Vol. 13, January, 2003.

1/13 MORPHOLOGICAL, ANATOMICAL AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL FEATURES OF CALYX AND LAMINA GLANDS OF MALPIGHIA GLABRA L. (MALPIGHIACEAE)

M.E. Tantawy

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University

The morphological, anatomical and ultrastructural features of both calyx and lamina glands in acheter cialis a montreal Malpighia glabrL.were investigated using LM,SEM and TEM. The criteria obtained from the anatomy of the flowers confirm that the reduction or absence of one or two sepal glands resulted from congenital loss (ontogenetic loss) not fusion. Light microscopy investigation of transverse and longitudinal sections of both glands showed that the calyx and lamina glands exhibited similar anatomical structures. The scanning electron microscopy investigation of both glands indicated that the calyx and lamina glands are rugose in their surface sculpturing . Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of secretory cells with conspicuous nuclei, dense cytoplasm, lipids droplets, numerous vesicles, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, rough endoplasmic reticulum and elongated plastids. The histochemical analyses verified that the presence of abundant lipids. The conclusionof this research confirm that both calyx and lamina glands are similar in their structures, as originating from the epidermal and subepidermal cells of abaxial surfaces of sepal and lamina.

levitra 20 mg comprimé 2/13 DECOLORIZATION OF MOLASSES WASTE WATER USING ASPERGILLUS NIGER

O. Gomaa, H. Abdel Kareem, Z. Mattar and *H. Hassanein

National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, P.O.Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo, EGYPT.

* Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University.

The effect of glucose, time, media components, temperature, agitation and sterilization on the decolorization of molasses waste water (MWW) by oxyde nitrique et cialis Aspergillus niger P3 (local isolate) have been carried out. Glucose addition with 0.5% in MWW increased the melanoiden removal by 55.625%. Decolorizing activity increased to 71.54% when acheter cialis 60 mg A.niger P3 was incubated in MWW for 72 h at 30oC, 150 rpm and in the presence of media supplements. Gamma radiation was used for sterilization of MWW for comparison with heat sterilization and both reaching 75.83%.When applying conditions for sugar oxidase production, the melanoidin removal by ou trouver du priligy A. niger P3 reached 84.16%. Besides color removal, chemical and biological oxygen demand, nitrates and ammonia were reduced, suggesting the use of acheter cialis au québec A. niger P3 in bioremediation and the potential reuse of MWW in fermentation processes.

dans quel cas utiliser le viagra 3/13 INFLUENCE OF GAMMA RADIATION AND/OR SALINITY STRESS ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LUPINE PLANTS

S.E.A. Khodary and *H.R. Moussa

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science (Beni-Suef), Egypt.

*Radioisotope Department, Nuclear Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

NaCl salinity treatments (500,1000,2000 and 3000 ppm) highly significantly reduced the efficiency of Rubisco enzyme, photosynthetic capacity (14CO2-fixation), chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids as well as sugar fractions (soluble, polysaccharides and total carbohydrates) of lupine plants. Application of gamma rays at doses (10,25,50,and 100 Gy) induced an opposite response. Moreover, the interactive effect of gamma radiation with salinity overcame the adverse influence of salinity treatments. γ-rays at 25 Gy is the most effective dose. These results clarified the role of gamma rays as stimulants against the injurious action of the NaCl salinity on the photosynthesis process and carbohydrate metabolism of lupine plants.

4/13 IN VITRO INDUCTION OF MUTATION IN BANANA (MUSA SP.) BY USING GAMMA IRRADIATION

A.A. El-Fiki, S.M. El-Khalal* and N.E. Aliwa*

National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, P.O. Box 29, Cairo, Egypt.

*Botany Department, Faculty of Girls and Arts, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Corms of two banana cultivars Williams and Grand Nain were cultured in vitro on MS medium with 6-BA. The resulting plants were irradiated with gamma radiation doses of 20, 40 and 60 Gy. Gamma radiation doses caused the death of 4% - 46%, also reduced the number of leaves, shoot length, number of root and root length in vitro and in vivo. Irradiation with gamma ray induced decreasing in both photosynthetic pigments and carbohydrate contents. Irradiation with dose 20 and 40 Gy caused significant increasing in peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, protein and prolin. Phenolic compounds were increased with increasing gamma radiation dose. The effect of dose 60 Gy induced decreasing in peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, protein and prolin.

5/13 INFLUENCE OF SALINITY ON GROWTH AND SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERS IN VITRO AND IN VIVO IN BANANA (MUSA SP.)

