Vol. 16, February, 2004.

1/16 VEGETATION ZONATION ALONG AN ALTITUDINAL GRADIENT AT JABAL SAWDAH (ASEER MOUNTAINS), SOUTHWESTERN SAUDI ARABIA

H.M. Alwadie

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia

       The vegetation composition of different altitudinal zones at Jabal Al-Sawdah has been studied. One hundred and twelve plant species related to 49 families were recorded in the study area. The largest families were Asteraceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, Labiatae and Solanaceae. In general, the dominant life-form in these different zones was therophytes, followed by cryptophytes, Chamaephytes, phanerophytes and finnaly, parasites. The plant community of the upper zone was the richest with 81 plant species, followed by lower zone with 24 plant species and finally, medium zone with 17 plant species. Environmental factors play the leading role in the distribution of the diferrent plant community types along the studied altitudinal zones.

2/16 CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANCE GENE IN A LOCAL ISOLATE OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA

M.K. Ibrahim, H.M. Abu Shady, R.M. Mostafa* and M.S. Salama**

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University,

*General Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University,

**Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University

A comparison was held between two local pathogenic isolates belonging to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. One was resistant to 7 antibiotics out of 9 tested, while the other isolate was susceptible to all the 9 antibiotics. The gene responsible for multi-antibiotic resistance was isolated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using MexR1 and MexR2 primers, which were flanking MexR-MexA amplicon. This gene was identified as MexA-MexB-OprM operon with mexR as a regulator gene. The PCR copy of the MexR-MexA gene (735bp) was cloned into pGEM-T Easy plasmid and the recombinant plasmid was used for transformation of Escherichia coli (JM109) strain. Recombinant Escherichia coli was spread on LB–agar–amp plates and exposed to blue/white color screening. PCR copy of the antibiotic resistance gene was sequenced using an automated DNA sequencer. Sequence data was analyzed on Gene Bank for studying homology with similar DNA sequences.

3/16 BIOINDICATION STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF AMBIENT O3 ON KIDNEY BEAN PLANTS GROWN UNDER TWO IRRIGATION CONDITIONS USING ETHYLENE-DIUREA (EDU) AT A RURAL SITE IN EGYPT

A.A. Ali and H.M. Hammad

Zagazig University, Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Zagazig, Egypt

The primary objectives of this investigation were to examine the interactive effects of three air quality treatments, ethylene-diurea (EDU)and two irrigation conditions on physiological characteristics of kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) during its whole growth. These plants were grown 4-years in 12-open top chambers (OTC's) at Abo Kabeer, Sharkia, Egypt. Ethylene-diurea (EDU) was used as a factor to evaluate O3 pollution impact on plant growth (EDU drench is soil after one month from seed germination).The air quality treatments consisted of charcoal filtered (CF) air, nonfiltered (NF) air and ambient air (AA) were irrigated and non- irrigated. Leaf samples were collected from upper canopy positions six times (pre- EDU addition, week after four EDU's addition, at the time of harvesting). Maximal differences in leaf carbohydrate, N contents, pigments and total lipids were observed in response to moisture conditions in presence and absence of EDU applications. Significant reduction were noted for air quality treatments regarding carbohydrate and pigment fractions but not for all cases of leaf N and lipid contents under O3 effects only. Minimal differences were found for first EDU application while maximal ones were recorded at 200 mg l-1 of treatments. The EDU treatments stimulated carbohydrate and pigment contents at the upper canopy position with higher levels for both NF and AA compared to untreated conditions. The NF and AA treatments caused lower total carbohydrate and pigment contents in the canopy position before harvesting of EDU applications. The stimulation in leaf carbohydrates by the EDU treatment, compared to the non-treated EDU of AA and NF treatments, provides a rational explanation for the counteracting effects of EDU against moderate exposures to O3 regarding grain yields in C3 plants.

4/16 ASSIMILATION OF SOME AROMATIC COMPOUNDS BY A YEAST ISOLATED FROM A FRESH WATER CANAL IN EGYPT

K.M Taha,Y.M. Ahmed* and S.A.Saleh*

Agr. Biochem. Dep., Fac. of Agr., Minoufya Univ.

* Microbial Biotech. Dep., National Research Center.

In this investigation a yeast strain isolated from a fresh water canal and identified as Candida sp. was able to assimilate quantitatively benzoate (BA), salicylate (SA), dinitrobenzoate (DNB), chlorophenol (CPH) partly, while diphenylamine (DPA) was absolutely toxic for this strain. The relatively high concentrations of DNB (5g/L) and CPH (2g/L) inhibited completely its growth, whereas it was tolerant till concentration of 10 g/L of both BA and SA, but it was noticed that the high concentrations of the last two substrates affected negatively our isolate growth and as a result their degradation rate decreased. Protocatechuic acid (PA) as BA degradation intermediate and catechol (CA) as SA degradation intermediates were detected by TLC. Both of these two inter mediate were cleaved through ortho ring cleavages where PA-3.4- dioxygenase and CA- 1.2 dioxygenase were detected in a high specific activity in the cell extract of BA and SA grown cultures respectively. However meta- cleavage enzymes were completely absent. In addition to the above-mentioned dioxygenases gentisate- 1.2- dioxgenase was detected with low specific activity in the cell extract of glucose grown culture, which indicated the constitutive induction of these enzymes by this strain. Thus this organism is likely to play an important role in recycling aromatic residues in nature.

5/16 ON THE DELIMITATION OF ANAGALLIS ARVENSIS L. (PRIMULACEAE)

2. EVIDENCE BASED ON SEM OF LEAF & SEED COAT AND

SDS-PAGE OF SEED PROTEIN PROFILE

A.I.I. Aboel-Atta

Department of Biological Sciences and Geology, Faculty of Education, Ain

Shams University. Roxy (Heliopolis), Cairo, Egypt.

