Vol. 14, June, 2003.

qu'est ce que c'est le viagra 1/14 taxonomy of ROOT-NODULE BACTERIA from wild leguminous in Egypt.

H.H. Zahran, M. Abdel-Fattah, M.S. Ahmad and A.Y. Zaky

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt.

       About 20 isolates of rhizobia of wild legumes were characterized based on numerical analysis of phenotypic characteristics, nodulating ability, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and SDS-PAGE profiles of whole cell proteins. FAME analysis revealed that palmetic (16:0), stearic (18:0) and arachidic (20:0) acids were detected in most of wild-legume rhizobia, the latter is uncommon in fatty acid profiles of danger faux cialis Rhizobium and cialis 10 mg conditionnement Sinorhizobium. Numerical analysis of FAME classified isolates of wild legume rhizobia into 9 clusters and one heterogeneous group. There was an agreement and disagreement among the clustering data based on phenotypic analysis and FAME analysis. Isolates (TAP1, ANN4, ANN5 and MIN5) were grouped together under the same cluster based on both methods. However, isolates (AMB1, AMB4, AMB5 and AMB7), which affiliated in cluster 7 of phenotypic analysis, were distributed in several clusters after FAME analysis. SDS-PAGE of whole-cell protein revealed that the rhizobial isolates exhibited protein profiles with peptide bands ranged from 5-19 band per each profile and showed molecular weight values between 110-183 kD. As the case with FAME analysis, numerical analysis of protein bands was compared with clustering of phenotypic analysis. Agreement of the two methods was obvious when clustering some isolates (e.g., MB1, AMB4, AMB5 and AMB7). The two methods conflicted in the classification of other isolates e.g., ANN5 and SSN11. However, integration of the three methods could be a basis toward a polyphasic taxonomy. The twenty isolates of wild-legume rhizobia were finally classified as the following: 12 isolates related to le cialis combien ca coute R. leguminosarum, 5 isolates related to Sinorhizobium meliloti and 3 isolates to propecia fausse couche Rhizobium spp. The results reported here indicate that rhizobia   nodulating wild herb legumes are among indigenous isolates nodulating crop legumes in the cultivated and non-cultivated lands.

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achat cialis serieux 2/14 COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF DNA FINGER PRINT AND PROTEIN BANDING PATTERNS ON TAMARIX NILOTICA (EHRENB.) BUNGE IN DIFFERENT HABITATS

D.M. Baraka

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Benha

       The present study deals with levitra 40mg forum Tamarix nilotica (Ehrenb.) Bunge grows naturally in three habitats: wasteland, sand dunes and coastal salt marshes. The soil supporting the plant in the salt marshes varies mainly in the soil reaction, moisture content, calcium carbonate, bicarbonates as well as the cations (Na+, K+, Ca++, and Mg++). Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and protein banding patterns (SDS-PAGE) revealed three major DNA fragments (bands) with the same electrophoretic mobility and molecular weight in plants of the three habitats. Meanwhile, primer OP-E11 showed extra minor DNA fragments in plants of salt marshes habitat. The results in the present study were discussed and compared with the other previous related studies.

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3/14 ULTRASTRUCTURAL ALTERATIONS AND AMINO ACIDS CONTENTS CHANGING OF SYNECHOCOCCUS LEOPOLIENSIS AND DUNALIELLA SALINA UNDER ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION STRESSES

N.H. Noaman, A.M. Khaleafa, S.H. Shalaan and W.M. Abdel El-Aziz

Department of Botany, Faculty of Sicence, Alexandria University,

Alexandria, Egypt.

       This study evaluated the effect of the heavy metal, lead, organophosphorus insecticide, cyanophos, and wastewater on ultrastructure and amino acid contents of the blue-green alga Synechococcus leopoliensis and the green alga Dunaliella salina. The study revealed that lead stress affected a variety of cellular parameters including, starch granules, lipids, vacuoles and cell wall. The treatment of the blue-green and the green algae with cynophos led to severe injury of both algae which was represented by breakdown of thylakoid membranes, change of cell shape and volume, disappearance of cell components and appearance of many vacuoles. Concerning the effect of wastewater on the structure of both algae, the green one showed the presence of large number of starch granules while the blue-green one showed a clear enlargement of cell volume. Marked suppression in contents of amino acids was observed with treatment of both algae by lead or cyanophos while wastewater treatment caused stimulatory effect of most amino acids of both algae except some amino acids of D. salina.

