which were planted with the chosen resistant and susceptible cultivars of each legume. S-22 or each one of Bacillus spp. combined with chitin were also tested to control M. javanica. All the bacterial antagonists applied without chitin amendement to the soil reduced root galling and increased the nodules number, fresh masses, plant-N content and specific N2-fixation of the highly resistant (Vc-2719 and Giza-3) and susceptible (L-86 and Misr-1) cultivars of each legume. Amendement of soil with chitin alone also decreased the galls number and increased the other growth parameters. On the other hand, all bacterial antagonists combined with chitin had also greater effect against nematode infection, reduced root galling and increased the growth parameters than the antagonists or chitin amendement alone.

12/11 RICE STRAW RE-USE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF AN ANTIBIOTIC SUBSTANCE BY NOCARDIOPSIS SP. UNDER SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION.

M.S. Ammar, H.M. Atta and *B.M. Refaat

Fermentation Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology (Ferm-BAM) center, Al-Azhar     University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

*Botany and Microbiology Dept. Faculty of science;

Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

            An actinomycete culture was isolated from a soil sample collected from Wadi –Houf district, Egypt. The isolate AZ-WH-1 produced a wide spectrum antibiotics (anti-Gram positive, anti- Gram negative bacteria and anti – unicellular and filamentous fungi) when cultivated under solid-state fermentation conditions (S.S.F.) using Rice straw. From the taxonomic features, the isolate matches with Nocardiopsis dassonvillei in the morphological, physiological and biochemical characters. Thus, it was given the suggested name Nocardiopsis dassonvillei. The isolate produces Spiramycin antibiotic, which belongs to the class of Sixteen-members of Macrolides, It was isolated from Nocardiopsis dassonvillei under S.S.F. using rice straw. The active metabolites were extracted by using n-Butanol. The separation of the active ingredient and its purification was performed using both thin layer chromatography (TLC) and column chromatography. The physicochemical characteristics of the purified antibiotic including color, melting point, solubility, elemental analysis, spectroscopic characteristics and chemical reactions have been investigated. The biological activities of the purified antibiotics (MICs) were also determined.

13/11 PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON TANNASE PRODUCTION

BY SOME FUNGI

S.A. Khalaf

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt

            Two fungal strains have tannase activity belonging to the genera Aspergillus (A. niger) and Penicillium (P. chrysogenum) were isolated by enrichment culture technique with tannic acid as the sole carbon source. Optimization of cultural conditions for tannase enzyme production by these strains were investigated. A crude green tea containing 20 g/L of tannin, adjusted to pH 5.0, with 0.2% N as NH4Cl was used as the best culture medium for tannase production by both fungal strains in submerged fermentation at 30°C for 4 days.

14/11 CYANOBACTERIAL EXUDATES AS A NATURAL BIOTIC SOURCE FOR TISSUE CULTURES MEDIA

G.H. Amin* and H.H. Omar

*Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt.

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt.

This study revealed that changes in growth, amount of phytohormones, catalase and peroxidase, phospholipidis and protein patterns occurring in callus tissue of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv. Peto 86) were investigated using various levels of cyanobacterial exudate (Nostoc piscinale and Anabaena fertilissima) as biotic natural sources replacing some constituents in tissue culture media.The quantitative analysis of cyanobacterial exudates showed the presence of high amount of phytohormones. Callus tissue of about 1 gm were taken from 3 week old callus, treated with different concentrations of cyanobacterial exudate ranging from 2% to 10% (five-passages in each medium treatment). Cyanobacterial exudates adversely affected the callus growth and the highest inhibitory effect of the exudates was recorded at 2%, while 8% caused an increase in the fresh weight, the catalase and peroxidase activities, and phytohormonal contents of the callus (gibberellic acid and cytokinin). In addition, they increased the phospholipid contents especially phosphatidic acid and phosphatidyl inositol as acidic phospholipid and also phosphatidyel ethanolamine and phosphatidyl coline as non-acidic phospholipids. However, at 10% cyanobacterial exudates callus growth was not observed. SDS-PAGE analysis of the extracted proteins, revealed that newly synthesized proteins were detected in response to Nostoc exudates treatment more than that of Anabaena and control especially proteins of the medium and low molecular weight.

