Vol. 24, October, 2006

viagra durée de conservation 1/24 KINETICS OF CELL GROWTH AND CYCLOSPORINE A PRODUCTION BY TOLYPOCLADIUM INFLATUM DURING PROCESS SCALING UP FROM SHAKE FLASK TO BIOREACTOR

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H. El-Enshasy, Y. Abdel-Fattah, A. Atta, M. Anwar*, H. Omar*, E. Abolmagd*

and R. Abou Zahra

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Bioprocess Development Dept., Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Alexandria, Egypt.

* Microbiology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

The kinetics of cell growth and Cyclosporin A (fyc A) production by prix du viagra en baisse Tolypocladium inflatum were studied in shake flasks and bioreactors under controlled and uncontrolled pH conditions. In case of shake flask the production time was extended to 226 h and the maximal antibiotic concentration was 76 mg t1. On transferring the cultivation process to bioreactor level the production time was reduced to only 70 h with significant increase in both cell growth and antibiotic production. The maximal cell dry weight in case of controlled pH and uncontrolled pH cultures in bioreactor were 22.4 g Tl and 14.2 g Tl, respectively. The corresponding maximal cell dry weight value did not exceed 7.25 g Tl when shake flask cultures were applied. On the other hand, the maximal production ofCyc A was 144.72 mg I'1 and 131.4 mg I'1 for controlled and uncontrolled pH cultures, respectively. It is worthy to mention that significant reduction was observed in both cell dry mass and antibiotic concentration after the phase ofCyc A production. Data showed that the highest rates of cell lysis and antibiotic degradation were detected in controlled and uncontrolled pH cultures, respectively. The morphological characterization of micro-morphological growth of cells (mycelial/pellet forms) during cultivation in bioreactor level was also done.

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prix du viagra pfizer en france 2/24 CLONING AND EXPRESSION OF neoQ AND neoB GENES coded for bifunctional 6'- (and 6''')-dehydrogenase and 6'- (and 6''')-aminotransferase involved in the biosynthesis of neomycin in Streptomyces fradiae BUWKH 66278

K.M.A. Aboshanab

Lecturer of Microbiology & Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy

Ain Shams University

       Neomycin represents an example of 2-deoxystreptamine containing aminocyclitol aminoglycoside antibiotics (2DOS-ACAGAs) which are mainly composed of amino sugars and a unique amincyclitol aglycone (2DOS). Previous analysis of the neomycin biosynthetic gene cluster has revealed two genes namely neoQ (1.626 kb) and neoB (1.25 kb) whose gene products were anticipated to encode bifunctional 6’- (and 6’’’)-dehydrogenase and 6’- (and 6’’’)-aminotransferase during neomycin biosynthesis, respectively. Homologous to NeoQ and NeoB proteins were also found to be conserved in the gene clusters of various ACAGAs, such as paromamycin, lividomycin, butirosin, ribostamycin, kanamycin, gentamicin and tobramycin. In order to investigate and prove the biochemistry of regarded gene products, cloning and expression of the two genes were carried out. Accordingly, the two genes were amplified via PCR from chromosomal DNA of Streptomyces fradiae BUWKH 66278 using the appropriate primers. Both PCR products were cloned into cloning pUCPU21 and expression pET16b vectors. Heterologous expressions of both neoQ and neoB under the control of the T7 promoter in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and E. coli JM 109 (DE3) have been undertaken. Both NeoQ (about 58.0 kDa) and NeoB (44.6 kDa) proteins were obtained in soluble His-tagged form as determined by SDS-PAGE and Western blot assay.

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prix du priligy 3/24 GERMINATION, SEEDLING GROWTH OF NEEM AND GROWTH RESPONSE OF FABA BEAN AND WHEAT TO IRRIGATION WITH NEEM EXTRACT

S.A. Sheteawi and W.A. Mehrath

Botany Dept. Women's College, Ain Shams Univ., Cairo, Egypt.