 

 

4/14 ARABINAN DEGRADING-ENZYME FROM EGYPTIAN TURNIP BRASSICA RAPA)LEAVES: PURIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF SOME PLANT TISSUES

S.T. El-Sayed

Biochemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

       An a-L- arabinofuranosidase (EC 3.2.1.55) was highly purified with 56.4 U/mg protein and 36.1 % yield from Egyptian turnip (Brassica rapa) leaves using ammonium sulfate fractionation and by combining column chromatography on Sephadex G-120 and G-200. The electrophoretic behaviour of the purified enzyme indicates its homogeneity. The apparent molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 87.1 KD by gel filtration. The enzyme exhibited maximal activity at pH 5.0 and 50ºC. The activation energy of a-L-arabinofuranosidase is calculated to be 6.54 Kcal/mol. It was stable between pH 4.5 to 8.0, but lost 64 to 80 % of its activity in acidic medium at pH lowers than 4.5. It was heat stable for 40 min up to 40ºC with loss only 33% of its activity, but at 50ºC loss 53% of its activity after 40 min and highly inactivated (80% loss of its activity) within 60 min at 60ºC. The enzyme was highly inhibited by Hg2+, Pb2+ and Cu2+ with 66 to 100 % loss of its activity. The enzyme degraded arabinan in an exo-manner as the hydrolysis products is only arabinose as detected by TLC. It exhibited high activity on beet arabinan and low activity on arabinoxylan. It lack activity on polysaccharides devoid of arabinose such as starch, glycogen, cellulose, lichenin, sucrose, lactose and maltose. The purified enzyme is devoid of b-D-glucosidase activity. The apparent Km value of the enzyme for arabinan was determined to be 0.294 %. The purified enzyme could hydrolyse some plants containing arabinose such as wheat straw and bran, corn cob, rice straw and sugar beet cake and converted them to simple sugars (arabinose).

 

 

5/14 PALATABILITY AND AVERSION FACTOR OF SOME FORAGE PLANT SPECIES IN SOUTHWESTERN SAUDI ARABIA

A.M. Al-Shehri and R.A. El-Fahar

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, P. O. Box 9019, Saudi Arabia

       One hundred and fifty-two plant species, that belong to 46 families and comprise of 46 (30.3 %) annuals, and 106 (69.7 %) perennials were recorded in the study area. These species were sorted into six groups according to their mode of defence. Group I consisted of species with spiny organs for protection, group II which have woody branches, group III, IV include plants with leathery leaves, odour and/or hairy parts, group V which do not appear to have acquired any form of defence (poisonous plants), and finally, group VI with latex and spiny organs. Sixteen species (10.5 %) of the studied species are highly palatable to grazing animals, 30 species (19.7 %) are palatable, and 20 species (13.2 %) are of low palatability, while, 86 species (56.6 %) are non palatable. Most of the highly palatable species have sharp defensive parts. Seventeen species (11.2 %) of the total recorded species have an aversion factor (AF) of zero, 103 species (67.8 %) have an AF = 1 and 32 species (21.0%) are of AF = 0.5.

 

 

6/14 EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION OF MILK-CLOTTING ENZYME FROM FENUGREEK GREEN PLANT (TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRAECUM)

S.A. Moharib

Biochemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

       The present study focused on the presence of proteinase enzyme in fenugreek green (Trigonella foenumgraecum) extract as a new source of rennet from plant origin. The presence of proteinase has been investigated by determining the milk-clotting and proteolytic activities of the crude extract of fenugreek green (Trigonella foenumgraecum). The crude extract clots milks at 50˚C and pH 6.5. The proteinase of fenugreek green (FGG) was purified using (NH4)2 SO4 fractionation, DEAE-cellulose anion exchange chromatography, sephadex G-100 and sephadex G-200 gel filtration. The enzyme exhibited proteolytic activity towards casein and milks as substrates. Higher proteolytic activity was observed with skimmed milk than that of the whole milk. Moreover the proteolytic activity of the fenugreek green extracted enzyme analyzed under optimum conditions of temperature and pH, revealed that the fenugreek green proteinase is highly consistent with the milk-clotting process. This extract had low thermal stability above 50˚C.   The lyophilized extracted enzyme could be kept at -20˚C for   more than one month   without apparent loss of enzyme activity. Therefore fenugreek green extracts can be used as an alternative as a novel source of plant rennet may used as coagulant for small dairies in developing countries which have difficulties to obtain the expensive rennet from animal and microbial origin.

7/14 THE IMPACT OF DEVELOPMENT ON PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS OF THREE SPECIES OF THE GENUS DIPLOTAXIS .

May M. Al-Rumaih

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

       The present study was conducted to investigate peroxidase activities and photosynthetic pigments and their correlation during development of Diplotaxis acris; Diplotaxis euroides and Diplotaxis harra. The results revealed that peroxidase activity in different organs (leaves, stems, roots) of the studied species increased significantly with age in the successive stages of development from seedlings throughout to a maximum during senescence. Peroxidase activity varied significantly in different organs and in the three studied species. The roots attained highest activities followed by stems and leaves, respectively. Chlorophylls (chl a, b, total) and carotenoid content of leaf   tissues of the studied species increased significantly with age in the successive stages of growth from seedlings to flowering stage and thereafter declined towards senescence. Chlorophyll a:b ratio followed an opposite trend, decreasing with age to a minimum during the flowering stage and increasing to a maximum during senescence. The level of the different photosynthetic pigments varied significantly in the three studied species. Peroxidase activity was negatively correlated with photosynthetic pigments in the three studied species.