15/11 PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRODUCTION OF ACETONE AND N-BUTANOL BY IMMOBILIZED CLOSTRIDIUM ACETOBUTYLICUM CULTURE

M.S. Shafei, R.A. Allam and L.A.R. Sallam,

Chemistry of Nat. & Microb. Products. Dept.,

National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

n-Butanol and acetone fermentation of cane sugar molasses by immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum cells have been greatly affected by inoculum size, calcium alginate concentration and molar ammonium nitrogen to molasses ratios. The pH value of the medium and incubation temperature both influenced the n-butanol/acetone production. The maximum total solvent content reached 22.54 g/l using inoculum size 6g% (w,w) molasses concentration 140 g/l; sodium alginate 3g %, molar ammonium nitrogen to molasses ratios 0.48 at pH 5.5. Attempts to recyclize the fermentation process using immobilized spores of Clostridium acetobutylicum afforded total solventcontents of 22.54, 20.64, 19.31 during the first 3 runs respectively.


16/11 ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MACROPHYTES OF WADI EL-RAYANLAKES, FAIYÛM GOVERNORATE, EGYPT

M.A. Hammouda, K.M. Tawfik and T.Y. Saif

Botany Department, Women's College, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt


The present study aimed to throw light on the ecophysiological characteristics of aquatic macrophytes of Rayan lakes 1,2 and of the connecting canal, Faiyûm Governorate, Egypt. Thirty five flowering plant species belonging to 21 families were recorded. The distribution, productivity, metabolic products, mineral composition and other eco‑physiological features were determined for Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin "dominant" and Typha domingensis (Pers.) Poir "co-dominant" helophytes of border areas of the lakes, and Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Najas marina L. ssp. Armata representing the main submerged macrophytes of the lakes. The studied macrophytes exhibited high productivity, high mineral and ash contents, also accumulation of considerable levels of heavy metal ions in their tissues. Water loss due to evaporation, transpiration and evapotranspiration along the year showed the spendthrift character of water loss of the emergent macrophytes, Phragmites australis and Typha domingensis. The record number of flowering plant species of the second lake was higher than that of the first one. A zonal succession of vegetation from submerged Najas marina and Myriophyllum spicatum to the emergent Typha domingensis and Phragmites australis and further to wetland lake border species and finally to Tamarix nilotica climax on the shores is established. The vegetation merges to xerophytic and halophytic communities at the desert land fringing the lakes. Cluster analysis and canonical correspondence analysis for the vegetation and environment have been presented. Salinity level of water present is higher at the immature second lake than at the mature first lake. Line of future developments of the area are marked out and the area awaits urged consideration of more fruitful developments in multiple directions and disciplines.

17/11 ASSESSMENT OF DRINKING WATER AT SEVEN STATIONS OF BEHEIRA GOVERNORATE -EGYPT-

N.G. Mohammady and E.M. Abd El-Salam

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Egypt  

       The water chemistry and algal diversity at 7 stations of Beheira Governorate were analysed before the operation of the primary treatment plants on April 2001. The obtained results indicated that: 1- Drinking water at these stations contained 34 algal taxa belonging to four algal divisions namely: Chlorophyta (19 taxa), Bacillariophyta (8 taxa), Cyanophyta (6 taxa) and Euglenophyta (one taxon). Organic pollution was not detected at all the studied seven stations. 2- Analyses of both minerals and heavy metals showed that concentration of Cd, Ni and Pb were found in some stations relatively higher than the permissible ones according to guideline of Egypt-WHO & USEPA. 3- Nitrate content in some stations was relatively high which indicate that these stations are polluted. 4- Drinking water of station 6 appears to be completely free from most heavy metals but contains other chemicals in the range allowed. Also this station contained the least amount of algal taxa which may be correlated to the depletion of Po4 and No3.


18/11 COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMICAL TAXONOMY OF SOME DUNALIELLA SPECIES

N.G. Mohammady, A.F. Khaleafa, S.H. Shaalan and H.M. Taha,

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

Confusion of names and species makes comparison of results by different authors very difficult. As episemantide molecules, fatty acids, sterols, steroids, total cell constituents and lipid composition are used in this work as chemical markers for characterization of four Dunaliella species, namely: D. salina, D. bardawil, D. tertiolecta, and D. parva. The results revealed that: IR spectra of cells as well as of total lipid composition indicated characteristic features for each species. Fatty acids analysis was found to be a weak tool for differentiation of species. Steroids analyses indicated complete similarity between both D. salina and D. bardawil from one side and D. tertiolecta and D. parva from the other side. Sterols analyses showed specific characters of each tested species and consequently sterols may support the idea of many authors that they are one of the most effective tools for chemotaxonomic purposes.