A.A. El-Fiki, S.M. El-Khalal* and N.E. Aliwa*

National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, P.O.Box 29, Cairo, Egypt.

*Botany Department, Faculty of Girls and Arts, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Corms of two banana cultivars Williams and Grand Nain were cultured in vitro on MS medium with 6-BA. The resulting plants were cultured on MS medium containing NaCl concentrations (2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm). Salinity induced the mortality of 17% - 66%, also reduced the number of leaves, shoot length, number of root and root length in vitro and in vivo. There were increased peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities, phenolic compounds and protein content with increasing NaCl concentrations. Prolin accumulation was increased significantly at 2000 and 4000 ppm while decreased at 6000 ppm. Photosynthetic pigments and carbohydrate content were decreased with increasing salinity levels.

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quel dose pour viagra 6/13 EFFECT OF GAMMA IRRADIATION ON THE MATING BEHAVIOUR AND COMPETITIVENESS OF THE FLESH FLY, PARASARCOPHAGA SURCOUFI VILL (DIPTERA : SARCOPHAGIDAE)

G.M. Aly and F.E. Megahed

National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT) P.O. Box 29

Nasr City, Cairo-Egypt

Gamma-irradiation of the full grown pupae (10-day-old) of the flesh fly, generique viagra teva Parasarcophaga surcoufi Vill resulting in elongation of the premating duration of adults particularly at the male sterilizing (16 Gy) and substerilizing (15 Gy)   dose levels for both crossing combinations (irradiated male x normal female and normal male x irradiated female). Irradiation affected the mating duration of females more than males at all the applied dose levels (11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 Gy). However, the mating duration of irradiated flies in both crossing combinations was shorter than that of the non – irradiated ones particularly at the higher dose levels (14, 15 and 16 Gy). Adult females of P. surcoufi inseminated more than once (polygamous). In addition, the mating frequency of irradiated females at 11 and 12 Gy dose levels, was significantly reduced when crossed with normal males. This is held true for the mating frequency of irradiated males at 15 and 16 Gy dose levels and crossed with normal females. Radiosterilized males were good competitive with normal ones at the flooding ratio of 15 : 1 : 1 (irradiated males : normal males : normal females), with a competitiveness value of 0.75.   The higher flooding ratio of 20:1:1 shows a complete sterilization in normal females (no larvae were laid).

 

7/13 SYNTHESIS AND INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF SOME NEW PYRANOPYRAZOLES, PYRAZOLOPYRANOPYRIMIDINES AND PYRAZOLOPYRANOPYRIDINES

Z.H. Ismail, G.M. Aly*, M.S. El-Degwi*, H.I. Heiba** and M.M. Ghorab**

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

*Division of Radiation Entomology, National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

**Department of Drug Radiation Research, Drug Chemistry Lab. National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

Starting from readily available 5-methyl-2-phenyl-2,4-dihydro-pyrazol-3-one 1 the corresponding pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazoles 4a-e, 10; pyrazolo[4`,3` : 5,6]pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidines 6, 8 and pyrazol[4`,3` : 5,6]pyrano[2,3-b]pyridines 7a,b were prepared. Identification of the new compounds was established by elemental analyses, IR, 1H-NMR and mass spectral data. Compounds 4b, 4c and 7b were found to be more potent than malathion against the adult stage (both sexes) of the blow fly Chrysomyia albiceps. However, the insecticidal activity against the last larval instar was less potent than malathion and propoxur.


8/13 SYNTHESIS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF 6-{2-METHYLENAMINO-2- (4-HYDROXYPHENYL)-ACETAMIDO} PENICILLINIC ACID DERIVATIVES

S.M.A.S. Keshk

Biological and Physical Sciences Department, Institute of Environmental Studies and Research, Ain Shams University, Abbassiya, Cairo, EGYPT. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

6-{2-methylenamino-2- (4-hydroxyphenyl)-acetamido} penicillinic acid derivatives newly synthesized Schiff’s bases that exert substantial antibacterial activity. The 6-{2-(hydroxyphenyl)-2-[(5-nitrothiophen-2-yl-methylene)-amino}-acetamido} penicillinic acid (NTAP) is one of them, which found to interfere with N-acetylglucosamine (NAGA) incorporation into the cell wall architecture of a sensitive strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Scanning electron micrographic examination demonstrated the malformation of cell wall induced by NTAP, which also suppressed the microbial RNA and protein synthesis. It also intercalated with native Salmon testis DNA. Plasmid-mediated resistance in St. aureus to NTAP (VII) was shown to be through development of 12 Kb plasmids quite similar to that formed to 6-{2-amino-2- (4-hydroxyphenyl)-acetamido} penicillinic acid (I). Furthermore, the structure of NTAP has been established on the basis of 1H-NMR and Mass spectroscopes.