The present work deals with a study of factors affecting seed germination and seedling growth of neem, drupe maturation stages and storability as well as manuring with neem. Effects of presowing application of several chemicals were investigated. The highest germination percentage was recorded for soaking seeds 24 h in 1 % or 2 % KH2PO4 and 1 % diammonium phosphate. Growth and yield of faba bean ( ou trouver du viagra a paris Vicia faba c.v Giza 643) and wheat ( tout savoir sur le levitra Triticum aestivum c.v Sakha 69) affected by irrigation or seed soaking with aqueous neem leaves extract exhibited higher records than control. Root rot disease on broad bean and wheat caused by Botrytis alli and Fusarium graminearum, respectively, was also investigated. Aqueous neem leaves extract was capable of controlling the root rot of the infected plants.

 

 

4/24 RESPONSES OF KIDNEY BEAN (PHASEOLAS VULGARIS L.) PLANTS TO THE INTERACTION BETWEEN HEAVY METALS AND GAMMA IRRADIATION

M.S. Beltagi and M.A. Ismail

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

       The current investigation was conducted to verify the possible uses of gamma irradiation in inducing resistance to heavy metal stress in kidney bean (Phaseolas vulgaris L.)plants. Dry seeds were subjected to 2 Krad (low dose) and 32 Krad (high dose) of gamma irradiation from a 60Co source. The subgroups (three replicates) of the six-week-old plants (controlled and 2 Krad-treated) were subjected to heavy metal treatments (4 successive weekly doses of 50 ppm) of each of NiSO4, CoSO4.7H2O, CuSO4.5H2O, and Pb(NO3)2. Statistical analysis (P = 0.05) revealed significant inhibition of the stem length by all heavy metal treatments, while the root length was inhibited by Co, Ni and Pb but not with Cu. The root fresh weight was inhibited by Co and Ni only. The pod fresh weight was significantly reduced by Co, Cu and Pb but not with Ni. Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents were lowered by all heavy metal treatments with more severe effect under Cu stress. The high dose (32 Krad) of gamma rays led to incomplete inhibition of of the seedling with a 100% lethality. However, the low dose (2 Krad) induced noticeable increases in the growth parameters of the control plants, but relative enhancements in those of the heavy metal-treated plants. The total number of protein bands was severely inhibited by Pb, but increased slightly by both Ni and Cu. Exposure to gamma irradiation resulted in stability in the total number of protein bands in both untreated and heavy metal-treated plants. Accordingly, nonlethal doses of gamma irradiation could be effective in inducing heavy metal resistance in kidney bean plants.

 

 

5/24 PRODUCTION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUND BY STREPTOMCES AURANTIACUS

G.M. El-Sherbiny and B.M. Refaat

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty Science, Al-Azhar University,

Madient Nasr, 11884 Cairo, Egypt.

A Streptomyces isolate having an antagonistic activity against pathogenic microorganisms was isolated from a soil of a north western mediterrarian coast of Egypt 2003. This Streptomyces isolate was identified as a Streptomyces aurantiacus AZGM-6 species as a result of the characterized activity on different International Streptomyces Project media and onother morphological, physiological biochemical characteristics of the isolatecould be detected. From the taxonomic features of the isolate it was found thatits characters is likely matches with Streptomyces aurantiacus so it was given thegeneric name Streptomyces aurantiacus AZGM-6. It was found that the bioactive compound, was produced by the soil isolate Streptomyces aurantiacus AZGM6. Once this active compound was recovered by ethyl acetate from the fermented broth, being possible to isolate 14.6 mg/l, subsequently it was purified by paper, silica gel column and thin layer chromatography. Structure was characterized by analysing UV, IR and GC–MS spectra. During analysis, such active compound showed strong activity against (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) bacteria, as well as unicellular fungi but low active against filamentous fungi.

 

 

6/24 ASSESSMENT OF PARACETAMOL ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICITY TO PLANKTON COMMUNITY IN GENERAL AND CHLORELLA ELLIPSOIDEA & OSCILLATORIA SP IN PARTICULAR.

A. El-Shimy; R. El-Bassat*; H. Touliabah and G. Harisa**

Botany Department, Girls College, Ain Shams University.

* Qanater Research Station, National Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography.