SEM of epidermal cells of leaves, seed coat surface, and SDS-PAGE of seed protein profiles, in addition to complied data from micromorphology, palynology and karyology were investigated in two controversial sub-taxa of Angallis arvensis complex present in Egypt as an aid for their deliminatation. The present study, along with the compiled data showed that the encountered variations between the two studied taxa were considerably remarkable. A proposal to raise the two taxa to the specific level is suggested.

6/16 PRODUCTION AND APPLICATION OF CELLULOSE AND HEMICELLULOSE DEGRADING ENZYMES FROM COTTON STALKS BY FUNGI IN SOLID STATE AND SUBMERGED CULTURE FERMENTATION

M. Fedel and T. Kahil      

Microbial Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Albohouth Street,

Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

Production of cellulases, i.e. exoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.91), endoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) and cellobiase (EC 3.2.1.21) as well as xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) by five wild strains of fungi namely Trichoderma viride F-25, T.harzianum F-416, T.harzianium F-320, T.reesei F-418 and T reesei F-717   cultivated on treated cotton stalks based medium by solid state fermentation “SSF” were studied. The tested strains varied in enzyme levels   production specially for cellobiase and xylanase. T.reesei F-418 showed the highest enzyme activities. Solid: liquid ratio of 1:4 and initial pH value of 4.5-5.0 were more   suitable for enzymes production as well as calcium nitrate was selected as a sole nitrogen source for highest enzyme levels production after 96 h incubation at 32°C. Under the above optimum conditions, it was possible to obtain 138.4 IU filter paper activity "FPase", 78.6 IU carboxymethylcellulase “CMCase”, 156.3 IU cellobiase and 788.3 IU xylanase/g original substrate. The fermented residue obtained after enzymes extraction was recycled as a base medium for the investigated enzymes production by T.reesei F-418 and A. niger F-119. The enzymes production by T.reesei F-418 declined than that obtained by unfermented substrate. A.niger F-119 showed high cellulase and cellobiase production after 72 h cultivation reaching 145.6,96.4 and 218.2 IU/g for FPase, CMCase and cellobiase, respectively. Whereas, xylanase production was 558.2 IU/g. T.reesei F-418 cultivated in solid state fermentation (SSF) produced high levels of enzyme activities than that cultivation under submerged liquid culture “SLC”.   Partial purification for the produced enzymes using ammonium sulphate, cold ethanol and cold acetone were studied in T. reesei F-418 and A.niger F-119 culture extracts. Under, 40, 60 and 80% (w/v) ammonium sulphate saturation in T.reesei F-418, the protein salted out by 40% (w/v) reached 36.4% from total soluble protein in the culture extract was more related to xylanase activity, whereas that obtained by 60% (w/v) saturation which reached 49.2% was more related to cellulases and cellobiase. At 60% (w/v) ammonium sulphate saturation, 56.7% of the total protein in A.niger F-119 culture extract contained the highest activity of the tested enzymes. Cold ethanol or cold acetone at 80% (v/v) was more suitable for enzymes precipitation from fungal cultures, since 61.1 and 56.7% of the total proteins in cultures extract of T.reesei F-418 and A.niger F-119 respectively were precipitated by cold ethanol compared to 65.1 and 59.2% by cold acetone   .Dried enriched enzymes substrates fermented by T. reesei F-418 and A. niger F-119 as well as culture extracts were applied for hydrolyzing the alkali pretreated wheat and rice straws in 5% (w/v) 0.05M citrate buffer pH 4.8 reaction mixture. Promising hydrolysis were achieved by dried enriched enzymes substrates. The enzymatic hydrolyzates of both wheat and rice straw containing sugars were concentrated by bioling to contain 21% (w/v) total sugars, then fermented by Sacchromyces cerevisiae for ethanol production, giving 7.15 and 6.95% (v/v) in fermentation mash of enzymatic hydrolyzates of wheat and rice straws by T.reesei F-418 respectively,in opposite 6.15 and 6.05%(v/v) obtained in enzymatic hydrolyzates by A.niger F-119 after 48h.

 

7/16 AMELIORATION OF SALINITY-INDUCED METABOLIC CHANGES IN SOYBEAN PLANTS.

S.E.A. Khodary

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

Root exudates of three weed plants, i.e jungle rice, cocklebur and purslane were used as foliar spray into NaCl-stressed soybean seedlings. Exudates of jungle rice roots exhibited highest level of kinetin (kin) and gibberellic acid (GA3) and lowest concentration of indole acetic acid (IAA) as well as abscisic acid (ABA). Cocklebur root exudates contained highest level of IAA or ABA while purslane one exerted lowest amount of GA3 or Kin. The highest contents of protein and oil as well as mineral ions in salinized soybean were recorded as a result of application of root exudates of jungle rice weed plant. It is suggested that good growth pattern might be apparent following treatment of soybean seedlings grown under salt stress in response to treatment with exudates of weed roots particularly jungle rice one which showed a sufficient contents of growth regulators.

8/16 SEED PROTEIN ELECTROPHORETIC ANALYSIS OF SOME EGYPTIAN CULTIVARS OF CUCURBITACEAE

M.I. Soliman and R.M. Rizk*

Botany Dept., Faculty of Science, Mansoura University and *National Gene Bank, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Egypt.

The dry ripened seeds of twenty-seven cucurbits from Egypt were subjected to biochemical analyses using spectrophotometric methods for determination of total seed protein. For more detailed investigations, the seed proteins were subjected to electrophoretic analysis using discontinuous SDS-PAGE gel to determine the protein profile. Forty-six bands were distinguished from the scanning of seed protein gel using Gel Doc 2000, Bio Rad Denistometer scanner. The similarity indices among the studied taxa of each Cucumis and Cucurbita are calculated using Kulczyuski index. The S3 (Jaccard) binary similarity coefficients for all the studied taxa are also stated. The relationship between the taxa studied was measured by calculating their average taxonomic distance and presented as phenogram performed using the SYSTAT version 7.0 program. These results indicated that seed proteins of the studied taxa are different in protein profile and could be of some important systematic value.