 

 

8/14 ELECTROPHORETIC PATTERNS OF SOLUBLE PROTEINS AND ACTIVITIES OF POLYPHENOL OXIDASE AND CATALASE DURING DEVELOPMENT OF SISYMBRIUM IRIO

Muna M. Al-Rumaih

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

       In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate soluble protein levels and types using acrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-PAGE), and to determine the activities of the oxidative enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and catalase) in different organs of Sisymbrium irio plants at different stages of growth (seedling, vegetative, flowering and early senescence). The results revealed different electrophoretic banding patterns and intensities of specific proteins not only in different organs (leaves, stems, roots, flowers and fruits), but also at different stages of development within the same organ. The activity of Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and catalase of Sisymbrium irio leaves, stems, and roots was shown to increase significantly with age in the successive stages of development to reach maximum values at the flowering stage, and subsequently declined significantly during the early senescence phase. Roots exhibited maximum PPO activity and stems showed minimum activity. On the other hand, catalase activity was highest in leaves followed by stems, and lowest activity was observed in roots.

 

9/14 CLEANING AND PROTECTING THE DEMINERALIZATION PLANT INSTALLED IN EL-TABBIN POWER STATION FROM ORGANIC AND MICROBIAL FOULING

A.I.Shehata, E.F. Sharaf* and R.A. Bayoumi**

Central Lab. of the Ministry of Electricity, Cairo, Egypt.

*Cairo University, Faculty of Science, Botany Department, Cairo, Egypt.

**Al-Azhar University, Faculty of Science, Botany & Microbiology Dept. Cairo, Egypt.

       In El-Tabbin power station, the process of water demineralization is operated in the demineralization plant, which contains both cation and anion resin. One of the important problems facing the process is the organic and microbial blockage or fouling of the anion resin. The physicochemical characteristics of the raw inlet water revealed that the inorganic components were almost constant allover the year of test, from January to December 2002. However, the organic matter content and the most probable number (MPN) of coliform were considerably increased in summer months (August) than in winter (January). The problem of resin fouling is matched with the quantity of organic matter in raw water. Microbiological analysis of raw water and fouled resin samples resulted in isolation of twenty five microbes; twenty three of them were bacterial isolates and two were fungal species which were Aspergillus niger and A. flavus columnaris . The bacterial isolates were belonging to the genera: Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, and Edwardsiella. Separate or mixed solutions of either NaOH ,NaCl, or NaOCl, at different concentrations, showed inhibitory activity towards the isolated microbes, in vitro, but to a variable degree. The most potent solution was a mixture of 5% NaOH and 10% NaCl, so it was used to clean the anion resin from organic and microbial fouling. When the cleaning process is applied in washing tank, it achieved a satisfied result that was indicated by the reduction of both rinse time of the resin and the produced effluent conductivity. The number of service cycles of the plant was improved and increased to 180 cycles, similar to that of the new resin, thereby its duration will be increased.

 

 

10/14 EFFECT OF SALINITY STRESS ON SOME METABOLITES, α- AND β- AMYLASE ACTIVITIES AND PROTEIN PATTERNS IN ERUCA SATIVA SEEDLINGS

W.A. Kasim and E.A.M. Hamada

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

       Eruca sativa seeds were germinated on 0.0, 100, 200 and 250 mM NaCl for 4, 7 and 10 days to study the effect of NaCl salinity on the growth criteria, total soluble carbohydrates, total proteins, total amino acids and SDS-PAGE of the protein bands. Seedling length and fresh and dry weights decreased with all NaCl concenrations at all stages of germination. After 7 days of germination the highest NaCl concentration (250 mM) decreased chlorophylls a and b while the lower one (100 mM) increased them. Carotenoids and Chl a/b ratio increased with all NaCl concentrations. Total soluble carbohydrates and α- and β-amylase activities increased with different NaCl treatments. In 7-day-old seedlings, the highest increase in total proteins was induced by 100 mM NaCl, while the greatest decrease was recorded with 200 mM NaCl. The opposite was the case with amino acids. Nucleic acid contents seemed unaffected by salinity, except at 200 mM NaCl which stimulated their production. SDS-PAGE indicated that NaCl increased protein degradation during germination. However, some protein bands (of about 30, 40 and 60 kd) which were detected after 4 days of germination were degraded gradually with increased salinity. At the same time, protein bands with molecular weights of about 33 and >130 kd, which were degraded after 4 days of germination, reappeared after 7 and 10 days of germination under NaCl stress. Such morphological and biochemical alterations seem to be part of the plant’s mechanism of adaptation to salinity stress.