9/13 CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF A NEW CYTOSOLIC CLASS II SMALL HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN FROM WHEAT

E. Bashaand E. Vierling*

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

*Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biophysics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721-0106, USA

A wheat (Triticum aestivum) heat shock cDNA library was screened with an endoplasmic reticulum-localized sHSP cDNA from soybean (GmHSP22.3-ER). A 611 bp clone was isolated that hybridized with the selected probe. This clone codes for a 162 amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 17.78 kD and theoretical PI of 5.97. The encoded protein, named TaHSP17.8-CII, is 31% identical to GmHSP22.3-ER and 27% identical to PsHSP22.7-ER. In contrast, TaHSP17.8-CII is 89% identical to TaHSP17.3-CII and 51% identical to AtHSP17.6-CII, indicating that the cloned gene is a member of the class II cytosolic sHSPs, rather than the ER-localized sHSPs. Amino acid sequence alignment between TaHSP17.8-CII and other class II sHSPs from different monocot plants showed that 11 of 12 residues of both class II specific regions are conserved. TaHSP17.8-CII transcripts were not detectable under the optimal growing conditions but were highly induced by heat treatments.

10/13 Morphology and host range of phages active against Ralstonia solancearum caused brown rot disease of potato in egypt

G. El-Didamony; A.E.A. Ismail*; M.Sarhan and Z. Moussa

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig university.

**Plant Pathology Ins., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt.

Five soil samples (collected from El-Dakhlia and El-Sharkia Governorates-Egypt) were used for isolation of phages active against Ralstonia solanacearum. These phages were found only in clay soil of El-Dakhlia Governorate and against the avirulent strains of R. solanacearum. According to plaque morphology and electron microscopic studies, phages were distinguished into three phages, which were classified into two families; Styloviridae (RSP1 &RSP3) and Podoviridae (RSP2). The plaques diameters of three phages were increased by further incubation (growing plaques). This increase continued (in different rates for the three phages) for 6 days. Also, increasing in the host age lead to inhibition of the phage infectivity. Moreover, no lysogenization was observed for all phages. Using 18 different isolates of 8 bacterial species clarified that these phages were highly specific to infect avirulent strains of R. solanacearum.

 

 

11/13 PURIFICATION AND SOME PROPERTIES OF b-GLUCOSIDASE PRODUCED BY BOTRYOTRICHUM PILULIFERUM

A.A. El-Gindy, R.R. Saad and E. Fawzi

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Education, Cairo, Egypt.

Botryotrichum piluliferum was cultivated on wheat straw under solid substrate cultivation. It produced 600 Ug-1 protein of b-glucosidase. The enzyme was purified 44.1 fold with a recovery of 54.5 of total activity by isopropanol precipitations, gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The enzyme molecular mass was determined to be 40 KDa. The optimum pH for enzyme activity was pH 5.4 with stability at pH 4.8-5.6 for 1 hr. The optimum temperature for enzyme activity was 50oC with a thermal stability of 30-50oC for 1 h. the enzyme was active against cellobiose, salicin and a-methyl-b-glucoside. Km against cellobiose was 0.5 ml-1. The enzyme was stimulated by Mn2+, Fe3+, Co2+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and Na+ and inhibited by Hg2+, Cu2+ and Ag+.

12/13 PURIFICATION AND SOME PROPERTIES OF EXO-1,4-b -GLUCANASE FROM CHAETOMIUM OLIVACEUM

A.A. El-Gindy, R.R. Saad and E. Fawzi

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Education, Cairo, Egypt.

Exo-1,4-b-glucanase (E.C. 3.2.1.91) was successively purified by precipitation with acetone, followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and chromatographed onto DEAE-cellulose. A typical procedure provided 47.14 fold purification with 72.8% yield. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was found to be 88 KDa by SDS-PAGE. The pH optimum of the enzyme was 5.2 and maximum activity was obtained at 45oC. Km value against a-cellulose was 0.65 mg ml-1. a-cellulose and filter paper were the best substrates for enzyme activity. It was activated by Mn2+ and Fe3+, inactivated by Cu2+ and completely inhibited by Hg2+ and Ag+.