9/16 BIOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND CONTAMINATED RESIDUES IN DAILY EGYPTIAN MEALS

AI. Atia and *M.S. Abdel Lattif

Natural Products Dept., National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, A.R.E.

*Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University - Giza,, A.R.E.

The main objective of this study is the evaluation of the nutritional quality of the Egyptian diets throughout the estimation of the exposure of additives and contaminants in habitual diets and prediction of the health risks for consumers by comparing contents with the acceptable daily intakes established by the Food and Agriculture Organization / World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). The samples have been collected from 5 markets in Cairo and Alexandria; and were prepared according to the usual procedure of the Egyptian kitchen. The results of the study indicated that more than 90% of these consumer diets are heat-treated which are called the dead foods. Results also showed there is an increase in the percentage of Carbohydrates sources over than those of lipids and protein and the decrease of the percentage rate of fresh foods with respect to the overall daily foods was about 7%. The study demonstrated the increase of the percentage of Aflatoxins, Heavy metals (Cadmium, Lead, Mercury) and Pesticides (Lindane, DDE), which affects the human health to a large extent. The study recommends of preparing bio. nutritional programs for each aging stage according to the bio requirements and to reduce the percentage of contaminants added to foods .The study also recommends reduction of the percentage of Aflatoxins percentage from the activities of microorganism during the foods production and handling stages.


10/16 BIOREMEDATION OF HEAVEY AND LIGHT CRUDE OILS BY SOME FUNGAL ISOLATES

R.A. Bayoumi and R.I. Abdallh*

Botany and Microbiol Department, Faculty of Science (Boys), Al-Azhar University. Madinet Nasr, Cairo, Egypt.

*Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Ministry of Scientific Research. Madinet Nasr, El-Hay El-Tamin, Cairo, Egypt.

Sixteen fungal isolates from six soil samples collected from polluted Suez Gulf area with crude oil were tested for their ability to grow on medium supplemented with Suez Gulf Petroleum Co. (GUPCo) as heavy crude oil, and Shoker as light crude oil used as a sole source of carbon. Both heavy and light oils used in the present study are characterized by the following: density 0.9456 and 0.8099 (g/ml); specific gravity, 0.9465 and 0.8107; API, 18 and 43; kinematic viscosity; 16.73 and 2.76 (cSt); pour point: 18 and –6(ºC); sulfur content, 1.77 and 0.3(wt%); asphaltene content, 3.89 and 0.64(wt%); resin content; 18.15 and 7.69(wt%); and oil content, 77.95 and 91.65 (wt%)respectively. The sixteen fungal isolates were identified as: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. terreus, Fusarium sp., Penicillium sp., and Rhizopus stolonifer. The biodegradation ability of the three most potent fungal isolates viz. A. terreus, Aspergillus flavus and A. fumigatus on both GUPCo and Shoker crude oils was characterized using gas chromatography. A. terreus exhibited the highest ability of biodegradation of heavy oil. Determination of extracellular and intercellular metabolites on both Dox's and crude oil broth media were investigated. The optimum conditions for the three most potent fungal isolates on heavy oil were also investigated. The effects of crude extracellular and intracellular enzymes of A. terreus on heavy and light crude oils polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fractions were investigated. The GC analysis indicated that analysis the biodegradation of most residual hydrocarbons except for some of C14-C18, which were present in low concentrations in emulsified heavy oil. This study emphasized the ability to using fungal mycelia and /or their enzymes in the bioremediation technology especially environmental pollution caused by crude oil spills contaminating various environments.  

11/16 PURIFICATION AND SOME PROPERTIES OF THE EXTRACELLULAR CHITINASE PRODUCED BY PAECILOMYCES VARIOTII

R. Saad and H.S. Hamdy

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Education, Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt.

       Chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14) from culture filtrates of Paecilomyces variotii, was successively purified by precipitation with isopropanol (3:1) followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G75 and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose to give an activity of 6.237 unit mg-1 protein with 39.57 % yield and 23.19 folds of purification. The pH optimum for the enzyme was pH 5.5 with maximum activity at 50°C. T1/2 of the enzyme is 6 weeks at 4 and -15°C in 0.2 M acetate buffer (pH 5.5). Molecular weight of the enzyme determined by SDS-PAGE was 47.5 KDa. Chitinase activity of P. variotii was stimulated by Ca+ and inhibited by Hg2+ and EDTA.

12/16 ANATOMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF FLOWERS AND/OR FRUITS OF SOME ORNAMENTAL PLANTS,GROWING IN EGYPT.

M.M.A. El-Hamouly and A.T. Salama*

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy(Boys) and *Department of Botany, Faculty of Science(Boys), Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

The anatomy of the flower buds of Verbena bipinnatifida Nutt. (Verbenaceae), Bauhenia       variegataL (Fabaceae) and Myoporum acuminatum (G.) Foster (Myoporaceae) was investigated. The volatile fraction of flowers of Bauhini variegata L. and Myoporum acuminatum (G.)Fosterwere prepared by hydrodistillation of fresh organs. The obtained oil was represented 0.04 and 0.32 g.% w/w on fresh weight bases, respectively.   The components of those oils were analysed by GC/MS. The detected peaks were identified by their mass spectral data on the basis of   computer system and comparison with reported MS data and Rt values. Percentage of each component was determined by peak area measurement and applying the internal normalization method.The present work was constructed to illustrate the anatomy of the flower buds of Verbena bipinnatifida Nutt.,Bauhenia variegata L. and Myoporum acuminatum(G.) Foster.The study records successive development (from pedicle up ward) and morphogenesis of flower parts. The gynaecium of Verbena bipinnatifida appeared to contain 4 locules, instead of 2 .Antimicrobial screening showed that volatile fraction of the studied plant organs has promising antimicrobial activity against a number of micro-organisms.
       
