Vol. 26, June, 2007

prix du levitra 5mg 1/26 BIODandle (4)BBBhhEGRADATION OF CYCLOHEXANE, N-HEPTANE AND TOLUENE COMPOUNDS BY CONSORTIUM OF SOME BACTERIAL STRAINS

R.A. Bayoumi

Botany and Microbiology Dept. Faulty of Science Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt Dept. oluene , Cyclohexane and Heptane by bacterial consortium

The main object of the present study was is the biodegradation of three pollutant chemical families present occurred in crude petroleum oil, thus the following compounds were selected cyclohexane representing saturated monoaromatic compounds family, n-heptane represent long chain alkanes compounds family and toluene represent unsaturated monoaromatic with methyl group side chain compounds family. Soil, water and activated sludge from Cairo oil refining Co. (CORC) industrial wastewater treatment plant samples were collected for isolation, and purification of crude oil biodegrading bacteria. Twenty one petroleum crude oil utilizing bacterial isolates were selected from total thirty nine samples ly. Soil that exhibited good growth on crude petroleum oil, cyclohexane, n-heptane, toluene, phenanthrene, anthracene and trichloroethylene(TCE) while other isolates showing faint or poor growth not investigated. The twenty one isolates were identified and could be given the tentative names as prix du viagra generique en pharmacie Pseudomonas aerigenosa-ABIC1; veritable viagra en ligne Pseudomonas mendocina-ABIC2, cialis et viagra ensemble Pseudomonas maltophila-ABIC3, ou acheter du cialis en france Pseudomonas viridiflava-ABIC4; viagra le iene Pseudomonas chichorii-SBbM21, cialis a 20 ans Pseudomonas putida Biovar A-SBbM22; cialis et problème cardiaque Pseudomonas mendocina-SBbM3; avis priligy 30 Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes-SBbM4; esiste un viagra per le donne Pseudomonas putida Biovar B–DAF1T1, Pseudomonas chichorii-DAF2T2, Pseudomonas putida Biovar A–DAF3T3, Pseudomonas alcaligenes-DAF4T41, Pseudomonas putida Biovar A–DAF5T42, Pseudomonas viridiflava-3, Pseudomonas maltophila-3b, Alcaligenes faecalis-8, Pseudomonas aureofacines-17b, Burkholderia cepacia-DAF, Pseudomonas alcaligenes –SB2 and Bacillus pumilus-9B2T. Application of the three most potent bacterial strains viz. Burkholderia cepacia-DAF, Pseudomonas alcaligenes-SB2 and Bacillus pumilus-9B2T as singly or as consortia was reduced the concentration of cyclohexane, n-heptane and toluene. Application of Pseudomonas alcaligenes-SB2 only was mineralized of   cyclohexane, n-heptane and toluene after four days at 30ºC. Application of Burkholderia cepacia-DAF, Pseudomonas alcaligenes-SB2 and Bacillus pumilus-9B2T as consortium mineralized the three families after four days at 30ºC. Application of Pseudomonas alcaligenes–SB2 alone or with Burkholderia cepacia-DAF and Bacillus pumilus-9B2T as consortium was mineralized of three families in crude petroleum oil after 4 days when polluted any Egyptian environmental conditions.  

 

 

2/26 ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS AND CYLINDROCARPON CANDIDUM FUNGI INDUCED APOPTOSIS IN HepG 2 CELL LINE THROUGH ACTIVATION OF CASPASES ENZYMES

M.E. Osman*, L.A.R. Sallam**, W.A. Ahmed***, O.H. Khttab*, A.A. Abo EL-Nasser*

* Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of science, Helwan University.

**National Research Center, Department of Microbiology and Natural Products Chemistry Egypt.

***Department of Cancer Biology, Cancer Institute, Cairo University.

Many investigations are now interested to discover naturally occurring compounds, which can be used for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Most natural products which may be used as adjuvant therapy or to reduce the side effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. More than 300 products obtained from microorganisms have antitumor activities. In the study we isolated N-(3-4-Dichlorophenyl) 2-Methyl, 2,3Dihydroxypropio amidefrom Aspergillus fumigatus and2.4.6. Triphenyl pyridine from Cylindrocarpon candidum andinvestigate the cytotoxic effect and apoptotic effect on HepG2 cell line. The results revealed high cytotoxic effect at the concentration of 400µg/ml for both N-(3-4-Dichlorophenyl) 2-Methyl, 2,3Dihydroxypropio amide and 2.4.6. Triphenyl pyridine and effect is increase with time of incubation. The apoptotic effect of both products were investigated by measurement the caspase enzymes, the results showed highest activity of caspase 3 and caspase 9, also at concentration 400µg/ml in both products. From this data we observe that two isolated product have antitumor effect and this effect is related to the concentration of the products and incubation period. Also, the two products induce apoptosis through increase activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9 which lead to programmed of cell death. This study need to furthermore study on experimental animal to confirm our results.    