19/11 EFFECT OF SOME HEAVY METALS ON MITOTIC ACTIVITY, NUCLEIC ACIDS CONTENT AND PROTEIN BANDING PATTERNS IN MERISTEMATIC ROOTS OF NIGELLA SATIVA AND TRITICUM AESTIVUM

A.A. El-Ghamery, M.M. Mansour and M.A. Abou El-Yousser

Botany & Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University,

Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

The mutagenic effect of two heavy metals zinc and nickel in the form ZnSO4.7H2O and NiSO4.7H2O on mitotic activity, nucleic acids content and protein banding patterns in root tip cells has been investigated using Nigella sativa and Triticum aestivum as test plants. Five concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ppm for both heavy metals were applied for four different durations. At cytological level, the used concentrations of both heavy metals caused highly significant decrease in the mitotic index of T. aestivum and N. sativa root meristems. The treatments caused a highly significant reduction in the DNA and RNA contents as compared with their respective control values. The contents of both DNA and RNA in N. sativa root tip cells following the treatment with nickel ions were less than with zinc ions. In T. aestivum the treatment with zinc ions for 6 & 12 hours was more effective than the treatment with nickel ions but the treatments with nickel ions for 18 and 24 hours were more effective than the treatment with zinc ions for the same treatment times in the reduction of DNA content. Also, in Triticum aestivum the treatments with different nickel ions concentrations were effective than the zinc ions in the reduction of RNA contents in almost all treatments. The treatments of both plants with Zn2+ and Ni2+ induced changes in the number of protein bands when compared with the number of untreated roots. The results showed, disappearance of some bands or appearance of new bands in the treated roots. Zn2+ was less effective in the reduction of protein bands than the Ni2+ and caused an increase in the number of protein bands in treated roots of N. sativa and T. aestivum.

20/11 EFFECT OF PRE AND POST TREATMENTS WITH FERTY GREEN FOLIAR FERTILIZER ON THE MUTAGENIC POTENTIALITY OF GOKILAHT INSECTICIDE

H.Z. Hassan, A.S. Haliem and E.A. Abd El-Hady*

Dept. Botany, Fac. Sci. Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

* Dept. Genetic and Cytology, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

The present investigation was planned to study the effect of pre and post treatments with ferty green foliar fertilizer on the possible mutagenic potentiality of gokilaht at both the cytological and SDS-protein profile levels and to investigate the mutagenic effect of gokilaht insecticide at the DNA level by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA based polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis. Treatment of Allium cepa root tips with gokilaht insecticide caused alterations in the relative frequencies of mitotic phases. Also, gokilaht had a marked mitodepressive effect associated with induction of a high frequency of mitotic abnormalities. These effects were found to be more pronounced after 24 hours treatment with the highest gokilaht concentration. The reduction in mitotic indices and the induction of mitotic abnormalities had a highly significant difference from the negative control after all treatments with gokilaht. Also, spraying Vicia faba plants with gokilaht caused a highly significant increase in meiotic aberrations. The results obtained indicate the safety of the foliar fertilizer ferty green and prove the repairing effect of both pre and post treatments against gokilaht insecticide at cytological level, especially following short periods of treatments. The repairing effect was more pronounced after post treatment and recovery in water than after pre treatment. All treatments of Vicia faba plants with gokilaht insecticide resulted in an obvious alterations in the M2 seed storage protein banding patterns as compared with the negative control. The alterations include disappearance of some bands or appearance of novel ones or changes in band’s intensity. While treatment with ferty green induced slight alterations in the band intensity of the M2 seed storage protein profiles, which indicates a negligible mutagenic effect of the tested fertilizer. Both pre and post treatments with ferty green fertilizer had no repairing effect against the tested insecticide at the SDS-protein level. At molecular level,randomly amplified polymorphic DNA based polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis was used to identify the effect of the examined insecticide at the DNA level of the treated Vicia faba plants. Initially, seven random 10-mer primers were screened, but only three primers (UBC 25, 32 and 51) had the potentiality to amplify repeatable products with many alterations as compared with their corresponding controls in the different DNA samples of the treated Vicia faba seedlings.

21/11 “REVIEW ARTICLE”

GLUCONACETOBACTER XYLINUS: A NEW RESOURCE FOR CELLULOSE.