** Biochemistry Department, Pharmacy College, El-Azhar University.

Paracetamol is one of the pharmaceutical products that are extensively and increasingly being used in human and veterinary medicine. They are also considered as emerging environmental contaminants. The present experiment was carried out for 96 hours to assess the possible effect of different doses of paracetamol on both phytoplankton and zooplankton community, as well as on two isolated algae Chlorella ellipsoidea and Oscillatoria sp. The effect of the drug on some of the plankton biochemical activities such as arylesterase activity, lipid peroxidation and total thiol concentrations was also studied. After 48h, 50% reduction in zooplankton abundance was recorded at the low concentrations. The 50 % reduction of the protozoans was recorded at 2mg/l after 48 hours of exposure, while the 50 % reduction of rotifers was observed at 8 mg/l after 48 hours of exposure. The total phytoplankton community during the experiment was reduced by almost 50 % at the concentration of 4mg of paracetamol/l after only 24 h of exposure, while a 100% reduction was recorded at the highest concentration after 96 h of exposure. In conclusion, paracetamol as one of the commonly used anti-inflammatory has been found to have a drastic effect on the plankton organisms especially at long time exposure. In order to protect our fauna and flora, Pharmaceuticals in general should be monitored and studied in our water body.

 

7/24 Enzymatic treatment for the production of clear banana juice from Paradica starchy variety

(Musa Paradisica)

A.M. Sulieman; M.M. Abd El-Hady* and H. Siliha

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Egypt

*Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.  

Our objective was to develop a simple method for preparing clear banana juice from Paradica starchy variety. The prepared banana purees by cold and hot methods were treated with commercial pectinase 0.2% or 0.2% pectinase + 0.1% cellulase or mixture of 0.2% pectinase, 0.1% cellulase and 0.1% acidic α-amylase. Pectinase caused reduction in the viscosity of banana puree whereas the effect of cellulase was limited. Addition of α-amylase to pectinase and cellulase increased the rate viscosity reduction of banana puree. Treating banana puree prepared by hot method with mixture of pectinase, cellulase and α-amylase gave clear juice with high yield. Banana juice obtained by cold method had the higher total soluble solids and titratable acidity as citric acid. In conclusion, the maximum juice yield (84.9%) was obtained when banana pure was prepared by hot method and diluted by water at (1:1 w/w) ratio followed by   treatment with enzyme mixture containing 0.2% pectinase, 0.1% cellulase and 0.1% acidic α-amylase for 2 hours at 50 oC.

 

 

8/24 APPLICATION OF FACTORIAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS FOR OPTIMIZATION OF CYCLOSPORIN A PRODUCTION BY TOLYPOCLADIUM INFLATUM IN SUBMERGED CULTURE

Y.R. Abdel-Fattah; H. El Enshasy; M. Anwar*; H. Omar*, E. Abolmagd*

and R. Abou Zahra

Bioprocess Development Dept., Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Alexandria, Egypt.

*Microbiology Dept., Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

       Sequential optimization strategy, based on statistical experimental designs, was employed to enhance the production of Cyclosporin A (CyA) by Tolypocladium inflatum DSMZ 915 in submerged culture. For screening of bioprocess parameters significantly influencing CyA production, the 2-level Plackett-Burman design was used. Among eleven variables tested; sucrose, ammonium sulfate and soluble starch were selected based on their high positive significant effect on CyA production. Response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted to acquire the best process conditions. In this respect, the 3-level Box-Behnken design was employed. A polynomial model has been created to correlate the relationship between the three variables and CyA yield. The optimal combination of the major constituents of media for cyclosporin A production evaluated from the non-linear optimization algorithm of EXCEL-Solver was as follows (g/l): sucrose, 20; starch, 20; and ammonium sulfate, 10. The predicted optimum CyA yield was 113 mg/l, which is two folds as obtained in the basal medium. On experimental verification of the predicted model a cyclosporin A yield of 110 mg/l was obtained which is 97% of the theoretically calculated yield.
 