 

3/26 HYDROPHILIC AMINO ACIDS RICH- PROTEIN, PROLINE AND LOW MOLECULAR MASS PROTEINS AS OSMOPROTECTANTS FOR SOME EGYPTIAN XEROPHYTES GROWN UNDER VARIOUS HABITAT CONDITIONS

* Z.A. Khidr; * S.M. Ismaeil and ** A.H. Abd El- Kawy.

* Botany Dept, Fac. Science, (Girls Branch) Al – Azhar Univ., Cairo, Egypt

** Desert Research Center, Mataria, Cairo, Egypt.

In the present work, some of the adaptive responses against dehydrative factors were evaluated for the dominant species inhabiting four different habitats along Wadi El-Natrun El-Alamein Desert Road. The greatest concentration of protein was recorded during spring in most studied species. Thymelaea hirsuta and Traganum nudatum (site 2) possessed considerable protein concentration in summer. The maximum concentrations of free amino acids were noticed in A.articulata (site1) and T.hirsuta during winter, while in A.articulata (site3) and Z.album, free amino acids reached their highest level during summer and autumn, respectively. Free proline was the dominant amino acid in A. articulata and Z. album in dry seasons. Protein of all the studied species was characterized by the presence of high concentration of hydrophilic amino acids, especially Z. album. It is of interest to mention that all the studied species possessed specific bands with molecular masses of 25 and 40 kD either in summer, autumn or in both seasons, these bands may be considered aquaporin and dehydrins, respectively which may reflect the behavior of such species under drought stress. Zygophyllum album attained the greatest number of low molecular mass proteins, while Thymelaea hirsuta contained no low molecular mass proteins in autumn. On the other hand, Anabasis articulata possessed more high molecular mass proteins. The results revealed that the studied species have different mechanisms to adapt and tolerate the various environmental conditions.

 


4/26 STUDIES ON THE ALGAL FLORA OF RECENTLY FORMED LAKES IN ABOU ZA'ABAL AREA

G.A. Ismail

Botany Department, Faculty of Girls, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

The present study was carried out in the recently formed Abou Za'abal lakes. These lakes are situated in El Qalyobiyah governorate between latitudes 30° 16` 25``- 30° 17` 35`` N and longitudes 31° 20` 45``-31° 21`50`` E. Water Samples from the four lakes were collected in February 2006, analyzed for some physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, EC depth and transparency), nutrients (NH3, NO3, PO4 and SiO2), major ions (Ca, K, Na, Mg, Cl and SO4) heavy metal (B, Zn, Mn, Mo, Ni, Co, Cu, Cd, Pb, Fe, Cr, V and Al) and biological parameters (phytoplankton communities). Phytoplankton standing crop varied widely between the four lakes. Phytoplankton community was represented by 33 species in 6 classes namely; Cyanophyceae (37.3% of the total phytoplankton standing crop), Bacillariophyceae (27.9%) Chlorophyceae (27.3%), Euglenophyceae (2.7%), Dinophyceae (2.7%) and Cryptophyceae (1.0%). The dominant species were Aphanothece calenula, Chroococcus disperses, Synedra acus and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The lakes varied in phytoplankton population densities and composition according to trophic status of each one. The first and the second lakes have unique characters while the third and the fourth lakes have a wide similarity.