 

 

11/14 STORAGE SEED PROTEIN ELECTROPHORETIC PATTERNS AND SPERMODERM ORNAMENTATIONS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS ON THE SPECIES RELATIONSHIPS IN THE GENUS CROTALARIA L. (LEGUMINOSAE)

A.A. El-Ghamery

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University,

Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

       Seed morphological characters and seed coat sculpture of 14 species belonging to the genus Crotalaria, family Leguminosae were examined with light microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to assess systematic implications of seed coat sculpture. These species are C. anagyroides, C. goreensis, C. juncea, C. kirkii, C. brevidens, C. recta, C. spinosa, C. incana, C. arenaria, C. pycnostachya, C. plowdenii, C. distantiflora, C. zanzibarica, C. axillaris. Seeds are kidney or boxing glove, ovate and folding hand in shape and measure from 6.3±0.20 x 4.4±0.18 mm to 1.81±0.02 x 1.60±0.07 mm in size. Colour of seed is orange, reddish, brown or brownish black. As well as outer epidermal cells pattern as seen by scanning electron microscope is granulate ornamentation which is a common feature in five species with some variations in shape, size and arrangement in each species. In addition to this of ornamentation, reticulate, ocellate, rugulate and pusticulate ornamentations are also observed in other species. Numerical analysis of scanning seed surface alone is not useful criterion for classification of this genus. Seed protein diversity is revealed by variation in SDS-PAGE has been used to re-assess the taxonomic relationships between 14 species from genus Crotalaria in the light of current sectional and sub-sectional delimination. A total number of 26 protein bands, with migration distance (M. D.) ranging from 0.001 to 3.5, varied from 8 to 13 bands which were used as binary characters and analyzed by NTSYS-pc program package using the UPGMA clustering method. The relationships of the studied species as revealed by the produced dendrogram are discussed in relation to previous classification.

12/14 EFFECT OF CYANOBACTERIA-WHEAT ASSOCIATION ON WHEAT GROWTH AND YIELD COMPONENTS

S.A. I. Mussa, M.M. Hanna* and F. M. Ghazal*

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza , Egypt.

*Agric. Microbiol. Dept.Soils, Water and Environment Research Institute,

Giza, Egypt

         At present, a great interest in establishing novel associations between higher plants and a variety of N2-fixing microorganisms has entered the scientific scene arising from the prospects and the possibilities of their potentially application. . In this paper, data presented is obtained during the co-cultivation of local cyanobacteria strains previously isolated from the Egyptian rice soils and wheat. Results revealed that cyanobacteria inoculation (SBI) exhibited an economical view that it can save about 30 % of the mineral nitrogen amounts required for wheat crop production. The trend was noticed when SBI inoculation was applied at the rate of 3 kg ha-1 along with 80 kg N ha-1 which recorded   a grain yield not significantly different from that obtained by 120 kg N ha-1 the recommended nitrogen dose.   Cyanobacteria inoculated to wheat crop have also improved the, nitrogen use efficiency, the nitrogen productivity and the nitrogen utilization percentage.

 

 

13/14 INFLUENCE OF SUBMINIMAL INHIBITORY CONCENTRATIONS OF CHLORAMPHENICOL, STREPTOMYCIN, CLINDAMYCIN, ERYTHROMYCIN, CLAVULANIC ACID AND SULPHAMETHOXAZOLE ON THE PENICILLINASE PRODUCTION OF KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIA, ESCHERICHAI COLI AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.

M.K. Abdel-Fatah; M.T. Shaaban* and A.H.A .Khattab*

Microbiological Department, National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR) Egypt

*Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Menofiya University

       The influence of subminimal inhibitory concentrations of chloramphenicol, streptomycin, clindamycin, erythromycin, clavulanic acid and sulphamethoxazole on the MIC of penicillin and the penicillinase production of Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichai coli and Staphylococcus aureus were tested. Results revealed that the penicillinase activity was inhibited by subminimal inhibitory concentrations of these antibiotics. The maximal inhibitory effect was generally induced by concentrations ranging from 1/2 to 1/32 the minimal inhibitory concentrations of clindamycin, clavulanic acid and suplphamethoxazole, results also revealed that the clindamycin, clavulanic acid or sulphamethoxazole produced synergy when combined with penicillin G against these isolates tested in vitro.

 

14/14 THE ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND NUTRITIONAL CONDITIONS IN PECTATE LYASE PRODUCTION BY ERWINIA SPP.

H.H. El-Hendawy, M.E. Osman and H.A. Ramadan

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University,

Ain Helwan, Cairo, Egypt.

       To degrade pectic polymers in plant cell wall, Erwinia spp. produce a set of pectic enzymes. Pectate lyases (PL) seem to be the major pectic enzymes produced by these bacteria. By growing four of soft-rotting Erwinia strains in a basal salt medium incubated at different temperatures or adjusted to various pH values or supplemented with different carbon or nitrogen sources, different amounts of growth as well as different levels of PL activities were obtained. The detection of the highest amount of growth was rarely accompanied by the detection of the highest level of PL actvity, which indicates that the variations in PL production could be attributed to variations in the regulation of its synthesis in Erwinia strains rather than variations in the amount of growth.

 

15/14 MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDEIS ON CERTAIN ISOLATES OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT- BACTERIA

M.T. Shaaban, M.K. Abdel-Fatah* and A.H.A. Khattab

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Menofiya University

* Microbiological Department, National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR) Egypt.