       

Figure 1: Bauhenia variegata L. Flower            

Figure 2: Myoporum acuminatum (G). Foster flowering branch and a flower                    

Figure 3 :Verbena bipinnatifida Nutt., Inflorescence

13/16 EFFECT OF HUMAN MANIPULATIONS ON THE VEGETATION OFEL-KHANKA-ABUZAABAL AREA, EGYPT

M.N. Shehata

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University

(Benha), Egypt

Alteration of soil characters by human manipulations of the natural environment for agriculture production have provided a favorable condition for the growth of weedy species. One-hundred and ten weed species related to 36 families were recorded. These species included 74 annuals (67.2%) and 36 perennials (32.7%). Chorological analysis of the recorded species indicated that the study area comprise 45.5 % as summer active, 40 % as winter active and 32.7 % as all year active weeds. Tropical floristic elements attained the maximum representation (38.1 %), which may be attributed to the summer weeds that have tropical origin. Nine vegetation types were identified in the present study, after the application of TWINSPAN classification technique. The suggested vegetation types are well segregated along the DCA axis one which reflects gradients of soil moisture, acidity, fertility (as indicated by the organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) and species diversity. It was found that soil with moderate moisture, low acidity and high fertility had the higher species richness, comparing with the soil characterized with high moisture and salinity.

 

14/16 Allelopathic Effect of some Cruciferous

Seeds on Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and Gossypium Barbadense L.

I.M. El-Refai* and S.M.I. Moustafa

Dept. of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

*Dept. of Botany, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

Phenolic substances, lipoidal matters and fatty acid contents of some cruciferous powdered seeds, Raphanus sativus L., Brassica oleracea L. var capitata, Sinapis alba L., Brassica nigra KOCH, Eruca sativa MILL, Brassica napus L. and Lipidium sativum L., were determined .The results indicated that R. sativus L., B. napus L. and B. oleracea L. var capitata contained higher percentage of phenolic compounds, lipoidal matters and unsaturated fatty acids, respectively, compared to other tested plants . The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the above seeds were prepared. The alcoholic extract was fractionated with petroleum ether 60-80oC, chloroform and ethyl acetate, respectively. The prepared extracts and fractions were subjected to phytochemical screening and the results indicated the presence of various active constituents. Their allelopathic effect on Rhizoctonia solani Khun was tested in vitro. The tested extracts have variable inhibitory effect on R. solani Khun. The effect depends on   the concentration of the extracts, plant species and the active constituents. Rhizoctania solani infested and non-infested soil sowed with cotton (Gossypium barbadense L) seeds were treated with the above powdered seeds. All treatments reduced cotton seed germination, decreased significantly root length but increased seedling shoot height. The results indicated that application of   powdered seeds of R. sativus L., E. sativa MILL and S. alba L., to the soil infested with R. solani Kuhn, enhanced the germination percentage of cotton, reduced damping off precentage and improved the growth criteria of the cotton seedlings . Fatty acids composition and mineral contents of the untreated cotton and infested cotton seedlings treated with seed powders were also investigated.

 

15/16 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SEED AND LEAF CHARACTERS IN THE DELIMITATION OF SOME ASTRAGALUS L. SPECIES GROWING IN EGYPT.

W.M. Kamel

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal Univerity, Ismailia, Egypt.

Six perennial species of the genus Astragalus L. belonging to two sections were investigated (Astragalus dactylocarpus subsp. acinaciferus, A. sieberi A. sparsus, A. trigonus, A. fruticosus, and A. spinosus). Seed and leaf epidermal characters were studied. The relationship between the species was confirmed by seed morphology as well as the anatomical characters of testa (based on the layers and cell sizes of seed coats). A key for the studied species is included.

16/16 REGULATION OF CADMIUM, COBALT, NICKEL AND LEAD ACCUMULATION BY PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS IN RICINUS COMMUNIS L. COTYLEDONS CULTURED IN VITRO

E.A. Ewais

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science,

Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

The effect of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), benzylaminopurine (BAP) and abscisic acid (ABA) on the uptake and bioaccumulation of heavy metals were studied in developing castor oil (Ricinus communis L.)cotyledons cultured in vitro. The uptake and bioaccumulation of various metals (Cd, Co, Ni and Pb) were obviously affected by growth regulators.   All NAA or ABA – containing cultures exhibited higher rates of metals uptake than those containing BAP. Addition of EDTA to the culture media stimulated further heavy metals accumulation. On media containing NAA or BAP the dry weight, protein content and total lipid of cotyledons were greatly increased, whereas in media supplemented with ABA an opposite effect was observed. The results indicated that growth regulators have a role in the ability of plants to tolerate the toxic metals and clean up the polluted media.

 

17/16 SYNERGISM BETWEEN A NONCELLULOSOMAL CELLULASE (EngF) AND THE CELLULOSOME

OF CLOSTRIDIUM CELLULOVORANS

A.M. Ibrahim; T.A. Salem; K.A. El-Halafawy and R.H. Doi*

Genetic Eng. and Biotech. Research Inst. (Gebri),

Menufiya Univ., Sadat City; and *California Univ., Davis, Usa.

The cellulosome of Clostridium cellulovorans was produced from a cellobiose and acid swollen cellulose (ASC) cultures and purified by cellulose affinity and ion exchange chromatography. Affinity chromatography and Q-sepharose FF also purified an active form of Clostridium cellulovorans noncellulosomal Endoglucanase (EngF). The cellulosome was 106Da and the mature EngF was 57KDa, which doesn’t contain a duplicated sequence at its C-terminal. Both of the cellulosome and EngF were tested separately and in combination for the hydrolytic activities on different substrates (CMC, ASC, and avicel).Results showed the interaction between EngF and the cellulosome sometimes was additives and sometimes was synergistic for the degradation of different forms of cellulosic substrates, depending on the proteins concentration.