 

 

5/26 CALLUS CULTURE FROM LEAF EXPLANTS OF FLAVERIA TRINERVEA: GROWTH CURVE, PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

E.A. Hussein

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

In the present study, trials were conducted, In vitro, to induce callus formation from leaf explants of the yellow tops (Flaveria trinervea), to measure the callus growth curve, to screen it for the possibility of biosynthesis of some secondary metabolites and to detect its antibacterial activity. For callus induction Murashige and Skoog's basal salts culture media solidified with 0.8% agar, enriched with 30 gm per liter sucrose and supplemented with benzyladenine (BA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) in concentrations of (0.0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3 mg/l respectively). Each of the used growth substances was used either alone or in combination with different concentrations of the other. Depending on the hormonal composition, different morphogenic responses gradually appeared on the cultured leaf explants. Callus formation was generally best formed on culture medium containing 1.5 mg/l BA in combination with 2 mg/l NAA. This hormonal composition was subsequently used for determination of callus growth curve over a period of 8 weeks at 27ºC in the dark. Growth of calli ceased after six weeks of growth and the symptoms of senescence appeared after 8 weeks. Six weeks old calli were collected, washed with sterile distilled water to remove traces of the culture medium, oven dried (50oC) and ground into a fine powder. The Powder was divided into two parts, the first part was used for preliminary phytochemical screening while the second was extracted with 80% ethanol and the extract was used for detecting the antibacterial activity. Results have shown that the calli obtained In vitro could synthesize some secondary metabolites like flavonoids, glycosides and tannins and that the ethanolic extract of calli exhibited antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aerurginosa (CS.25), Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC 13883), Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 13311) and Staphylococcus aureus (NCTC7447).

 

6/26 ENHANCED BIODEGRADATION OF SOME ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES THROUGH Tn5 TRANSPOSITION IN AN EGYPTIAN PSEUDOMONAS ISOLATE

Y.A. Mawgoud

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt.

Tn5 transconjugants were produced from an Egyptian Pseudomonas sp. F1 strain isolated on diazinon pesticide by enrichment culture technique. The mobilizing strain E. coli SM 10 was used to donate the suicide plasmid pSUP2021 carrying the Nmr-transposon Tn5 to the Pseudomonas wild-type strain. The high transconjugation rate was obtained by plate mating of one donor: 7-11 recipients ratio. From more than 1500 transconjugants obtained after mating, only eight mutants were capable to utilize azodrin and dylox pesticides, which are not degradable by their wild-type parent strain. Genomes of the transconjugants and Tn5 transposon donor plasmid were digested by Eco RI. Insertion of Tn5 bands in the transconjugants digested genomes were analyzed on 0.7 % agarose gel electrophoresis.

 

 

7/26 Effect of electromagnetic field on growth and morphology of some algal species

H.M. Shafik, M.H. Ibrahim*, G.A. El-Shoubaky** and M.M. Saleh***

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt, *Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt,      **Biological and Geological Sciences Department, Faculty of Education, Suez Canal University, Port Said, Egypt,

The study was carried out to investigate the effect of electromagnetic field intensity (EMFI) on algae. Two different species of algae were studied namely, the green alga Desmodesmus spinosus (earlier Scenedesmus spinosus) as a colony form and the blue green alga Anabaena dolichospermum as a filament form. The outcome of electromagnetic field intensity on µmax of Desmodesmus spinosus showed strong effect on cell division for a short period of growth at 800G. The sudden exposure of 1200G noticeably inhibited the synthesis of chlorophyll-a for a short time then the synthesis revive. On the other hand, 400G had stronger impact for all the measured growth parameters relatively through longer period of exposure. All EMF intensities, except 400G, had insignificant changes on Chl-a, cell number and turbidity. At 400G, the effect was significant for cell number and turbidity. The sudden exposure to EMF of Anabaena dolichospermum slightly inhibited the chlorophyll-a synthesis at 400 and 800G but at 200G the chlorophyll-a concentration increased. These exposures accelerated and increased cells division. The relatively longer exposure period has significant impact on the biomass and trichome length of Anabaena dolichospermum. The maximum growth rate increasing was recorded at 200G than the control culture.The morphology of Desmodesmus spinosus cells was affected negatively by an increasingly stronger electromagnetic field exposure to cause increasing percent of abnormal cells. The electromagnetic field had an effect on the shape of cells within the filaments of Anabaena dolichospermim. The change of trichome length was the main characteristic feature of exposure.