9/24 MOBILIZATION OF PHENOLIC ANTIOXIDANTS FROM ORANGE PEELS FERMENTED WITH TRICHODERMA VIRIDE

M.A. Khalaf

Radiation Microbiology Dept. National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Madinet Nasr, Cairo, Egypt.

Orange peels are a primary by-product of the traditional orange juice processing industry and its disposal presents economic and environmental problems. Microbial conversion of orange peels into various value-added products is a practical approach for solving such disposal problems. The present study was undertaken to test the growth of Trichoderma viride (local isolate) on orange peels substrate through solid-state fermentation (SSF) for production of value-added phenolic ingredients. Glucosamine content of the heterogeneous fermented mixture was a good indicator of fungal growth. Maximum growth of the fungus (6.24 mg/g dry wt) was established on orange peels at moisture content level 70% after 10 days of incubation. The results demonstrate that while total soluble phenolic content increased to 7.4 mg/g dry wt in the extract after 8 days, increased a-amylase activity (55 units/g dry wt) and antioxidant activity (72%) were limited to the early fermentation period (6 days). The a-amylase activity and phenolic antioxidant contents suggest the possible involvement of degradation activities and phenolic detoxification activities by T. viride in phenolic antioxidant mobilization from fermented orange peels. Also, water extract of fermented peels could significantly improved the oxidative stability of lipids in fish meat system. So, on the base of these results this extract may be used as a functional component in the food processing industry.
 
10/24 CHARACTERIZATION AND PURIFICATION OF TWO b–GLUCOSIDASES AND GLUCOAMYLASE FROM CANDIDA MOLICHIANA.

A.A. Hassan

Microbiological Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

 
The yeast Candida molichiana was found to excrete two b-glucosidase and one glucoamylase. The enzymes were purified to apparent homogeneity by gel filtration chromatography. The molecular mass was estimated to be 95,290 and 180 kDa, respectively. The pH optimum is 5.5 and the enzymes are fairly stable in the pH range from 3.5 to 7.5. The temperature optimum is 40 and 50˚C for b-glucosidase I and II, respectively, and 60˚C for glucoamylase. The b–glucosidases are effectively active on cellobiose with km values of 14.3 and 5.0 mM, respectively, whereas glucoamylase is active on starch (Km: 0.32 mM) than maltose (Km 4.6 mM). The b-glucosidases and glucoamylase enzymes are currently being investigated to improve the biotechnological and industrial process and further studies are required to enhance the productivity of enzymes by yeasts under optimising conditions.


11/24 CADMIUM AND COPPER INDUCE CHANGES IN ANTIOXIDATIVE SYSTEM AND PROTEIN PATTERNS IN ZEA MAYS PLANT

A.A.H. Saleh

Botany department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of Cd and Cu on some metabolic products, antioxidative system and uptake and accumulation of Cd and Cu in Zea mays plant tissues. Grains were cultivated in plastic pots half-filled with sand-loam soil and irrigated with nutrient solution based on one-fifth Long Ashton solutionfor twenty days. For another two weeks, the plants were irrigated with nutrient solution containing 0.0, 25, 50 and 100 µM Cd or Cu and then harvested. The results indicated that increasing Cd and Cu concentrations significantly increased their uptake and accumulation in both shoots and roots. But the accumulation of them was higher in root than shoot system in Zea mays plant. Increasing Cd and Cu supply significantly decreased chlorophyll a, b as well as total carbohydrate content. Cadmium and copper treatments induced quantitative and qualitative changes in the protein PAGE profile of Zea mays plants. Cd and Cu stimulated the synthesis of Polypeptides of varying molecular weights. In general, the number of protein bands in plants treated with Cu was higher than these treated with Cd. Proline content, SOD, ASPX activity and LP level were significantly increased while glutathione was decreased with increasing Cd and Cu concentration. It could be concluded that, Zea mays plant have the ability to uptake and accumulate Cd and Cu in its tissues to toxic level. Also, Cd and Cu-induced increase inthe levels of antioxidative system and proline content which play an important role in ameliorating heavy metals stress.

12/24 EFFECT OF SOME TECHNOLOGICAL TREATMENTS ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND VOLATILE FLAVOR COMPOUNDS OF MANDARIN JUICE.