13/13 CERTAIN PHYSIOLOGICAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF LUPINE SEEDLINGS AS INFLUENCED BY SEED TREATMENT WITH SALICYLIC ACID AND GALLIC ACID PRIOR TO SOWING

M.M. El-Bahay and S.M.A. Moursy

Department of Biological and Geological Sciences,

Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Results obtained revealed that the content of endogenous polyphenols in lupine seedlings was shown to be highly significantly increased whereas that of monophenols was mostly highly significantly reduced with the lowest concentration used of salicylic acid various concentrations applied of gallic acid. On the other hand, the same proceding contents exhibited an opposite manner of response with the higher concentrations applied of salicylic acid. Analysis of amino acids composition manifested that whereas the contents of lysine, tryptophan, tyrosine, serine, glycine, methionine, leucine, cysteine, valine, cystine, arginine, asparagine and glutamine were highly significantly increased, those of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, threonine, alanine and phenylalanine were sharply diminished using 10-5 mM salicylic acid and all concentrations used of gallic acid. On the contrary, the contents of such amino acids were reversely changed using the higher concentrations of salicylic acid. Moreover, the content of ammonia-N exhibited a marked decline whereas those of peptide-N, total-N, total soluble protein and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) were found to be substantially increased with 10-5 mM salicylic acid and various concentrations used of gallic acid. The same contents underwent an opposite manner of change with the higher concentrations of salicylic acid. The activities of protease and RN-ase were sharply reduced whereas that of phenylalanine ammonia-layse, was substantially elevated using 10-5 mM salicylic acid and all concentrations applied of gallic acid. Moreover, the activities of the same preceding enzymes underwent a reverse pattern of change using the higher concentrations of salicylic acid (10-4 and 10-3 mM). SDS-PAGE protein electrophoresis of lupine seedlings revealed that seed treatment with salicylic acid and gallic acid induced the appearance of novel protein units including unique sets of bands varied in their molecular weights and protein intensity with difference in magnitude of the applied concentration. In view of the obtained results, it is suggested that salicylic acid and gallic acid might exert their impacts in controlling various growth systems during seed germination and seedling growth through their potentiality to act as signalling mediators as monophenol and polyphenol compounds for regulating various physiological, biochemical and molecular events implicated in growth and differentiation of plant cells.

14/13 COMPARATIVE STUDIES AND NUTRITIONAL VALUES OF SOME WEEDY SPECIES COLLECTED FROM NEWLY RECLAIMED AREAS (WESTERN SHORE OF LAKE NASSER, ASWAN, EGYPT)

A.M. Shaheen and A.I. Hamed

Aswan Faculty of Science, Botany Department, Aswan 81528, South Valley University, Egypt.

The seeds of seven weed taxa were analysed for total protein and amino acid composition. A comparison was made of total protein and amino acid composition of some taxa of true weeds (Cardiospermum haliccabum, Ipomoea eriocarpa and Xanthium spinosum)and four taxa of transitional weeds(Citrullus colocynthis, Astragalus vogelii, Eragrostis aegyptiaca and Fimbristylis bisumbellata)were studied. Total seed protein varied from a maximum of 22.0% in the seeds of Xanthium spinosum (true weed) to a minimum of 8.25% in the seeds of Citrullus colocynthis (transitional weed). Most amino acids showed a significant variation between the true and transitional weeds. The praline showed a considerable variation between the true and transitional weeds, being accumulated in the seed protein of true weeds rather than in the seed protein of transitional weeds. Also the seeds of true weeds were richer in essential amino acids (EAA) (tyrosine and isoleucine) than those of the transitional group. In contrast, the seed protein of transitional (except Citrullus colocynthis)weeds was richer in essential amino acids (lysine and leucine) than that of the true weeds. More Sulfo-amino acids methionine was accumulated in the seed protein of transitional weeds than in that of true weeds. However cystine sulfo-amino acid accumulated in the seed protein of true weeds more than in that of the transitional weeds (except Citrullus colocynthis).All essential amino acids compared well with FAO/WHO (1990) reference pattern.

 

 

15/13 PRODUCTION OF GLUCONIC ACID BY FREE AND IMMOBILIZED CELLS OF RECOMBINANT ASPERGILLUS NIGER IN BATCH AND REPEATED BATCH CULTURES

H.A. El-Enshasy

Bioprocess Development Dept., Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, New Borg Al-Arab, Alexandria, Egypt.