8/26 BIOLOGICAL STUDY ON BIOMASS AND GROWTH DYNAMICS OF ULVA LACTUCA ANDENTEROMORPHAINTESTINALIS IN MARINE AND BRACKISH WATERS IN EGYPT

G.A. El-Shoubaky and D.Z. Abdel-Kader*

Biological and Geological Sciences Department, Faculty of Education, Port Said,

Suez Canal University

* Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Ismailia, Suez Canal University

The present study intended to compare the effect of the different habitats (marine and brackish water) onthe growth dynamics of the green algae Ulva lactuca Lamour and Enteromorpha intestinalis (Linn.) J. Agardh. The two selected species were collected through spring season 2007. The first habitat was marine water at the east part of Port Said coast directly on the Mediterranean Sea away from any impacted source. The second habitat was brackish water at El-Timsah Lake which lies in the middle part of the Suez Canal. The lake receives different sources of fresh water in addition to human activities.Physico-chemical parameters were measured. The chemical nutrient analysis (nitrogen and phosphorus), total protein, total carbohydrate and the photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b) in algal materials were determined. The total nitrogen and phosphorus recorded high levels in the brackish plant tissues than in marine species indicating the eutrophic character. This leads to appearance of some indicators of the most characteristic nitrogenous organic species of green mats including members of the closely related genera Ulva and Enteromorpha. The increasing of total phosphorus levels were also indicating the increasing of the algal growth rates and quantities. Although, Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis recorded enrichment of protein, carbohydrate contents and chlorophyll a and b values, these proportions highly increased and flourished in severely and moderately polluted water in brackish water habitat at El-Timsah Lake.

 

9/26 GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF TREHALOSE SYNTHESIS ENZYME (TS) PRODUCTION IN CORYNOBACTERIUM NITRILOPHILUS

S.Kh. Abd-El-Aal and M.M.S. Asker*

Microbial Genetics Dept., National Research Center, Cairo, EGYPT

*Microbial Biotechnology Dept., National Research Center, Cairo, EGYPT

Trehalose synthesis enzyme (TS) production was improved in Corynobacterium nitrilophilus NRC (local strain) using three doses of gamma radiation; 50, 70 and 90 Krad. Survival percentages decreased by increasing γ-rays dose from 50 up to 90 Krad. It ranged from 15.91% to 70.11%. The percentage of auxotrophs varied from 2.50% to 23.33%. Negative relationship between Survival and mutation percentages was obtained. Total protein content and enzyme activity of six obtained mutants were increased in comparison with its control. A novel enzyme trehalose synthase was purified from a cell-free extract of Corynobacterium nitrilophilus NRC to an electrophoretically homogeneous state by successive chromatographies on DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 columns. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 67 kDa by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. The enzyme catalyzed the conversion of maltose into trehalose by intra molecular transglucosylation. The enzyme also converted trehalose into maltose but was inactive on other sugars. The enzyme exhibited an optimum pH of 7.0, and an optimum temperature of 25°C, respectively. The enzyme activity was inhibiting strongly by Cu+2, Hg+2 and Zn+2, and moderately by Ba+2, Fe+2, Ni+2 and Pb+2. Other metal ions and EDTA had almost no effect.

10/26 THE ROLE OF FUNGAL ALLERGY AS A CAUSATIVE AGENT OF NASAL MUCOSA INFLAMMATION, NASAL SINUS POLYP FORMATION AND ITS RESPIRATORY COMPLICATIONS

M. Abdel-Razik, Iman El-Kholi* and B. Moustafa**

Botany Dept, (Microbiology). Fac. of Science. Suez Canal Univ, *Ain Shams Specialized hospital, ** E.N.T. Dept. Ain Shams faculty of medicine.

The role of fungi as an allergen eliciting nasal mucosa inflammation and nasal sinus's polyp formation was studied in patients suffering from symptoms of either unilateral or bilateral nasal polyp formation. This was achieved using the nasal endoscopic examination, computerized tomography scan (CT) and blood biochemistry analysis for immunoglobulins and eosinophils. The yeast Candida albicans as a fungal allergin was abundantly detected upon microscopic examination of both squashed and histologically sectioned parts of the eradicated nasal polyps. Also, the yeast was recovered from patient's nasal lavage and cuttings of their eradicated nasal polyps upon subculture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) and malt extract agar (MEA). The experimental intranasal challenge of white albino mice with spores of the isolated yeast resulted in respiratory complications with inflammation in their lungs.

 

11/26 NEW APPLICATION OF BIOSORPTION TECHNIQUE TO REMOVE HEAVY METALS FROM HIGHLY POLLUTED WASTEWATER USING FUNGAL BIOMASS FROM DATE'S WASTE

M.S. Azab and A.Q. Al-Sarrani

Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences, Taibah University,

Madina Munawwarah, K. S. A.