S.M.A.S. Keshk

Natural and Biological Science Department, Institute of Environmental Studies and Research, Ain-Shams University.

22/11 TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF CHROMOSOME NUMBER AND SEED PROTEIN ELECTROPHORETIC ANALYSIS IN SOME TAXA OF TRIBE TRIFOLIEAE (PAPILIONOIDEAE)

N.M. George and H.A. Hussein

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt.

Chromosome number and the seed protein electrophoretic analysis of nine species and one variety of tribe Trifolieae were investigated. The diploid chromosome number (2n) showed variation being; 2n = 14, 16, 18, 28 and 30. Additionally, the data obtained from the numerical analysis of the seed protein electrophoretic profiles coupled with the chromosome counts add an additional evidence that largely accords to the previous separation of the genus Ononis from the tribe Trifolieae. Furthermore, the seed protein analysis and/or the chromosome counts proved their value as reliable characters for delimitation of the examined taxa at the generic and specific levels respectively.

23/11 WEED FLORA IN PLANTATIONS OF RECENTLY ESTABLISHED TOURIST RESORTS IN THE WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN COAST OF EGYPT

R.A. El-Fahar* and M.G. Sheded**

*Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

**Botany Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Aswan, Egypt

A total of 103 flowering plant species belonging to 75 genera and 24 families was observed. Sixteen wild species have been recorded for the first time as a result of the new land use systems along the Egyptian Mediterranean coast. Therophytes (77.7 %) and cryptophytes (9.7 %) predominated. The Mediterranean taxa are represented by a relatively higher percentage of plant species (57.1 %) as compared with other floristic elements. A long term study to follow the development of the weed populations recently introduced into this region and the role of the soil transportation in this process is recommended.

24/11 PRODUCTION OF GLUCOSE OXIDASE FROM A POTENT PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM STRAIN

A.A Shindia

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science,

Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

            The objective of the present study was to investigate the production of extracellular glucose oxidase by 19 local isolated fungal species. The values of glucose oxidase production obtained revealed that most penicilli showed the highest levels of productivity. The culture filtrates from Penicillium chrysogenum contained the maximum value of glucose oxidase activity. A number of nutritional requirements as well as physical parameters influencing the growth and glucose oxidase production by P. chrysogenum were investigated. Biosynthesis of extracellular glucose oxidase increased rapidly during linear growth phase and peaking at 6-7 days in submerged culture at 30°C and pH 6. The best carbon and nitrogen sources which enhanced the productivity of extracellular glucose oxidase were glucose and yeast extract respectively. It was found that the growth as well as the extracellular glucose oxidase production was induced by addition of CaCO3 at concentration 4.0% in fermentation medium. The influence of some reductive compounds and metabolic products on the growth and glucose oxidase production were also tested. The biosynthesis of enzyme was induced by thioglycolyic acid, whereas Na2S2O3 and Ascorbic acid were inhibitory.

25/11 MEVINOLIN PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS TERREUS GROWN ON SUGAR-CANE MOLASSES CONTAINING MEDIA

A.A. Shindia and G.H. Rabi

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science,

Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

            The potentiality of a potant isolate of Aspergillus terreus (Shindia, 1997) to produce mevinolin, a hypocholesterolemic agent, when grown on sugar-cane molasse as selected carbon by-product was fully tested. The mevinolin and biomass production of the fungus were greatly affected by the nature of molasse as well as the cultural conditions applied. Aspergillus terreus was grown well to produce good mevinolin output in the presence of centrifuged sugar-cane molasse as carbon source. Maximum production of mevinolin and biomass was achieved at 10% of sugar-cane molasse. The present paper also gives an account of observation made on the production of mevinolin in relation to the amount and age of inoculum and the levels of selected nitrogen source supplied in the medium. The influence of mechanical agitation was also discussed briefly. In addition the induction effect of acetate salts – a core of carbon skeleton of polyketide chain – on the biosynthesis of mevinolin was examined and the maximum mevinolin and biomass yields were produced with 0.6% sodium acetate in the fermentation medium.

26/11 AZOLLA PERFORMANCE AND THE EFFECT OF ITS NATURAL COVER ON WATER QUALITY AND PHYTOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE IN ABBASA AREA – SHARKIA GOVERNORATE (EGYPT).