The production of gluconic acid by free and immobilized cells of recombinant Aspergillus niger in batch and repeated batch cultures was investigated. Compared to the wild type, the recombinant strain produced higher volumetric and specific gluconic acid by about 43% and 61%, respectively. The recombinant strain reached the maximal gluconic acid production after 48 h compared to 96 h in case of wild type. Over a range of glucose concentration investigated (20-160 g/l), the maximal volumetric production of about 135 g/l gluconic acid was achieved at 160 g/l glucose. The use immobilized cells on glass wool, pre-treated by polyethyleneimine (PEI), decreased the cell growth and resulted in a significant increase in the cell specific productivity by about 35%. Further improvement of the production process was achieved by the reuse of the immobilized biomass on glass wool matrix for repeated batch operation using a complete and minimal media for 10 repeated batches with a maximal yield of gluconic acid conversion of 90%. However, the reduction of batch time from 48 h to 24 h did not show any significant reduction in gluconic acid yield in both media. Thus, the use of the introduced new bioprocess could obviously decrease the cost of the traditional gluconic acid production process using the free cells of wild type strain A. niger in batch cultures.

 

 


16/13 A COMPARISON BETWEEN THE EFFECT OF FUNGICIDE SAPROL AND THE BIO-CONTROL AGENT TRICHODERMAVIRIDE ON THE PATHOGENICITY AND METABOLISM OF THE PLANT PATHOGENIC FUNGUS; ALTERNARIASOLANI

A.A. El-Mehalawy

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science

Ain Shams University - Cairo, Egypt.

Avoiding the harmful effects of fungicides in controlling plant diseases, Trichoderma viride was used to control early blight disease of tomato caused by the pathogen Alternaria solani in green house and test its effect on the metabolism of the pathogen in comparison to the fuingicide Saprol. Results obtained showed that both the fungicide Saprol and T. viride significantly reduced the incidence of early blight disease of tomato. Similarly, the fungicide Saprol and T. viride greatly inhibited the growth of the pathogen and its metabolic activities in culture. They also have inhibitory effect on the total contents of lipids, nitrogen, protein, amino acid pattern of cell protein, DNA and RNA.

17/13 SALINITY STRESS EFFECT ON AZOLLA GROWTH AND NITROGENASE ACTIVITY

S.A. Tantawy and N.A. Herzalla*

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo university, Giza , Egypt.

*Agricultural Microbiology Department, Soils, Water Res. & Environ.

Institute, Agric., Res. Center, Giza, Egypt.

       A greenhouse experiment was carried out for 2 weeks to test the effect of different levels of NaCl on the growth and nitrogenase activity (ARA) of Azolla filiculoides.   Results indicate that Azolla filiculoides can tolerate salinity up to 20 Mm NaCl.Increasing the concentration of NaCl to 40 and 50 mM strongly inhibited the growth of Azolla (fresh and dry weight). Azolla was killed within two weeks in presence of 50 mM NaCl. Due to the nitrogen content of Azolla and nitrogenase activity (ARA), the effect of NaCl was harmful. The nitrogen content of Azolla fronds decreased gradually by increasing the salt concentrations up to 40 mM Nacl.ARA decreased with increasing NaCl concentration and recorded the lowest nitrogenase activity in presence of 50 mM NaCl.

18/13 THE GROWTH PATTERN AND NITROGEN FIXATION CAPACITY OF CYANOBACTERIA IN RESPONSE TO PHOSPHORUS APPLICATION

N.A. Herzalla*, S.A. Tantawy and M.M. Morkos*

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo university, Giza , Egypt.

*Agricultural Microbiology Department, Soils, Water Res. & Environ.

Institute, Agric., Res. Center, Giza, Egypt.

Phosphorus application to cyanobacteria culture media had improved their biomass yield. The best biomass yield had achieved with Nostoc calcicola and Microchaete tenera with the use of 90 µM phosphorus, for Anabaena oryzae with 150 µM phosphorus against 30 µM phosphorus with Cylindrospermum muscicola. Increasing phosphorus levels increased the biomass yield production with increasing the culture age up to 21-day old. All tested cyanobacteria strains were able to fix the highest nitrogen amounts under the effect of phorphorus at 15 days incubation period. The highest amounts of nitrogen fixed were 304.36 mg NL-1 mdeium (30 µM P) for C. muscicola, 224.21 mg NL-1 medium (90 µM P) for M .tenera 200.87 mg NL-1 medium (150 µM P) for N.calcicola and 169.73 mg NL-1 medium (60 µM P) for A.oryzae. The gradual increases of phosphorus levels in the cyanobacteria media had increased significantly the chlorophyll a content over the control treatment. The treatment of cyanobacteria with phosphorus up to 150 µM led to raise the C-phycocyanin content significantly over the control treatment.