Non-qualified oxidation ponds of industrial wastewater in the disposal yard is one of major environmental problem of Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah. Highly polluted wastewater, about 2000-4000 m3/ day, containing heavy metals and high organic load from leather manufactures, slaughterhouses and other sources discharge in the area and may contaminate the ground water, soil and surrounding environment. Solid wastes of date's factory, which is anther environmental problem, has been used, as a liquid medium for production of fungal biomass of eight metal resistant fungi, previously, isolated from the disposal yard, Aspergillus niger,A. terreus, A. tamarii, A. sulphureus, A. nidulans, Penicillium citrinum, P. Digitatum and Rhizopus nigricans. A. niger, A. terreus, and R. nigricans showed higher growth in comparison to other fungi, even in date's waste or Czapek`s Dox liquid medium. Furthermore, good yields of fungal biomass were obtained from A. niger, A. terreus, and R. nigricans ( 1.32 , 1.05 & 1.11 gm / 250 ml as dry weight) in different types of date's waste medium. The industrial wastewater (WW) collected from the oxidation ponds of disposal yard is characterized by its high biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), in addition to a medium concentration of oil & grease (O&G), total dissolved slats (TDS) and total suspended solids (TSS). The physical and chemical treatments processes have improved the wastewater quality(s), particularly the important parameters of the wastewater e.g. COD and BOD. Further the biological treatment, using natural micro-flora supported by 10 ml/500 ml of crude culture filtrate (CCF), of fungal liquid-culture has been reduced the COD by 99.17%, BOD by 99.46%, heavy metals by 65.64 – 86.47% and salinity by 63.48%, depending on the organism, and improve the water quality to a closely acceptable level of Saudi's standards except the heavy metals. The obtained fungal biomass has been used as biosorbent to remove heavy metals up to 99.81% arsenic, 99.85% chromium, 100% nickel and 100% zinc ions from the industrial wastewater in the final steps. The biomass of non- and alkali- treated biomass of R. nigricans show's highest biosorption capacity among tested fungal biomass. In this particular, date's waste was considered as a cheap source for valuable fungal products from one hand, and as a new trend in the treatment and reuse of wastewater of many industries to solve one of the environmental problems on the other hand. Further, as a part of next work, the treated wastewater has been used successfully, for two months, for irrigation of Myoporum serratum, which is a common street's tree in Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, without any sign of phytotoxicity.

12/26 A new disease attacks strawberry plant in Egypt.

Second report: PESTALOTIA root rot

E.M. Embaby and *E.M. El-Taher

Department of Plant Pathology, National Research Center (NRC), Cairo, Egypt

*The Regional Center for Mycology and Biotechnology, Al-Azhar University,

Cairo, Egypt,

Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) is one of the most important vegetable crops in Egypt for local consumption and exportation. Fungi are the major microorganisms attack strawberry roots causing sever diseases in different development stages in either nursery and field production, then caused yield and economic losses. Analysis of soil sample (Ismailia governorate) yielded 163 fungal isolates belonging to 6 genera. They are i.e: Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Pestalotia, Rhizoctonia and Trichoderma. Aspergilli were the most frequent and density genera followed by genus Alternaria. Pestalotia sp. was of moderate count and density. Fusarium oxysporum was the lowest fungal count and population density followed by either Rhizoctonia and Trichoderma. Bacterial colonies were only counted. In both nursery and field production, diseased strawberry root and crowns (Tamar and Yael cvs) produce 430 fungal isolates. These isolates belong to 5 genera i.e Alternaria, Fusarium, Pestalotia, Rhizoctonia and Trichoderma. All tested fungi, except Trichoderma sp., were pathogenic and caused root rot disease except Fusarium oxysporum caused wilt symptom. Pestalotia sp. was isolated for the first time from diseased strawberry in Egypt, and its pathogencity was confirmed. Light microscope (LM) studies showed that the presence fungus Pestalotia sp. produced only acervular conidimata, conidial septa, the conidia had a single with 2-3 branches and five cells. Electron microscope (EM) showed also a characteristic acervulus bearing phragmospores. Examination of colored cells (stained sections) showed thick cell wall and cell membrane. The cytoplasm contains nucleus, mitochondria, vacules and cytoplasmic granules. Longitudinal section of mycelium showed moderate thick wall, thin membrane, mitochondria and others. Four enzyme activities (hydrolases) i.e. pectin methyl esterase (PME), cellulase (CX), chitinase and dehydrogenase were estimated in Pestalotia culture medium. It is clear that, hydrolases enzymes were produced by Pestalotia sp. is one of the main mechanism for fungal infection, these enzymes have been investigated as the factors that may play a role in modifying the degree of plant infection under natural conditions. Also, Pestalotia sp. was found to produce either ochratoxin A and mycophenolic acid. It is clear that, extracellular mycotoxin are the main mechanism for the toxic fungus (Pestalotia sp.) of infected plant(s) and tissues.