A.M. Sulieman

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Egypt.

Citrus juices concentrate are one of the most important citrus products, which are widely appreciated in the world market. Thermal evaporation of citrus juices is the most widely employed method of producing concentrated citrus juices. Some physicochemical properties of fresh and heated mandarin juice determined. Fresh mandarin juice, it's serum and suspended pulp particles, juice concentrate 65 oBrix from fresh and heated juice and reconstituted juice11 oBrix from both concentrate were analyzed for volatile flavor compounds by headspace technique using GC-FID. Heating treatment slightly affected physicochemical properties of mandarin juice. Twenty seven components were isolated, including seven compound were identified at concentration more than 0.1 ppm, twelve compounds were identified at concentration less than 0.1 ppm and eight compounds did not identify and regarded as unknown. Limonene, α-pinene, linalool and α-terpineol were the main volatile compounds of fresh mandarin juice. Distribution of volatile flavor compounds between suspended pulp particle and serum showed that, α-pinene, limonene, citronellal and linalool are contained mainly in the suspended pulp particles, while acetaldehyde, ethanol and ethylbutanoate were present mainly in the serum. The results clearly demonstrated that compounds which contribute positively to fresh flavor diminished with heating and concentration treatments and those that correlate negatively with flavor increased with heating. Fresh mandarin juice contained high concentration of volatile flavor compounds than reconstituted juices from both concentrate. Therefore, measurement of stability of limonene and linalool and formation of α- terpineol will help the juice producers in analyzing the quality of their products.

 

13/24 ENHANCED ANTIOXYGENIC ENZYMES UNDER SALT STRESS AND THE MECHANISM OF SALT TOLERANCE IN MAIZE CULTIVAR Sc11

A.A. Tammam and W.A. Surour*

Botany Department Faculty of Science, Alexandria University

*Botany Department Faculty of Science, Aswan University

       Zea mays cv Sc 11 tolerate NaCl salinity up to the level of 150 mM NaCl, consequently the growth criteria (the fresh and dry matter yield of the stem, root, leaves, leaf area and photosynthetic pigments) remained mostly unchanged, the inhibitory effect of salinity was observed only at the level of 200 mM NaCl. The tolerance of maize cv Sc11 was accompanied with the equilibrium in the conversion between carbohydrates and nitrogen metabolism. The activity of antioxygenic enzymes varied, since catalase, superoxide dismutase increased significantly by about 2-fold at 200 mM NaCl and glutathione reductase increased significantly by more than 5-fold at the same salinization level. The activity of peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase were slightly affected by salt stress. Thus catalase, SOD and GR play the major role as a free radical scavenger, consequently the malondialdehyde (MDA) content remained mostly around the control values even at severe salinity. The cv Sc11 accumulated in general sufficient amount of K+ Ca++ and Mg++ to maintain osmoregulation and water flow.

14/24 EFFECT OF SOME SEAWEED EXTRACTS ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT (TRITICUM VULGARE L.)

A.A. El-Bakry, R.A. Salah El Din*, S.M. Ghazi and O.M. Abdel Hamid

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University.

*Botany and Microbiology Department. Faculty of Science, Al Azhar University (Girl Branch).

The effect of seaweed extract as a liquid fertilizer prepared from Sargassum latifolium, Halimeda opuntia obtained from the Red Sea Coast and Caulerpa prolifera was obtained from the Mediterranean Sea Coast, on growth, yield and biochemical constituents of wheat was studied. The three algal species used as liquid fertilizer by extraction with 80% methanol and hot water which used as foliar spray in field experiment. Results indicate that the foliage uses of seaweeds enhance all growth criteria in wheat (root and shoot fresh weight, root and shoot dry weight, root and shoot length and pigment content) and yield parameters (number of tillers, length of spike, number of spikes/plant, grain yield, straw yield and weight of 1000 grains). Biochemical constituents studied (total carbohydrates, total protein and also the percentage of N, P and K) in wheat grains showed an increase by seaweed application.