M.H.M. Abdel Rahman, S.M.M. Shanab*, E.F. Shabana**, S.N. Shaalan***

and M.A-T.I. Abdel Tawwab****

Botany department, Faculty of Science (Fayum branch) Cairo University,  

Giza, Egypt.

*,**Botany department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

***Soil and Water research institute, Agriculture research center, Giza, Egypt.

****Central laboratory for Aquaculture research, Abbasa, Abu Hammad, Sharkia, Egypt.

This outdoor experiment was carried out in ten Azolla covered (100% cover) and uncovered (control) sites during one year-round. Azolla naturally bloomed on irrigation canals and fish ponds and induced modifications in water quality and phytoplankton density underneath it. Regarding water quality in Azolla covered sites, the obtained results revealed that, values of temperature, pH, electric conductivity, dissolved oxygen and phosphate concentration were slightly decreased. while, values of total alkalinity, total hardness, nitrate and silicate were slightly increased in Azolla covered sites comparing with the control ones (uncovered) sites. Phytoplankton density (chl (a) content and number of taxa) recorded higher values in the control (uncovered) sites for all seasons except in winter, whereas the number of phytoplankton increased in the Azolla covered sites. The highest number of phytoplankton in both sites were recorded in autumn season with higher occurrence of Bacillariophyta followed by Chlorophyta taxa and lower values were obtained during summer. Cyanophyto and Euglenophyta taxa represented the least number as compared with other divisions. Azolla performance, including growth, biomass, and pigment contents, recorded maximum and minimum values during late spring and winter seasons respectivety. Maximum contents of photosynthetic pigments (chl (a), (b), and carotenoids) in Azolla pinnata were recorded during spring, while those of accessory pigments (phycobilins) were obtained in autumn and winter for phycocyanin and phycoerythin, respectivety. Higher values of crude protein, total lipids and ash content of Azolla were reported in summer and the lower ones in winter.

27/11 IMPROVEMENT OF GLUCOSE OXIDASE ENZYME PRODUCTION USING MOLASSES BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER

H. Abdel Karem, H. Hassanen*, Z. Mattar and O. Gomaa

National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, P.O.Box 29-

Nasr City, Cairo-Egypt.

*Department of Chemistry- Faculty of Science – Cairo University

The effect of molasses, calcium carbonate, temperature, incubation time, agitation and gamma irradiation on the production of glucose oxidase (GOD) by Aspergillus niger P3 (local isolate) under shaking flasks conditions were investigated. A. niger strain selection and optimization of growth conditions to maximize were conducted total GOD activity. Optimum concentrations of molasses and calcium carbonate addition were 5% whereas 6% had an adverse effect. At 28 °C growth temperature, GOD production was increased to 4.98 U ml-1. As to growth time, GOD production was increased at 72 h to achieve almost two fold of value compared to control (basal medium). Speed agitation gave the highest level of GOD production at 200 rpm. An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on A. niger for increasing the GOD production. At dose level 0.4 kGy the highest amount of GOD was obtained 2.3 times compared to control (basal medium).

28/11 PRODUCTION OF b-XYLANASE FROM EDIBLE MUSHROOM PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS

M.M. Rashad, S.A. Fathy*, H.M. Abduo, A.E. Mahmoud and E.W. Jwanny

Biochemistry Department, National Research Centre, Tahrir St., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

* Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Egypt

Various agroindustrial wastes were examined as potential substrates for xylanase production from Pleurotus ostreatus. Highest xylanase activity was obtained with soymilk waste. The most favorable culture conditions affording the highest P. ostreatus xylanase activity were achieved by growing the edible mushroom (P. ostreatus) on media containing 5% dry soymilk waste and 0.2% asparagine with initial pH 6.0 at 28°C for 6 days at static cultures and air/medium ratio (23:2). Saccharification of some pretreated lignocellulosic wastes using crude P.ostreatus xylanase showed promosing results.

29/11 SOME RESPONSE OF DUNALIELLA SALINA TO GAMMA IRRADIATION

M.M. Allam and M. Adel Fawzy*

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

* Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

Sporulating Dunaliella salina cells were subjected to various doses (exposures) of gamma radiation. The cells showed deformed chloroplast, deformed nucleus and markedly thin plasma lemma. Both lag-phase and exponential phase were extended. The pattern of protein profile was completely changed in response to irradiation. High molecular weight proteins disappeared (hydrolysed) while new protein bands of relatively lower molecular weights appeared (synthesised) indicating probable mutagenesis.
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