 

18/16 SOLUBLE INTERCELLULAR ADHESION MOLECULE-1 IN CHILDHOOD ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA

E.M. Nassar

Health Research Department, National Centre For Radiation Research and Technology

Serum levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), was studied in forty patients (28males & 12 females) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia(ALL). They were diagnosed and treated in the Hematology Oncology unit, Children’s Hospital Ain Shams University. The children’s ages varied from 9 months to 14 years with mean of (6.1+1.4) years. Twenty, age and sex matched healthy children served as controls .Within the patients’ group of ALL the following immunological subgroups were diagnosed: seven null ALL, 19 common ALL (cALL), 5 pre-B ALL and 9 pre-T ALL. Three serum samples were drawn from the patients for detection of s ICAM-1, at time of diagnosis, during remission and after completing treatment. On comparing leukemic patients at diagnosis with healthy controls, a highly significant increase in serum levels of sICAM-1, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and total leukocytic count (TLC) was detected . Also highly significant decrease in both Hb levels and platelets counts was found. There was marked significant reduction in sICAM-1, LDH and TLC in patients at remission and after the end of treatment when compared with patients at diagnosis. All subgroups showed no statistical significant difference when comparing their adhesion molecule levels versus each other at the onset of the disease .A strong linear correlation was observed between sICAM-1 and each of total leukocytes count, LDH. As well as a significant negative correlation with platelets count and Hb   levels. So, the levels of sICAM-1 can be utilized for monitoring disease activity of ALL and its response to treatment.

19/16 INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY OF TWO OYSTER MUSHROOMS BY USING WHEAT AND RICE STRAW MIXED WITH SOME AGRIWASTES

A.A. El-Fallal; M.M. Nour El-Dein and A.E. Khalil,

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, New Damietta.

The cultivation of two oyster mushroomspecies (Pleurotus pulmonarius and Pleurotus columbinus) was investigated using five agriculture wastes (cotton stem, pea pods, sugarcane bagasse, bean pods and wheat bran) as additives to wheat or rice straws (basic the mushrooms substrate bed) at three different concentrations (1, 3 and 5%). These agriculture wastes have been found to increase the yield compared with unamended straw. Pea pods at 1% and 5% concentrations caused 160% and 100% increase in the yield of P. columbinus and P. pulmonarius respectively. In addition the highest increase in the yield of P. pulmonarius (120%) was recorded when cotton stem at 1% concentration was added to rice straw. Biological conversations of 56.5% and 50% were achieved for P. pulmonarius and P. columbinus respectively.

20/16 MORPHOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL VARIATION AMONG THE POPULATIONS OF ZILLA SPINOSA L. FROM EGYPT

A.H. Mohamed and A.A.F. Khafagi

Botany Department, Faculty of Science (for Girls), Al-Azhar University,

Cairo, Egypt.

The present study was undertaken with nine populations of Zilla spinosa L.Prantl, {Brassicaceae} in Egypt. The external morphology of mature fruit and seeds of the plant at different habitats have been investigated using light microscope {L.M.} and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed variations in size, shape and color of seeds and fruits of the different populations. Considerable variations were also observed in seed coat sculpture. Seed protein profiles were obtained by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and showed variation among the investigated populations. Cluster analysis in the present study segregates the studied Z. spinosa specimens according to their ecological relationships into two main ecotypes. The morphological and seed protein data are correlated to each other.

21/16 Integration approach for nutrients removal via combined biological- chemical treatment of wastewater

E. El-Bestawy, H. Hussein*, H. Baghdadi and M.F. El-Saka*

Department of Environmental Studies, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University.

*Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research, Moubark City for Science and Technology,

New Burg El Arab City, Alexandria, Egypt

During the present study, integrated chemical-biological treatment technique was employed for the removal or minimization of phosphorous and nitrogen loads in the primary-treated effluent from the Western Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) of Alexandria General Organization for Sanitary Drainage (AGOSD). Two treatment sequences were applied in this study. The first was combined batch chemical treatment using Alum (Al2(SO4)3) and FeCl3 followed by continuous biological treatment. The second one was combined continuous biological followed by continuous chemical treatmentThe combined treatment system remarkably enhanced the removal efficiency of all the investigated pollutants compared to the use of individual chemical or biological systems. Moreover, biological-chemical treatment sequence achieved higher removal efficiencies compared to the other sequence. Also, Alum proved to have higher removal efficiency for most pollutants when used in a combination with the biological treatment compared to the use of ferric chloride. The biological treatment of Alum-treated effluent enhanced total nitrogen removal and ammonia nitrogen by about 37% and 82%, whereas the biological treatment of the FeCl3-treated effluent enhanced them by 23% and 73%, respectively. Phosphate removal did not significantly affected by the biological treatment since most of it was removed chemically. Using the biological-chemical sequence removedabout 88% of NH3 concentration and 49% of organic nitrogen during biological treatment that further reached 94% and 72% removal efficiency respectively after chemical treatment using Alum or FeCl3 as coagulants.

22/16 THE USE OF NATURAL PRESERVATIVES IN COSMETICS PREPARATION

I – MINIMUM INHIBITORY CONCENTRATIONS OF ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST ISOLATED FUNGI FROM SOME COSMETIC PRODUCTS

M.A. Gadalla and H.M. Hassan*

Dept. of Microbial Biotechnology and * Dept. of Microbial Chemistry,

National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

Four essential oils were tested for their ability to inhibit the growth of six fungal strains isolated from the tested cream samples treated by preservatives obtained from different markets. Thyme oil was a quite effective against all isolated fungi at different concentrations. The fungal growth was completely inhibited at a concentration of 200µg/ml for Rhizopus nigricans, Aspergillus niger and Mucor mucedo and at 100 µg /ml for Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus flavus. Cinnamon oil inhibited the growth of three isolated strains. The inhibitory concentration of the tested oil for A.niger and A.parasiticus was 100 µg/ml, and 200 µg/ml for A. flavus. The inhibitory effect for Geranium oil was at 300 μg/ml for R. nigricans and A. niger but at 200 μg/ml it was active against M. mucedo. At 100 µg/ml Geranium oil was active against A.terreus and A. flavus. In comparison, the E. sativa oil was less effective for all tested strains. Its inhibitory activity was 40, 80, 45, 40, 80 and 60% of its control for R. nigricans, A. niger, A. parasiticus, M. mucedo, A. terreus and A. flavus respectively. The mixed oils at 100 µg/ml gave inhibition for all the fungal growth.