       Three hundred forty nine antibiotic resistant bacteria were isolated from different clinical specimens. Among them only fifteen isolates showed higher level of resistance,to the tested antibiotics. The cultural, morphological and physiological characteristics of these isolates were studied. Data revealed that the isolates could be identified as Klebsiella pneumonia (6 isolates), Escherichia coli (6 isolates) and Staphylococcus aureus (3 isolates). All isolates were resistant to streptomycin, and susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin and sulphamethoxazole. Combinations of sub MICs of these antibiotics with streptomycin led to a decrease in their MICs for all isolates. Results also revealed that the chloramphenicol, erythromycin or sulphamethoxazole produced synergistic effect when combined with streptomycin against twenty isolates tested in vitro.

 

16/14 BIOSYNTHESIS OF ENDOINULINASE ENZYME FROM GAMMA-IRRADIATED PENICILLIUM FUNICULOSUM DN3 AND PRODUCTION OF FRUCTOSE SYRUP FROM INULIN.

M.A. Khalaf

Microbiology Department, National Center for Radiation, Research and Technology, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt,

       In this study a survey was carried out to isolate endoinulinase-producing fungi from rhizosphere soil of inulin-containing plants, as, artichoke, dahlia and chicory. Penicillium DN3 strain isolated from the dahlia rhizosphere soil, was recorded as the best producer of endoinulinase enzyme. A highly endoinulinase-producer isolate P. funiculosum DN315B; was selected from the 1.0 kGy gamma irradiated survivors of the parent strain. This gamma irradiated isolate showed a high endoinulinase productivity of 18.82 Uml-1 when grown in a liquid medium (initial pH5) containing crude inulin (2%) from chicory roots extract, in presence of yeast extract as a sole nitrogen source at 30oC for 5days. Endoinulinase produced by P. funiculosum DN315B, hydrolyzed different inulin substrates to fructose syrup (oligo-fructose) with a high degree of hydrolysis of inulin extracted from chicory roots by 78.62% with 50 units of enzyme for 5 hours.

 

17/14 GENOTOXIC EFFECT OF TWO HERBICIDES GLYPHOSATE AND METRIBUZIN ON MITOSIS IN VICIA FABA L.

A.I. Shehata and H.F. Ah-Harbi

Department of Botany and Microbiology, King Saud University

P.O. Box 2455 Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia

       Cytological effects of two herbicides, Glyphosate and Metribuzin on Vicia faba L. root tips was studied using lower and higher doses of these herbicides for four different duration. Reduction in mitotic index and germination as a root length were observed in the two herbicides. The percentage of aberrant mitosis increased. There was a concentration and time dependent mitodepression. Different types of chromosomal aberrations were observed such as stickiness, bridges, laggards, multipolar, ring chromosome and micronucleated cells. Increased abnormalities with increase in concentration indicate genotoxic level of the respective herbicides.

 

18/14 APPLICATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES IN THE DETECTION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD PRODUCTS

H.A.S. Oraby, A.A. Hassan and A.A. Abou Mossallam

Cell Biology Department, National Research Center

Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

       Biotechnology has enabled the modification of agricultural materials in a very precise way, thereby improving productivity and yields of the economically important crops. There are a number of methods available for detecting genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In the present investigation, the qualitative PCR technique has been adopted in order to discriminate between genetically modified and non- modified food products. Two of the most common primers used for the detection of GMOs, 35S promoter and NOS 3' terminator, have been tested over a panel of 24 food products purchased from the local market. The results indicated that out of the 24 food products tested, three products gave positive results with the 35S promoter. These three products are potatoes, canola, and squash seeds. The NOS 3' primers gave negative results with all tested samples. For further confirmation of the results, the internal sequencing of the PCR products of samples that gave positive results have been performed by MWG-Biotech AG. Sequencing was followed by Blast analysis with the GenBank to test for alignment.

 

19/14 OVERPRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF

b-LACTAMASE FROM ENTEROBACTER CLOACAE

E.A. Azab

Section Microbiology, Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University

       The b-lactamase overproducing (stably-derepressed) mutant of inducible Enterobacter cloacae NCTC10005 was isolated by inoculating the inducible parent strain in diagnostic sensitivity agar plates containing the antibiotic cefotaxime. The mutant M3 produced higher level of chromosomal b-lactamase (12.5-fold) constitutively, and no induced enzyme was produced. Compared to the inducible parent strain, the mutant strain M3 exhibited an increase in resistance to the most b-lactam antibiotics tested. The enzyme produced by the mutant easily hydrolyzed cephalothin and cefazolin, barely hydrolyzed cefuroxime and was completely inactive against ceftazidime. Ampicillin, penicillin and cefotaxime were resistant to hydrolysis by the enzyme. The molecular weight of the enzyme was 31.4 kDa and the isoelectric point was 8.3. The enzyme was not inhibited by clavulanic acid or EDTA. This b-lactamase belongs to group I of Bush classification and to the molecular class C cephalosporinases.