13/26 DOMINANT RHIZOSPHERIC MICROORGANISMS UNDER SOME CASUARINAS AND ITS EFFECT ON FRANKIA GROWTH AND NODULATION CAPACITY.

W.F. Sayed, H.H. Zahran* and W.M. Salem

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science at Qena, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt.

* Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Beni Suef University, Egypt.

Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus flavus   were the most   dominant bacteria and   fungi found in   the rhizosphere of C. equisetifolia plants inside   the South Valley   University campus. Sterile   filtrate of B. subtilis had   little inhibitory or   no effect on   growth of the   tested four Frankia strains.   The extract of A. flavus alone or   added with B. Subtilis extract   was inhibitory to   all Frankia strains.   This inhibition was   moderate under stirring   conditions indicating the   importance of adequate   oxygen concentrations form   Frankia survival under   these conditions. When C.cunninghamiana and C. obesa seedlings   were inoculated with   Frankia, in combination   with live fungi   and/or bacteria in   sterilized soil, inhibition   occurred in plant nodulation   and performance but   varied with treatment.   T3 treatment (A. flavus) had   the lightest effect   on plant performance   than the other   three treatments. Plant   total nitrogen was   reduced between 5   and 90% compared   to control plants   depending on Frankia strain   and host plant.   On the other   hand, in unstreilized soil,   plant performance was   better as for   the indigenous Frankia and   other microbiota found   in soil collectively. In   exceptional cases the   inoculated Frankia had   resulted in better   plant performance than   control plants (i. e.   uninoculated plants in unsterilized soil).   The results of   plant analysis along   with other results   suggest that rhizospheric organisms   play an important   role in Frankia growth   and competition in   the rhizosphere but   their effect on   the symbiosis between   Frankia and plant   may be inhibitory   except under certain   conditions. In general,   plant performance was   significantly better with   combined inocula (Frankia, B.   subtilis and A. flavus), in   sterilized soil, than   with Frankia alone.

 

 

14/26 DETOXIFICATION OF AFLATOXIN B1 BY CERTAIN MICROORGANISMS

E.Y. Tohamy and M.S. El Said

Departement of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science,

Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

Various feeds and food commodities including dairy products may be contaminated with aflatoxins, in small quantities, They have hazard effects on human and animal health. Several microorganisms have been reported to bind or degrade aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)in food and feeds. This study assessed the detoxification or reduction of aflatoxin B1 by Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus vulgaricus, Bacillus firmus ,Flavobacterium aurantiacum and Aspergillus niger in a viable ,boiled and autoclaved form in liquid media with AFB1 and in culture media with aflatoxin producing microorganisms (Aspergillus flavus) which isolated from food sources collected from Zagazig markets in Egypt. This isolate gave maximum (AFB1) amount .This amount reached 108.22 µg/50ml culture media.
15/26 IMPROVING FEEDING STRATEGIES FOR MAXIMIZING POLYHDROXYBUTYRATE YIELD BY BACILLUS MEGATERIUM

W. Sabra and D-M. M. Abou-Zeid

Microbiology Division, Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

The prokaryotic endogenous storage material poly-b-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) can be induced to accumulate in bacteria under conditions of unbalanced growth that also stimulate sporulation in endospore forming bacteria. The present study shows that ammonium concentration higher than 0.4 g/L inhibits growth and may be responsible for the stationary phase onset of Bacillus megaterium. Hence, in order to expand the growth rate controlled exponential phase (by delaying stationary phase), ammonium limited fed batch cultures were performed at different feeding rates. Under such conditions, a 2.1 fold increase in the specific PHB productivity was recorded (0.19 gPHB/gbiomass*h) compared to batch cultivations (0.09 g/g*h). Although the lowest ammonium feeding rate was accompanied with the lowest growth rate, it resulted in the highest PHB yield. Our study demonstrates that the PHB content of the cells growing under optimized fed batch conditions reached 65% of the cell dry weight, a value that has not been recorded before for bacilli using a synthetic medium.