15/24 EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF SEAWEEDS AS DIETARY INGREDIENTS IN JAPANESE QUAIL DIETS

E.A. El-Khamsawy, N.N. El-Hefnawy*, M.A. El-Mohandes**

and Kh.M. El-Zaabalawy**

Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University.

*Department of Environmental Sustainable Development, Environmental Studies & Research Institute, Minofiya University.

**Department of Environment and Bio-Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of two treated seaweeds, Ulva and Gelidium, as a dietary ingredients and digestibility by Japanese quail. Seven experimental diets were formulated to substitute 50% of the basal diet with (1) Untreated Ulva, (2) Ulva treated with acetic acid and NaOH, (3) Ulva treated with enzymatic solution, (4) untreated Gelidium, (5) Gelidium treated with acetic acid and NaOH and (6) Gelidium treated with enzymatic solution. Control diet, without inclusion of any seaweed, was considered. Acetic acid and NaOH decreased crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fiber (CF) and total organic matter (TOM), while nitrogen-free extract (NFE) and digestible organic matter (DOM) were increased. Relative change (RC) in CP (RCCP), ether extract (RCEE) and crude fiber (RCCF) of Ulva treated with acetic acid were significantly higher compared to Gelidiuim, however, NaOH treatment significantly increased values of all components, except RCCF, in Gelidium than in Ulva. CP, EE, CF, DOM and TOM in Ulva were decreased with increasing Ca(OH)2 levels but NFE was increased, whereas in Gelidiuim all components were decreased. Also, Ca(OH)2 treatment significantly increased RCCP and RCCF in Ulva compared to Gelidium while significant higher values of RCEE, RCNFE, RCDOM and RCTOM were detected in Gelidiuim. Dual treatment with acetic acid and NaOH decreased all components in seaweeds except RCNFE and RCCF as they increased. Enzymatic treatment significantly increased RCCP and RCCF in Ulva whereas RCEE, RCNFE, RCDOM and RCTOM were detected to be significantly higher in Gelidiuim. There were significant differences among treatments in digestion coefficient of all nutrients. Compared with control, untreated Ulva and Gelidiuim recorded significantly low digestibility of CP, EE and NFE, while untreated Gelidium recorded significantly high digestibility of the same nutrient than untreated Ulva. Also, untreated seaweeds recorded significantly lower DE compared to control and that DE of Ulva significantly improved by enzymatic treatment compared with chemical treatment. Slight improvement in digestible energy (DE) of Gelidium was observed due to chemical treatment compared with the enzymatic treatment.
 
 
16/24 CONTROL OF MICROCYSTIS AERUGINOSA USING
TANNIC ACID
A. Dawah, S. Meslhy* and G. El-Naggar*

Central Lab. For Aquaculture Research Abbassa, Agricultural Research Center Egypt

*WorldFish Center Abbassa, Sharkia, Egypt

The use of pesticides or algaecides to control blooms of cyanobacteria can cause massive die-off of phytoplankton populations, resulting in more severe problems. This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of tannic acid for controlling the growth of the cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) via indoor study, together with evaluating its safety to fish health and survival. The experiment was carried out in triplicates and extended for 10 days where 120 Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were equally stocked in 12 aquaria. First 3 aquaria of each replicate were filled with field surface water containing definite aliquots of cyanobacteria, and a known counted species of phytoplankton, chlorophyll “a”, “b”, “c” and c-phycocyanin. The tannic acid was thoroughly and homogeneously sprayed on the surface at three doses of 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4ppm for 1st, 2nd and 3rd aquaria; respectively. 4th aquaria served as a control. The count of M. aeruginosa was decreased by increasing the rate of tannic acid up to 1.2ppm, where the growth of M. aeruginosa was inhibited 96% at day 5 and day 10 after application. There was no observable growth at 2.4ppm. Also, the tannic acid inhibited the chlorophyll “a” content by increasing the dose. After 5 days of treatments, C-phycocyanin (CPC) was inhibited gradually to 61.32%, 99.61% and 100% by using 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4ppm, respectively. Moreover, the using of tannic acid at dose 1.2ppm inhibited CPC completely after 10 days of application. On the other hand, Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta showed a pronounced growth elevation (-20% and -5.88%, respectively) in cultures treated with 0.6ppm during the first 5th days of exposure. The maximum growth of Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta were recorded in cultures treated with 1.2ppm at the 5th days (-20% and -11.76%, respectively) in comparison with the control. Curiously enough, the tannic acid addition after 10 days inhibited the growth of Euglenophyta by (42.5%) at 0.6 and 1.2ppm and (57.5%) at 2.4ppm. The hematological parameters revealed a significant decrease in the erythrocytes and hemoglobin values in all groups in comparison to the negative control group. So, it is concluded that, treatment of M. aeruginosa (Cyanobacteria) with 1.2ppm tannic acid as a natural plant product resulted in a severe decline in their number that could be attributed to the inhibition of photosynstic pigments.