 

 

20/14 ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN RELATION TO PROTEIN PATTERN IN PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA

M.K. Ibrahim, H.M. Abu shady, R. M. Mostafa* and M.S. Salama**

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University; General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University* and Entemology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University**.

       Twenty-one local pathogenic isolates belonging to Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from 21 inpatients at Ain Shams University Hospital (El-Demerdash) and screened for their resistance to 9 different antibiotics. Out of these isolates, one was multiresistant for seven antibiotics and four were susceptible to all tested antibiotics, while the rest isolates showed resistance patterns lying between those two extreme patterns. A comparison was held between the most resistant isolate and one of the most susceptible isolates. Electrophoretic separation of proteins revealed a total of twenty-nine proteins of different Rf values in both resistant and susceptible isolates. Nine lipoproteins were detected in the resistant isolate, while only six were detected in the susceptible one. No glycoproteins were detected neither in resistant nor in susceptible isolates. Protein pattern of both resistant and susceptible isolates was affected by antibiotic treatment in one of three different ways: some proteins were completely missed; some were de novo synthesized while others were not affected.

 

 

21/14 THE NATURE OF EPIGYNY IN SOME SPECIES OF AIZOACEAE

A.S. Al-Nawaihi*, S.A. Hassan** and E.A.K. Karakish***

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

       The floral vasculature in nine species of Aizoaceae was investigated to speculate the nature of epigyny. The vascular supply of the floral organs was found to be of various patterns. A cortical tissue was recorded in the receptacle; with occasional occurrence of cortical bundles. The latter share with the axial bundles in the supply of the tepals. The adnation and cohesion of the lower parts of the tepals and the stamens gave a hypanthium. Anatomically, the hypanthial tissue became adnate to the carpellary walls and thus the ovary assumed an inferior position. In the studied species, it was concluded that this type of epigyny is of appendicular nature. Three morphological types of floral nectaries were recorded in the studied species.

 

 

22/14 NATURAL OCCURRENCE OF AFLATOXINS IN FOOD COMMODITIES AND ITS CONTROL BY LECTINS AND ESSENTIAL OILS

S.M. Ezzat

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

       Sixty food commodities samples were collected from Sharkia, Egypt. The samples were Arachis hypogaea (pea nut), Cicer arietinum (chick pea), Glycine max (soybean), Phaseolus vulgaris (kideny bean), Vicia faba (broad bean) and Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds. Each commodity was represented by ten samples. One sample was found to be contaminated with alfatoxin B1. Six isolates of Aspergillus flavus were isolated from the aflatoxin contaminated sample. One isolate had the ability to produce aflatoxin B1 on coconut meal agar and Czapek’s Dox broth. The tested essential oils reduced the amounts of aflatoxin B1 on pea nut seeds as a substrate. The most active one was that of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosmarium), followed by Origanum syriacum L. (Zàatar) then Origanum majorana L. Lectins of Glycine max (soybean) and Lupinus termis (lupine) seeds induced observable decreases in the amount of aflatoxin B1 of Aspergillus flavus on pea nut as a substrate. The lectin of lupine seeds inhibited aflatoxin B1 completely at 1.0 and 2.0g/Kg.

 

 

23/14 EFFECT OF AZOSPIRILLUM LIPOFERUM INOCULATION AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF TWO PHASEOLUS VULGARIS CULTIVARS.

A.M. Shalaby, S.M. El-Gizy* and M.M. Hanna**

Botany Dep., Faculty of Science, Cairo univ. Giza, Egypt.

* Vegetable Dep., Horticulture Res-Inst., ARC, Giza, Rgypt.

** Microbiology Dep., soil, water and Environ. Res. Inst., ARC, Giza, Egypt

       A field experiment was carried out in two successive fall seasons at the Agricultural Research Station of El-Kanater El-Khiria to study the effect of Phaseolus vulgaris inoculation with Azospirillum lipoferum, under different levels of nitrogen fertilization and its effect on green pod of cultivar (cv. Giza 3) and dry seed of cultivar (cv. Nebraska). The results revealed that, for the two cultivars, inoculation with Azospirillum alone increased growth (plant height, number of leaves and dry weight) insignificantly, while N content in plant shoot and productivity significantly increased. Coupling Azospirillum with any of the applied N doses, 50 and 75% of the recommended dose, significantly increased N content and productivity for both cultivars; more prominently when N fertilizer was applied at 50% of the recommended dose (20 kg/fed(. Azospirillum population and nitrogenase activity significantly increased when 50 or 75% of nitrogen recommended dose was added to inoculated treatment, the former dose was effective than the latter.