 

19/13 PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF FOLIAR APPLICATIONS OF UNICONAZOLE ON SOYBEAN AND SUNFLOWER PLANTS

M. M. El-Bahay, A.E. Dowidar and S.M. Abbas

Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University

The present investigation, aimed to study the effect of foliar spraying of soybean and sunflower plants (age 40, 80 and 120 days) with different concentrations of uniconazole on photosynthetic pigments, carbohydrates, nitrogenous constituents, nucleic acids, protein, oil, minerals and enzymes. The results obtained could be summarized as follows: 1- Foliar spray treatments in both plants induced slight decreases in gibberellin contents. The decrements were proportional to the concentations used. 2- Folair spraying treatments for both plants increased chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid contents. 3- Uniconazole treatments as foliar spraying increases reducing sugars, sucrose, polysaccharides and total sugars. 4- Total N, total soluble N and protein N contents in shoots were increased with concentrations of uniconazole 5-40 ppm at all stages as being compared with those of the untreated plants. 5-Foliar spraying with different concentrations of uniconazole increased DNA, RNA and protein in soybean seeds at concentrations 5-20 ppm and decreased at concentrations 40 and 80 ppm. 6-Spraying sunflower plants with uniconazole caused increase in oil content at concentrations 5, 10 and 20 ppm and decrease at concentrations 40 and 80 ppm. 7- Mineral ion contents Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu of soybean and sunflower shoots were increased over control plants with different concentrations of uniconazole. 8- a amylase, b-amylase and protease activities, highly significant decreases were observed at all concentrations in the three stages studied in soybean and sunflower plants. On the other hand, highly significant increases in RNase was shown at all concentrations of the same treatments of soybean and sunflower plants over control.

 

20/13 TISSUE CULTURE – BASED SELECTION OF HIGH ROSMARINIC ACID AND TOTAL PHENOLIC ACIDS PRODUCING CLONAL LINES OF PENNYROYAL USING AZETIDINE -2- CARBOXYLATE

H. Al-Amier, I.F. El-Gazaly and *A.A. El-Hela

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University,

*Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University,

Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

Pennyroyal is a good source of essential oils and phenolic metabolites for food, medicine and cosmetic applications. Due to cross – pollination, Pennyroyal has substantial plant to plant variation and therefore a high degree genetic inconsistency in the level of phytochemicals produced for divers application. Tissue culture methods, using Benzyladenine – induced shoot organogensis was used to isolate clonal lines originating from individual hetrogeneous seeds among a heterogeneous seeds population to exploit the genetic heterogeneity. Subsequently, clonal shoots were evaluated for ability to tolerate various levels (50, 100, 200 m M) of Proline analog, Azetidene – 2 – Carboxylate. Based on tolerance to Proline analog treatments, multiple shoots forming ability, biomass, rosmarinic acid, total phenolic acids and total chlorophyll, 21 separate clonal isolated lines MPH-1, MPH-3, MPH-5, MPH-8, MPH-9, MPH-10 showed the potential for overexpression of phenolic metabolites in response to Proline analog (A2C).

 

21/13 ELECRTOPJORETIC SEED PROTEIN, ISOZYME PATTERNS AND NUCLEIC ACIDS CONTENT IN SOME EGYPTIAN TAXA OF THE GENUS ZYGOPHYLLUM

A.A. El-Ghamery, E.A. Abdel-Azeem and A.M. Kasem

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University,

Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

Electrophoretic storage seed protein patterns of 41 accessions among 9 taxa representing 7 species of the genus Zygophyllum indicated that for each species, the seed proteins from different localities generally have major bands and high degree of similarities among the accessions of each species is evident. A total number of 32 protein bands with molecular weight (MW) ranging between 133 KDa and 14.7 KDa were recoded in the electrophenogram of the studied species. These bands were used as binary characters and analyzed by NTSYS-pc. program package using the UPGMA clustering method. SDS-PAGE results of the different species reveal that the type of the storage seed proteins content of the different collection of the same species may vary due to several reasons and are discussed in relation to pervious classifications of Zygophyllum. These variations are recorded in the species of the section Bipartia but not within the species of section Mediterranea. Isozymes (Esterase) results showed the appearance of one locus in the Z. simplex and both varieties of Z. decumbens (section Bipartia) and two loci in Z. coccineum, both varieties of Z. album, Z. berenicense, Z. aegyptium and Z. propinquum (section Mediterranea). This variation is genetically discussed and is used to delimit the two sections of subgenus Agrophyllum of the genus Zygophyllum. DNA and RNA results show a close relationship between the species belonging to the same section and between the varieties of the same species. The highest amount of DNA was recorded in Z. simplex. Form the combined data analysis of the studied criteria, it is evident that the results support the separation of Z. simplex from genus Zygophyllum.