23/16 PURIFICATION AND PROPERTIES OF INVERTASE FROM PORTULACE OLERACEA PLANT

H.M. Abdou

Biochemistry Department, National Research Center, Tahrir st., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

The soluble acid invertase (E.C.3.2.1.26) was studied in Portulace (Portulace oleracea) plant. The acid invertase activities was separated by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation followed by sephadex G-100 and sephadex G-200. The enzyme was purified 53.44 fold with a recovery of 14.3% and specific activity was 158.18 U/mg protein. The electrophoretic behavior of the final preparation showed a single protein band. The acid invertase had an Mr of approximately 62.000, pH maximum of 5 at 50 °C and apparent Km of 0.44% sucrose. The enzyme was stable at pH 5 at 40 °C for 1 h. Sucrose appeared to be the most favoured substrate (4.74 U/ml). Cu2+, Na2+, K1+, Hg2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Mn2+ and Fe2+ strongly inhibited the activity while Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+ and EDTA also displayed a slight inhibitory effect. The highest level of saccharification were achieved after 24 h. Maximum sugar cane bagasse, soybean waste and wheat bran saccharification were 93.69, 57.67 and 55.24 respectively.

 

 

24/16 BIOCHEMICAL DETECTION OF ERGOLINE ALKALOIDS IN RIVEA CORYMBOSA L. (CONVOLVULACEAE) CELL SUSPENSION CULTURES

  1. *

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt

*Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology, Bonn University, Germany

Ergoline alkaloids were not detected by thin layer chromatography (TLC) or capillary electrophoresis (CE) in cell suspension cultures of Rivea corymbosa L. (Convolvulaceae) grown in sterile Revised Tobacco (RT) medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L 2,4-D and 3% sucrose under 10 h photoperiod. Leaf and stem of R. corymbosa plant, however, grown under greenhouse conditions produce ergoline alkaloids. Results of CE showed that no chanoclavine-I, lysergic acid amide (LSA) or ergometrine were detected in leaf or stem cell suspension cultures of R. corymbosa grown in RT medium containing 0.5% sucrose, 1.0% sorbitol and 0.5% fumaric acid (RT-SC) or RT medium supplemented with 100 mg/L L-tryptophan and 1.0 mg/L mevalonic acid (RT-PR). The limit of detection was 2.5 ng for chanoclavine-I, 25 ng for ergometrine and 50 ng for LSA. If chanoclavine-I is present, its concentration might be less than 2.5 ng. The variation in media composition and feeding precursors of ergoline alkaloids influenced the growth ofcell suspension cultures of R. corymbosa, but had no effect on the in vitro production of ergoline alkaloids.

25/16 PHYTOHORMONES AFFECTING PHENOLICS ACCUMULATION AND ORGAN FORMATION IN SOLANUM NIGRUM CALLUS CULTURE

E.A. Ewais

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University,

Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

The effect of various plant growth regulators on phenolics accumulation and organogenesis were studied in callus culture of Solanum nigrum. Callus initiation was induced on Murashge and Skoog (MS) medium with cytokinin (kinetin) and auxin (indole acetic acid) with different explants under light or dark conditions. The effect of different concentrations of auxin, cytokinin and their combinations on callus growth was determined. The optimum value of total phenolics accumulation was obtained from cotyledon callus cultures when cultured on medium supplemented with 2 mg/l IAA and 1 mg/l kinetin. However, removing the growth hormone from the medium increased the productivities of phenolics. Low initial sucrose concentration in the medium restricted growth and resulted in high accumulation of the phenolics. Addition of abscisic acid (ABA) to standard culture medium greatly increased phenolics production but callus viability was not obviously affected. The callus-regenerated shoots when transferred to medium containing 2.0-6.0 mg/l of kinetin and 1.0-2.0 mg/l IAA. Some of these shoots when transferred to basal medium showed development of roots.

26/16 STUDY THE BIOACTIVITY OF BIOCOMPOSITES IN VITRO

H. Beheri, W.I. Abdel - Fattah and R. Pruemmer*

National Research Centre, Ceramics Dept Dokki. Cairo, Egypt

*Karlsrhuhe Univ., Inst Fuer Werkstofkunde, Karlsrhue, Germany

Much research activities are worldwide focused on the improve of the in vivo stability of ceramic biomaterials to yield longer life-times in the human body for a variety of bioengineering devices including hip and dental prostheses. The detailed investigations of HA/TiO2 composites including densification structural characterization and degradation in human serum were performed. It was concluded that the higher the firing temperature the higher activity of the biocomposites at similar microstructural parameters. Pioneering research of Pruemmer and coworkers proved the formation of various levels of induced stresses and activation of alumina powders. The present work deals with the effect of explosive shock waves on the biomineralization of HA/TiO2 composites after immersing in human serum. Two ceramic composites were prepared and detonated along with TiO2 for comparison. The obtained samples were immersed in human serum for 5 sequential periods between 3 and 72 hours at room temperature without agitation. The released calcium, inorganic phosphorus ions and protein in the serum left after withdrawal of solids were spectrophotometry measured using relevant biological kits at each period. The obtained solids after 72 hours were analyzed by IR spectroscopy. The biomineralization was proved for the higher titania content. The formation of denouvo bone was assessed through SEM supplemented by EDXA. The formation of the biolayer was discussed in view of the activity product and Ca/P ratio besides the Ti-OH- species formed on immersion.