 

24/14 PATTERNS OF RESOURCE ALLOCATION AMONG TEN COMMON ALIEN WEEDS ASSOCIATED WITH WHEAT CROPFIELDS IN EGYPT

S.A. I. Mussa

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Cairo, Giza 12613, Egypt

       The present study aims at assessing and comparing the actual seed productivity in the common alien weeds associated with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropfields in Egypt. Eight winter annuals (Chenopodium murale, Melilotus indicus, Rumex dentatus, Bidens pilosa subsp. divaricatum, Cichorium endivia, Sonchus oleraceous Poa annua and Avena fatua), and two herbaceous perennials (Convolvulus arvensis and Bromus catharticus) are included. Estimation of the average fresh and dry weights of fruits produced per individual, average fresh and dry weights of whole plants and the average dry weight per individual seed is undertaken. It is noted that grains of Avena fatua were the heaviest, while seeds of Poa annua, Sonchus oleraceous and Chenopodium murale were the lightest among the studied species. On the other hand, the smallest number of grains are produced in Bromus catharticus, while Rumex dentatus produced the highest number of seeds. The proportion of dry matter allocated both to the vegetative and to the reproductive organs is also calculated. The highest ratio (60.5%) of seed dry weight to plant dry weight is recorded in Avena fatua, and the lower ratio of 4.7 % is achieved by Poa annua species. The present study evinced that, for winter annuals, and to certain extent in herbaceous perennials, the portion allocated to seed productivity is much higher than that allocated to the vegetative organs

 

 

25/14 XANTHAN PRODUCTION BY XANTHOMONAS CAMPESTRIS NRRL B-1459 IN GAMMA IRRADIATED MILK PERMEATE

A.A. Ali and S.A. Meleigi*

Food Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

*Microbiology Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt.

       The effect of different doses (0,1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 Gy) of gamma radiation on hydrolysis of milk permeate was investigated. Growth kinetics of Xanthomonas campestris NRRL B-1459 in gamma irradiated milk permeate (GIMP) were compared with those in the standard yeast malt medium and ß-galactosidase hydrolyzed milk permeate (EHMP). Xanthan production in relation to sugar consumption and growth of the Xanthomonas strain in (EHMP) and (GIMP) were evaluated under batch fermentation conditions. The effect of yeast extract supplementation (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2%) and 3 initial pH (6.0, 6.5 and 7) on xanthan production, and other related parameters, in EHMP and GIMP were also reported. Data of this study showed that milk permeate subjected to 3000Gy of gamma radiation gave the most effective level of hydrolysis. No detectable differences in growth kinetics of Xanthomonas strain cultured in EHMP or GIMP but records were always superior to those obtained from the standard yeast malt medium. Maximum growth of Xanthomonas campestris NRRL B-1459 in the 2 substrates of milk permeate was obtained after 72 h of incubation where 40% of the carbon source was depleted. Xanthan production, on the other hand, was extended up to 120 h of the batch fermentation where 32 and 29% of sugar were remained undegraded in EHMP and GIMP, respectively. Enhancement of xanthan production was correlated with the increase in yeast extract supplementation and neutral initial pH as the 0.2% yeast extract and pH 7 gave maximum xanthan production but the lowest biomass yield were recorded under these condition

 

26/14 IMPACT OF DIRECT CERAMIC DUST APPLICATIONS ON CHARACTERISTICS OF SOIL SUPPORTING SOYBEAN AND ROSEMARY PLANTS CULTIVATED IN EGYPT

A.A. Ali, H.S. Fahmi, F.G. Khadr and R.M. Desoki

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

       Physicochemical and biological processes influence soil fer­tility in a variety of ways. Each of which can have an ameliorating effect on the main soil-based constraints to productivity. At the Faculty of Science, Zagazig University during 2001-2002, we study the impact of ceramic dust on the soil properties before and after its cultivation by soybean (Glycine max L. CV. Crawford) and rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis L.) either singly or in competition. We mixed ceramic dust with 1 kg soil from different sources (Delta, Desert and Sahl El-Tean soils). The following results were obtained: 1) The positive effect of ceramic dust was shown at 5 % and 10%, while the negative effect was shown at 15 % and 20 % of treatments, 2) soil cultivated with one soybean and one rosemary plant recorded a highly response to treatments, 3) Delta soil was the most affected by ceramic dust stress. This study concluded that ceramic dust may be mediate both the synthesis and decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and therefore influence cation exchange capacity; the soil N, S, and P reserve; soil acidity and toxicity; and soil water-holding capacity, then improve its characteristics.

 

 

27/14 IMPROVEMENT OF THE ACTIVITY OF CELL WALL DEGRADING CHITINASE PRODUCED BY STREPTOMYCES ALBOVINACEUS AND ITS USES AS ANTIFUNGAL AND INSECTICIDE

M.F. Ghaly

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt.

       To improve the activity of chitinase enzyme produced by Streptomyces albovinaceus, the biochemical activities of assay mixture has been optimized by addition of these constituant as follows; substrate   concentration 1.5% of colloidal chitin, 0.4ml of purified chitinase, more or less of this volume had a deleterious effect. Sodium tetraborate as microelement (10uM). Nicotinamide as water soluble vitamins (ug/ml). Asparagine (mg/100ml) amino acid as promoter action. Salicylic acid which had inhibitory action at all tested concentrations. Similarly sodium sulphacetamide have complete inhibitory action on chitinase activity. The chitinase enzyme had potential to inhibit saprophytic (Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus) and pathogenic (Fusarium oxysporium and Alternaria spp) fungi and cause mortality of 100% of ants (Monomorium pharanosis) but did not have any significant effect on hause fly (Musca domestica) and cockroach (Periplaneta Americana).