 

22/13 BIODEGRADATION OF PETROLEUM OIL: ISOLATION AND EVALUATION OF BIODEGRADING MICROBIAL LOCAL ISOLATES FROM SAUDI ARABIA

H.K. Abd-Ellatif and A.A. Al-Hazzani*

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy Zagazig University

* Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science King Saud University

One hundred twenty isolates were obtained from 60 soil samples either contaminated or uncontaminated with petroleum oil. The isolates that utilized petroleum oil as sole carbon source. Four isolate which exhibited the best growth around the oil discs at shortest period and were able to degrade and utilize petroleum oil as a sole carbon source were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida, Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia and Bacillus sp. These four isolates were quantitatively tested for their ability to degrade various oils and their components by chromatographic analysis after 4 and 8 days of incubation. The results revealed that the selectivity of degradation of short and medium chain n-alkanes (C1-C20) at faster rate than long chain was demonstrated by Ps. Aeruginosa, Ps. Putida, Bacillus sp. While long chain (C30-C40) were degraded at lower percentages. The results showed that Ps. Aeruginosa was the best strain which had the ability to degrade super light crude oil (65-91), medium oil (72-83.4%) and heavy oil (60-73%) after incubation period 4 and 8 days respectively. While Bacillus sp. was the best one for extra light oil (60.3-74.24%) and Ps. Putida for light oil (63-87%) after incubation at 4 and 8 days respectively. The factors which influence the viability of Ps. Aeruginosa to degrade the pollutants (petroleum oil) such as pH, temperature and aeration were tested. (The best growth in all types of (oil excluding light oil) occurred at pH 5.5 but in light oil at pH 6.5 and optimum temperature of viability was ranged from 25-37oC. In this study, the obtained data reveled there is no plasmid in Ps. Aeruginosa by using Hind III as restriction enzyme. The treatment with ethyl methansulfonate (E.M.S.) show that there was no enhancing in biodegradative ability of organism.

 

23/13 fungicide-resistant and bioagent of actinomycete (a3) isolated from the rhizosphere of Maize root.

M. Diab*, M. Abdel-Fattah, M.S. Ahmad and E.M. Ibrahim*,

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt.

* Plant Pathology Research Institute, ARC, Giza, Egypt.

Among microorganisms presented in the rhizosphere of maize, actinomycetes were the most resistant to fungicide (vitavax) and control plenty of diseases like wilt, common smut, seedling blight caused by (Cephalosporium maydis, Ustilago maydis and Fusarium moniliforme) respectively. One actinomycete isolate (A3) was found to has the potentiality to control the three diseases in a greenhouse. The most potent fungicide-resistant and bio-agent actinomycete (A3) was subjected to a series of morphological, biochemical and physiological studies for characterization and identification. This actinomycete was related to Streptomyces violaceusniger, based on the characteristics reported in Bergey’s manual of systematic and determinative bacteriology. Optimization of some environmental conditions and nutritional requirements for the growth and potency of the actinomycete A3 (S. violaceusniger) indicated that incubating the organism in the artificial medium at pH 7 for 6 days gave the best growth and high bio-activity. Glucose and sodium nitrate was found to be the best carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The inorganic salts were also optimized and some modifications were recommended to the starch nitrate medium, which is routinely used for cultivation of actinomycetes. It is concluded that the fungicide-resistant S. violaceusniger is an active bio-agent for controlling soil-borne diseases and reduces the impact of pesticides application in soil.


24/13 IDENTIFICATION OF A VIRUS NATURALLY INFECTING PHYSALIS PERUVIANA

E.T.A. Sayed, H.M. Habib, M.H. Ismail and M.M. Al-Khazindar

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt

Physalis peruviana L. (Cape gooseberry), local name “Harankash” has been found to be naturally infected by a virus disease in a farm at Giza, Egypt. The virus induced severe mosaic mottling, blistering and malformation. Physical properties were studied, the results showed that the virus is sap transmissible, its thermal inactivation point is 47ºC, dilution end point is1:8x10-3 and longevity in vitro is 5:20hrs at room temperature. The virus has a wide host range with either local or systemic symptoms. The local symptoms varied from necrotic local lesions or chlorotic local lesions. Systemic symptoms were stunting, wilting, mosaic and mottling. Electron micrograph of the virus particles showed that it is quasi-spherical and its diameter ranges from 80-100nm. Monoclonal antiserum of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) reacted positively with the virus under test using DAS-ELISA and Ouchterlony test, confirming that the virus under test is an isolate of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). We thought that, this is the first report of TSWV in Physalis peruviana in Egypt. Light and electron microscopic examination of Physalis peruviana leaves infected with TSWV showing mosaic mottling, blistering and vein banding were studied. The virus caused thickening of the cell wall and changes in the chloroplast structure and two types of inclusions were observed.