 

16/26 MICROPROPAGATION AND CALLUS PRODUCTION FROM CALOTROPIS PROCERA

A.A. El-Bakry, S.M. Ghazi and S.M. Abdel-Kawey

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Ain Helwan,

Cairo, Egypt

A number of different methods and factors affecting the micropropagation of Calotropis procera were investigated. The study resulted in identifying significant differences between cytokinin type and concentrations used for micropropagation through shoot tip culture. Nodal cutting micropropagation system produced number of healthy growing axillary shoots then identifying in vitro rooting method. Also the study showed close frequency of acclimatization success. Studying the effect of different factors affecting callus culture, we found significant differences between Naphthalene acetic acid with benzyladenine (NAA x BA) concentrations and explants used. The study also showed significant differences between 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid with benzyladenine (2,4-D x BA) concentrations and explants used. The study defined a method for callus propagation through long term culture (3+3 months) and identifying significant differences initials and finals fresh weights. Results of studying the effect of light and dark on callus growth showed significant differences for callus growing from hypocotyls only, Naphthalene acetic acid with benzyladenine (NAA x BA) and 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid with benzyladenine (2,4-D x BA) concentrations used in cotyledonary leaves only and also culture period. In the present work testing for cardiac glycoside presence in micropropagated shoots, regenerated plants, as well as, in callus produced, showed the presence of compounds in acclimatized plants and in callus tissue materials produced in culture.


17/26 SEM OF SEED COAT CRITERIA IN RELATION TO CYTOLOGICAL VARIATIONS ELUCIDATED BY MULTIVARIATE ANALYSES IN THE GENUS PRIMULA L. (PRIMULACEAE).

M.M. Abou-El-Enain, Z.A. Elwan*, M.H.A. Loutfyand A.I. Aboel-Atta

Biological and Geological Sciences Dept., Faculty of Education,

Ain Shams Univ., Roxy, Cairo, Egypt.

* Botany Dept., Faculty of Science, Ain Shams Univ., Abassia, Cairo, Egypt.

Seed macro-morphology and testa epidermal cell patterns were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for representatives of the Primula species particularly those with divisive chromosome counts in order to reassess their taxonomic delimitation. The characters used were that of the seed size (length/width ratio), testa (multicellular sculpture); cell (length/width ratio and homogeneity of size); anticlinal walls of epidermal cells (level, undulation, thickness and secondary sculpture); periclinal walls of epidermal cells (level and secondary sculpture). The specific relationships were established based on UPGMA-clustering and principal components analyses by using different modules of the NTSYS-pc 2.2 and the STATISTICA 5.5 programs. The produced data was compared with the cytological criteria of the studied species by measuring each of the phenograms distortion; from their relevant data matrices; and association to each other based on their cophenetic (ultrametric) correlation coefficients. Regression coefficients of each principal component on the corresponding character were used to analyze the contributing characters in the differentiation of the groups. Comparison of the SEM and cytological criteria revealed that, the two data sets were consistent with a percentage of 62% in differentiating the species studied. The present data were useful in confirming the close relationship between P. hirsuta and P. palinuri in spite of their variation in the diploid chromosome number; revealing the possibility of merging P. denticulata and P. rosea in the same section; supporting the deviation of P. loeseneri and P. frondosa that have previously been arisen based on the variability in basic chromosome numbers.

 

 

18/26 LEAF ARCHITECTURE OF SOLANUM IN EGYPT AND ITS TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE

A.H. Mohamed and I.H. Al-Gohary*

Bot. Dep., Faculty of Science Al-Azhar University

Plant Taxonomy Unit, Desert Research Center*

The architecture, stomata types, leaf sculpture and cutin ornamentation characters of the leaves of 12 wild Solanum taxa in Egypt were investigated for their delimitation by light microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The observation culminated into the suggestion of an identification key. The leaf shape, venation types, stomata and trichomes as well as details of leaf sculpture proved their taxonomic value for the separation between studied taxa.
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