28/14 COMPARISON BETWEEN THE EFFECT OF ANTIBIOTICS AND PLANT EXTRACTS ON SOME OPPORTUNISTIC MICROORGANISMS OF BED PRESSURE SORES

S.M. Ezzat, M.F. Ghaly, S.A.A. El-Sherbeny and M.K. El-Gendy

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

       Twenty samples were collected from different patients bed pressure sores form hospitals in Zagazig, Sharkia, Governorate, Egypt. Ages of patients were between 35 and 85 years. Bacteria were isolated on nutrient and blood agar. Selected bacterial isolates were identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The two bacteria were the common isolates in most samples. Staphylococcus epidermidis is Gram's positive, coagulase negative and mannitol positive. Pseudomonas aeurginosa is Gram's negative, rod, citrate positive, catalase positive, urease positive and B-hemolysis on blood media. Ciprofloxacin was the most active antibiotic against the two isolates singly and combined with amoxycillin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin were 1.5 and 2.4 g for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; respectively. Generaly, these concentrations inhibited protein, lipid, reducing sugar and nucleic acids of the two isolates. In general, the extracts ofRosmarinus officinalis and its essential oils were the most effective among the tested extracts and essential oils. Eugenia aromatica alcoholic extracts gave an inhibitory effect while its aqueous extract gave negative result against the tested bacteria.

 

 

29/14 INTERACTION OF MYCORRHIZAL FUNGUS GLOMUS SPP AND ZINC OR CADMIUM WITH GROWTH, ROOT PERMEABILITY AND METALS UPTAKE OF SORGHUM PLANTS

A.M. Shalaby

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

       The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus spp. isolated from heavy metals polluted soil on growth, root cells permeability and metal uptake of sorghum plants was studied in a pot experiment applying different levels of Zn and/or Cd added to the soil, 3 weeks after sowing. Mycorrhizal plants gained higher shoot and root dry weight biomass than in non-mycorrhizal plants under the test heavy metals treatment. This was concomitant with increased phosphorus levels in the plant organs and decrease relative permeability of the root cells. In most cases, the root colonization with Glomus spp. was not affected by the metals treatments. Zinc or cadmium content was lower in the shoots and higher in the roots of mycorrhizal than   non-mycorrhizal treated plants. Interaction of the Zn and Cd, at low and high doses in the soil, increased growth, P uptake, and decreased the relative permeability of the roots compared with the effect of the Cd alone.


30/14 INFLUENCE OF NUTRIENTS AVAILABILITY ON THE SENSITIVITY OF ERODIUM GLAUCOPHYLLUM TO UV-B RADIATION.

H.M.H. Salama and N.E. Barakat*

Botany Department, Fuculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt.

* Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) Kuwait.

       Seeds of Erodium glaucophyllum were collected from sandy grassland ecosystem in Khiran district (Kuwait). Plants were grown in a green house for 61 days under either minimal or maximalnutrient conditions and were exposed to four different levels of biologically effective UV-B radiation (280 - 320nm). Total biomass production of plants at low nutrient supply was 40% lower compared,. With plants grown at maximal nutrient supply, while net photosynthesis was decreased by only 12%. Higher levels of UV-B reduced biomass production under non. limiting nutrient conditions only. While in case of limited nutrient supply the biomass production of plants grown at was not affected by UV-B. This response was attributed to increased accumulation of carbohydrates under nutrient limitation, which grees well with the carbon/nutrient balance hypothesis. It is concluded that the increased accumulation of carbon in nutrient-stressed plants, may lead to a reduction of UV-B induced damage because of increased accumulation of tannin compounds and increase of leaf thickening.

 

31/14 UTILIZATION OF ORANGE PEELS TO INDUCE THE PRODUCTION OF PECTINASES IN SOLID STATE CULTURES OF RHIZOMUCOR PUSILLUS (LINDT), WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE PURIFICATION AND SOME PROPERTIES OF POLYGALACTURONASE ENZYME

U.F. Ali

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo, Egypt.

       Agroindustrial wastes such, as orange peels constitute an ecological problem thus we intendedto use orange peels as a cheap substrate for induction of pectinases in solid-state cultures ofRhizomucor pusillus. The best culture conditions for the production of three pectinases (polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase and pectin lyase) fromRhizomucor pusilluswere 40ºC, pH 6.0 and incubation for seven days. Polygalacturonase enzyme was purified using Sephadex G100and DEAE cellulose chromatography to 13.677 folds with optimum activity at 45ºC and pH 4.4 using 1% polygalacturonate. The enzyme was heat resistant within the range 30-45ºC retaining more than 90% of its activity after one hour at 65ºC, the enzyme also showed a sort of pH stability. The calculated Km was found to be 7.5mM.
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