25/13 EFFECT OF WHEY PROTEIN ON QUALITY AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF ICE CREAM

Z.A.M. El-Atawy and S. Abdel-Rafee

Dairy Technology Department, Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research Centre, Giza, Egypt.

Ice cream was made from standardized buffaloe's milk to 11% fat by using fresh cream (65% fat) and to 11% milk solids not fat by using instant skimmilk powder as a control or by replacing the added skimmilk powder with milk retentate powder or whey retentate powder at 50% or 100% replacing respectively. The resultant ice cream had high protein content than the control and this led to increase the formation of clumped fat globules which caused increasing in the viscosity. Using whey retentate powder as an emulsifier had highly significant effect on the body and texture of the resultant ice cream which led to decrease in hardness and that attributed higher overrun and soft gels. When 100% skimmilk powder was replaced with milk retentate owder, the structure of ice cream was weaker because the air bubbles would not be properly stabilized. The ice cream had not a smooth texture as the fat globules had much ability to resist the coalescing because the casein had been adsorbed to the fat globules. In case of replacing 100% with whey retentate powder, the stability of the fat emulsion was reduced by replacing the casein of the fat surface. This led to fat globules coalescence and air bubbles stability in between. These were clear by electron microscopy.


26/13 TRICHODORID-NEMATODE VECTOR OF TOMATO YELLOW LEAF CURL GEMINIVIRUS (TYLCV)

Kh.A. El-Dougdoug and M.M. Hazaa*

Microbiol. Dept. Virol. Lab., Fac. of Agric., Ain Shams University,

Shoubra El-Kheima, Cairo.

*Botany Dept., Faculty of Science, Zagazig University (Banha Branch), Egypt.

Tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus and Trichodorus sp. were associated with rhizosphere of infected tomato plants in open field and protective agriculture. Investigation was devoted to study the relationship between the virus and nematode of tomato plant. The data obtained by ELISA and Datura stramonium index indicated that the isolated Trichodorus sp. was able to transmit. TYLCV to healthy tomato plants after 15 days post addition of nematode. Typical TYLCV as well as the roots of infected plants were found to be infected by the stubby root nematode. As well D. stramonium injected mechanically by syringe with clarified sap of later tomato plant appeared interveinal yellowish and crinkled, comparing with white flies that are able to transmit TYLCV to healthy tomato plants and after 12 days post-inoculation. On the contrary, sterilized nematode and hatched larvae were not able to transmit TYLCV to tomato plant. Data emphasized that, Trichodorus sp. could transmit the TYLCV semi-persistantly after picking it from the infected hosts.

27/13 HEAT SHOCK PROTEINS EXPRESSION AT THE MRNA AND PROTEIN LEVEL IN WHEAT DURING HEAT STRESS AND RECOVERY

E.M Basha

Botany Department, Faculty of science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

Triticum aestivum (cv Siouxland) was used to investigate the stability of different Heat Shock Protein (HSP) classes as well as the ability of their messages to be translated for seven days after heat stress.   Intact 14-day-old seedlings were heat-treated for 4 h at 37°C, and two-dimensional electrophoresis was then used to follow the pattern of HSPs for seven days while plants were growing under normal conditions.   Various HSPs disappeared at different rates. The amount of HSPs in the range of 20-30 kDa decreased significantly within 24 hours after heat stress and were hardly detectable after 2 days. After the same period acquired thermotolerance was completely lost. The levels of other HSPs decreased at slower rates. Many of the very low molecular weight HSPs (lower than 20 kDa) persisted for at least seven days. This indicates that different HSPs differ in their stability after heat stress. To prove that the presence of different HSPs in plants for many days after heat stress is not due to new translation of the HSP messages, newly synthesized proteins were labeled after different time intervals for seven days. HSP mRNA translation stopped completely 3 h after heat shock suggesting that HSPs found in plants many days after heat stress are synthesized mainly during the heat treatment. The result of this study also suggests that maintenance of acquired thermotolerance is correlated with the presence of a special set of HSPs in the range of 20-30 kDa.

 

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