 

17/24 BIOREMOVAL EVALUATION OF METRIBUZIN HERBICIDE BY FUNGI SPECIES AND THE EFFECT OF ITS METABOLITIES ON GROWTH OF MILLET AS POTENTIAL BIOINDICATOR

M. El-Bamby; F.A.F. Ali*; N.N. El-Hefnawy**and M.A. El-Mohandes

Department of Environment and Bio-Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University

*Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University

**Department of Environmental Sustainable Development, Environmental Studies & Research Institute, Minofiya University

Three fungal strains were isolated during the period 2002-2004 from herbicides contaminated soil and used to degrade metribuzin [4-amino-6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3-(methylthio)- 1,2,4-triazin-5(4H)-one], a broad–use triazinone herbicide. Also, metribuzin residues and metabolities produced as a result of biodegradation were identified. The most frequent species, identified as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Trichoderma viride, were not sensitive to the herbicide. The three species isolated were assayed for their ability to remove metribuzin from liquid medium. A. niger was the most active species as 95% of the herbicide was depleted. Rapid removal of metribuzin was demonstrated as appearance and subsequent degradation of metribuzin oxidation products, deaminated metribuzin (DA), dikito metribuzin (DK) and deaminated diketo metribuzin (DADK) were observed. A. niger significantly improved millet growth where maximum growth characteristics was achieved when metribuzin was applied at concentration of 100 ppm. A. niger not only reduced phytotoxicity of metribuzin but also its biodegradation products were consumed as nutrients by the plant.      

 

18/24 IDENTIFICATION AND IMPACT OF MIDGUT BACTERIA ON ELECTROPHORETIC PROTEINS OF SYMBIOTIC AND APOSYMBIOTIC MOSQUITO, CULEX PIPIENS

H.M. Mahdy, M.I. Hassan*, A.A. Abbas** and W.A. Moawad**

Botany & Microbiology Department, Zoology Department*, Faculty of Science (Boys* & Girls**), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

The present study was carried out to investigate the bacteria associated with the midgut of the mosquito, Culex pipiens and their effects on some physiological parameters. It was found that bacterial count varied according to stage of the mosquitoes (larvae, pupae and adults), feeding (sugar or blood) and wild-caught or laboratory reared. Gram-negative cultured on nutrient agar medium recorded the highest count in lab. reared pupae (7.7x105 CFU/ml), Gram-positive recorded the highest count in lab. reared females fed blood meal (8.5x105 CFU/ml) on nutrient blood medium. Seventeen bacterial species belonging to fourteen genera were identified. They were: Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Stomatococcus mucilaginosus, Listeria denitrificans, Escherichia coli, Serratia liquefaciens, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Neisseria mucosa, N. elongata, Edwardsiella terrigena, Salmonella enteridis, Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter diversus and Shigella dysenteriae. The results obtained from the present work showed that the numbers of protein bands separated in mosquitoes treated with the K.terrigena or N.mucosa or S.pneumoniae were higher than that of symbiotic and aposymbiotic ones fed sugar meal.

 

19/24 GENETIC DIVERSITY OF ACHENE POLYMORPHISM IN EGYPTIAN CALENDULA OFFICINALIS L.