27/16 EFFECT OF ABA AND/OR COLD ACCLIMATION ON PROTEIN PROFILE AND DNA FINGERPRINTS OF MICROPROPAGATED BANANA SHOOTS

N.S. Hassan

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig

Protein profile and DNA fingerprints of micropropagated banana shoots subjected to low temperature in the presence or absence of ABA were studied. Samples were either exposed directly to cold hardening (10ºC), subcutured on medium supplemented with 20 or 40µM ABA and directly transferred to 10ºC, or pretreated with the same ABA concentrations one week before being transferred to cold hardening. Pretreatment with 20µM ABA enhanced cold tolerance and resulted in high percentage of recovery (65%). However, a higher level of ABA (40µM) either in the medium of micropropagated shoots directly exposed to treatment or in the pretreatment media, resulted in protein degradation and low percent of recovery (30&23%, respectively). Exposing micropropagated shoots to 10ºC stimulated the synthesis of a newly polypeptide of 47 KD. Three out of four bands present in the control samples were synthesized in the micropropagated shoots treated with 20µM ABA. RAPD analysis revealed high polymorphism with five primers (between 62.5 and 100%). The DNA banding pattern indicated that all treatments studied resulted in marked changes as compared with the control. This could be attributed to the sensitivity of this technique, which monitors any minor changes in the genome.

28/16 Stress responses of two cultivars of tomato to salinity and heat shock, each alone or in combination

M.M. El-Araby and S.S. El-Akkad

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

       Seeds of two cultivars (Castle Rock and Super Strain-B) of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were sown, either in water (control) or in 50 or 100 mM NaCl solutions, at 25ºC for 8 days. Half the seedlings in each case continued under the same conditions for the 9th day, while those of the other half were exposed to a heat shock (40ºC) for 24 hours. Growth parameters of seedlings (8-day-old) indicated that Castle Rock was more salinity tolerant than Super Strain-B. Hormone analyses of seedlings showed a progressive attenuation in the levels of auxin (IAA), gibberellin (GA3) and cytokinin (zeatin), and a continuous elevation of abscisic acid (ABA) with the increase of NaCl concentration. Changes in the total polyamines (PAs) in both cultivars were generally in alliance with those of ABA, with different trends in the interconversions of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine. The magnitude of the above-mentioned changes in phytohormones and PAs was obviously lower in the rather salinity-tolerant cultivar Castle Rock than in Super Strain-B. Dual treatments with salinity and heat shock led to a further decrease of IAA, GA3 and kinetin in both cultivars, than in corresponding treatments with salinity alone. In Castle Rock, ABA and PAs were further enhanced in case of dual treatments, whereby a reverse sequence was observed with Super Strain-B. Comparison of the protein profiles in the control, salinity- or / and heat shock-treated seedlings showed the occurrence of specific bands characteristic only of salinity, heat shock, or sharing in both treatments.

29/16 THE GRAZING –MEDIATED REDUCTION OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIAL STRAINS ISOLATED FROM

ISMAILIA CANAL, EGYPT

R.A. El-Bassat; A.A. El-moghazy*, W.S. El-sayed** and K.A.E. Abou-Ali*

National Institute of Oceanography & Fisheries, El-Kanater Research Station

*Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Al-Azhar University

**Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University

Screening of the contaminated water of Ismailia Canal for the presence of different pathogens was performed during the present study. Predation effect of protists and zooplankton upon isolated pathogens was measured in situ. The main target was to determine the most effective group of zooplankton in controlling pathogen existence in aquatic habitat according to the body size. By using plankton nets with different mesh sizes (2, 20, 200 µ) bacterial consumption by the grazers was measured in three main sets. In the control set all pathogens showed normal growth in absence of the grazers. In the other two sets, Klebseilla sp was controlled perfectly by zooplankton grazers, showing great reduction in its count. E. coli count was not controlled at all with both small and large grazers. On the contrary, it flourished by the end of the experiment (24 hours). Pseudomonas sp was found in the samples with small numbers that were easy to be eliminated completely after few hours. The results indicated that small grazers (<20 µ) were more efficient in reducing pathogens, since presence of the large grazers in the second set was not a supportive factor. In fact, it caused interference between the different grazers by suppressing small grazers. Further study is needed to determine the specific concentrations of grazers required for complete elimination of pathogens to be used on a large scale in several applications.

30/16 ASSIGNMENT OF LDHB PSEUDOGENE TO THE X CHROMOSOME OF THE EGYPTIAN RIVER BUFFALO.

A.A. Hassan

Cell Biology Department, National Research Center Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

The use of comparative anchor tagged sequences (CATS) for gene mapping in the Egyptian river buffalo has been investigated. The primer pair for lactate dehydrogenase B gene (LDHB), selected from the CATS list, reacted successfully with river buffalo DNA. The presence or absence of the PCR amplified product were investigated in a somatic cell hybrid panel, obtained from the fusion of Egyptian river buffalo blood lymphocytes with cells from Chinese hamster cell line wg3h. LDHB segregated concordantly with markers representing bovine synteny groups U3 and U29 which are located on the buffalo biarmed chromosome 4. It also segregated concordantly with markers of the X chromosome. DNA sequencing and Blast search analysis of the amplified PCR product of buffalo DNA were made. The amplified DNA segment was found to align with Bos taurus and Homo sapiens LDHB mRNAs. It also aligned with Homo sapiens LDHB pseudogene DNA which is located on the human X chromosome. The syntenic relationship of LDHB with U3 and U29 confirms its assignment to buffalo chromosome 4. Whereas its synteny with markers of the X chromosome reported in this study suggests that river buffalo has LDHB pseudogene on its X chromosome as is the case in human. It also indicates that genetic conservation of the X chromosome in mammalian species may also include pseudogenes as well as functional genes.