A.A. Abdel Wahed,M.I. Soliman, R.M.H. Rizk*and R.M.A. Rizk

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University and *National Gene Bank, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Egypt.

Achene morphs of Calendula officinalis were investigated in order to gain insight into its genetic variation based on evidence obtained from morphological data, karyotype analysis, electrophoretic pattern of seed proteins as well as nucleic acid analysis. Seven seed morphs were observed from every inflorescence as follows: curve, winged, insect leg, balloon rough, balloon smooth, worm and opened worm. All seed morphs were diploid, with thirty-two chromosomes observed in somatic cells. Karyotype studies showed that the seed forms have different karyotype formulae. However, the chromosome type nearly submetacentric (-) and nearly metacentric are representing in all Karyotype formulae of all seed forms.Where as Nearly submetacentric (+) was represented in all forms except in both insect leg and balloon smooth forms and nearly subtelocentric (-) was represented only in the insect leg form. Not only the dissimilarity was found in the morphology of chromosomes but also in the mean chromosome length (MCL) and diploid chromosome length (DCL).The types and proportions of abnormalities observed at mitotic division were analysed. The electrophoretic analysis revealed the presence of eleven bands of molecular weight ranging from 70.50 to 15.00 KD. Four bands were common to all seed types: 35.00, 31.50, 21.00 and 20.00 KD.However, some bands were more restricted to particular seed types thus, band 70.50 KD was present only in winged and insect leg whereas 15.00 KD only found in open worm and worm. The nuclear DNA content was ranged from 0.007 mg/g to 0.013 mg/g, while RNA content from 2.257 mg/g to 17.662 mg/g. A compiling of all data recorded, cluster analysis was conducted to generate a dendrogram to show possible relationships among seven seed morphs of C. officinalis.

20/24 FRESHWATER ALGAE CONTROL USING BARLEY STRAW

A.A. El-Shimy

Botany Department, Faculty of Women’s, Ain Shams University

Bioassays were conducted on a range of algae to evaluate their relative sensitivities to decomposing barley straw -derived inhibitor(s). A range of sensitivities was found, including some species that were resistant to the straw-derived inhibitor(s). Microcystis aeruginosa was very sensitive to decomposing barley straw. The growth of Scendesmus obliquus, Oscillatoria sp., Nostoc muscorum and Chlorella vulgaris was stimulate in most treatments by barely straw.

 

21/24 ALLEVIATION OF THE DELETERIOUS EFFECTS OF NaCl ON SOYBEAN CV. GIZA 22 BY JASMONIC ACID AND ASCOBIN

K.M. Tawfik

Botany Department, Women’s College, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

The effect of Jasmonic acid (JA) and Ascobin on growth, yield and metabolic products of soybean, Glycine max L. cv. Giza22and irrigated with water, 50mM NaCl (= 4 dS m-1) and 100mM NaCl (= 8 dS m-1) is investigated. Growth parameters, yield and metabolic products parameters were adversely affected by 100mM NaCl. Treatment of plants with the phytohormone JA or the antioxidant Ascobin showed beneficial effects as they alleviated the harmful action of NaCl. The present results showed that the highest yield/plant 170% of control (irrigated with water) was obtained with Ascobin spray. Plants pretreated by JA and irrigated with 50mM NaCl yielded 160% as compared JA untreated plants and 145% as compared to water irrigated plants. Plants irrigated with 50mM NaCl and sprayed with Ascobin yielded 144% and 130% as compared to nonsprayed plants or water irrigated plants, respectively. Plants sprayed with JA and irrigated with 50mM NaCl gave 125% of total carbohydrates as compared to nonsprayed plants. Salinized plants (50mM NaCl) and sprayed with Ascobin gave 111% of total carbohydrates as compared to nonsprayed plants. Plants sprayed with Ascobin and irrigated with 50mM NaCl gave 107% of lipids as compared to nonsprayed plants. Salinized plants (50mM NaCl) and sprayed with JA gave 120% of crude protein as compared to nonsprayed plants. Salinized plants (50mM NaCl) and sprayed with Ascobin gave 109% of crude protein as compared to nonsprayed plants.
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