31/16 OPTIMIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF RIFAMYCIN B BY AMYCOLATOPSIS MEDITERRANEI

I. THE ROLE OF COLONY MORPHOLOGY AND NITROGEN SOURCES IN PRODUCTIVITY

O.M. El-Tayeb; A.A. Salama*; M.M.M. Hussein* and H.F. El-Sedawy

Microbial Biotechnology Center and *Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

A systematic approach to process optimization for production of     rifamycin B was applied to a strain of Amycolatopsis mediterranei . Examination of the growth revealed 6 different morphologically distinct colonies on Bennett’s agar medium. Rifamycin B production in shake flasks by the six different colony types ranged between 0.5 and 1.2 g/l. There was a clear correlation between the colony morphology and rifamycin B productivity. The highest yield of rifamycin B (1.03-1.2 g/l) was obtained by using the orange-red colored colonies, rosette shaped, devoid of hollow center and 2-3 mm in diameter. Variability in colony morphology, however, remained and the appropriate colonies had to be picked up for preparing the inoculum of each experiment. Addition of yeast extract to the fermentation medium at different times increased rifamycin B production. The highest antibiotic production was obtained upon the addition of 0.1 % yeast extract after 2 days of incubation, where the yield increased from 1.15 to 1.95 g/l (70 %). The use of 1.8 % KNO3 in the fermentation medium, instead of 0.96 % (NH4)2SO4,   markedly increased rifamycin B production from 1.15 to 2.92 g/l (154%). It was also observed, upon microscopical examination, that KNO3 decreased branching and fragmentation of the mycelia in the fermentation medium.

32/16 OPTIMIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF RIFAMYCIN B BY AMYCOLATOPSIS MEDITERRANEI

II. THE ROLE OF GENE AMPLIFICATION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS IN PRODUCTIVITY IN SHAKE FLASKS

O.M. El-Tayeb; M.M.M. Hussein*; A.A. Salama* and H.F. El-Sedawy

Microbial Biotechnology Center and the *Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Amplification of gene expression of the most productive colony type of Amycolatopsis mediterranei strain N1 under stress of chloramphenicol, resulted in isolation of a variant NCH with productivity of 2.56 g/l compared to 1.15 g/l by the parent strain N1 (2.2-fold increase) . This amplified variant has a further advantage of reduced variation in colony morphology with predominance of the most productive colony type. Using variant NCH, modification of the fermentation medium F1 by the addition of 0.1% yeast extract or the use of 1.8% KNO3 resulted in 3.8 and 5.8-fold increase in productivity, respectively, compared to   strain N1. When the F1 medium was replaced by a new medium F2 containing soytone, instead of the particulate constituents (peanut meal and soybean meal) the yield by variant NCH reached 7.85 g/l (6.8-fold increase). Modification of the F2 medium by addition of glycerol or the replacement of glucose by glucose syrup decreased rifamycin B production. Changing the concentration of soytone increased the yield only slightly while replacing it with peptone or tryptone or the addition of 1 % corn steep liquor failed to increase the yield. On the other hand, the addition of 0.1 % yeast extract or the replacement of 0.6% (NH4)2SO4 by 1.2% KNO3 or 0.4% NH4NO3 to F2 medium led to 8.2, 10.2 and 10.4-fold increase in productivity, respectively, compared to productivity of strain N1 in F1 medium. The change in the concentrations of either MgSO4 or CaCO3, the use of different types of antifoams and the use of higher concentrations of sodium diethyl barbiturate did not significantly influence the yield.Thus, these collective optimization attempts resulted in 10.4-fold increase in productivity, from 1.15 to 11.99 g/l.

33/16 OPTIMIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF RIFAMYCIN B BY AMYCOLATOPSIS MEDITERRANEI

III. PRODUCTION IN FED-BATCH MODE IN SHAKE FLASKS

O.M. El-Tayeb; A.A. Salama*; M.M.M. Hussein* and H.F. El-Sedawy

Microbial Biotechnology Center and *Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Optimization of the fermentation process using the gene amplified variant of Amycolatopsis mediterranei, NCH, in the fermentation medium F2 was carried out by the application of fed-batch regime. The addition of 12% glucose alone after 4 days or simultaneously with 0.1% yeast extract after 2 days led to an increase in the yield of rifamycin B by 46% and 57%, respectively. The application of fed-batch regime together with replacing (NH4)2SO4 with the better yielding inorganic nitrogen sources NH4NO3 or KNO3 (F2m1 and F2m2 media, respectively) increased the production of rifamycin B. Further addition of 3% soytone or 0.05 % NH4NO3, to F2m1 after 3 days increased the yield by 72% and 61%, respectively, compared to productivity in F2 medium. In contrast, further addition of 12% glucose after 4 days or of 0.1% yeast extract after 2 days to F2m2 medium led to an increase in the yield by 119 and 55%, respectively, compared to F2 medium. However, when both 12% glucose and 0.1% yeast extract were added at similar scheduled times only 64% increase in the yield occurred. By applying the three most effective optimization regimes determined using variant NCH with F2m2 on a standard rifamycin B producing strain, Nocardia mediterranei ATCC 21789, a similar pattern of increase in the antibiotic yield was observed. Thus, the use of F2m2 instead of F2 medium either alone or with an additional 12 % glucose added after 4 days increased the yield by 36 and 75%, respectively, whereas the addition of 0.1% yeast extract to F2 medium increased the yield by 15%. In conclusion, the application of fed-batch technique with the optimum modifications of the medium constituents increased rifamycin B production by variant NCH to a maximum of 17.17 g/l compared to a yield of 5.3 g/l by the tested standard strain under the same conditions. The increase in rifamycin B production using the standard strain confirms the usefulness of the tested medium modifications in the improvement of rifamycin B production and its possible application in fermentations using other rifamycin B producer strains and also shows the superiority of variant NCH as a producer, when compared to the standard strain.

 

 


34/16 MORPHOLOGICAL DIVERSITY OF DATE PALM

(PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) IN EGYPT

I-DRY DATE CULTIVARS

R.M. Rizk; S.S.H. El Sharabasy* and A.A. El-Bana*

National Gene Bank (NGB), *The Central Laboratory of Date Palm Research & Development, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

Systematical relationships of twenty one dry date cultivars growing in Egypt were addressed based on one hundred and one morphological characters of trunk, crown, leaves, fruits and seeds. The most important characters are arranged according to their systematic value. This is followed by a key to the dry date palm cultivar in Egypt. Fruit and seed characters are still the most important criteria to distinguish among date palm cultivars. The study concluded that there is a window of opportunity to conserve dry date cultivars. The active cultivation is vital to survival and a cultivar is soon lost for ever if it is not regularly propagated.
Scroll to top