Vol. 27, October, 2007.

1/27 CHARACTERIZATION OF SELECTED SPECIES OF THE GENUS ONOBRYCHIS MILL. (LEGUMINOSAE) BY USING THE SEED COAT PATTERNS AND CYTOLOGICAL CRITERIA.

M.M. Abou-El-Enain, Z.A. Elwan* and M.H.A. Loutfy

Biological and Geological Sciences Dept., Faculty of Education,

Ain Shams Univ., Roxy, Cairo, Egypt.

*Botany Dept., Faculty of Science, Ain Shams Univ., Abassia, Cairo, Egypt.

Seed macro-morphological characters were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the two Egyptian and other four species of the pasture genus Onobrychis in order to support or oppose their taxonomic delimitation. The relationships of the examined species were constructed based on UPGMA-clustering and principal components analyses by using different modules of the NTSYS-pc 2.2 and the STATISTICA 5.5 programs. The produced figures were compared with the cytological criteria of the studied species by measuring each of the phenograms distortion; from their relevant data matrices; and association to each other based on their cophenetic (ultrametric) correlation coefficients. Regression coefficients of each principal component on the corresponding character were used to analyze the contributing characters in the differentiation of the groups. Epidermal seed coat patterns of the present study were useful in characterization of the species studied of section Lophobrychis and were considerably consistence with the previous morphological, cytological and seed protein classifications. Comparison of the SEM and cytological criteria revealed that, the two data sets were consistent with a percentage of 70% in differentiating the species studied. The most contributing characters were the cell length/width ratio; level, undulation, thickness, secondary sculpture of anticlinal walls and level of outer periclinal walls. The two Egyptian species were similar in having irregular seed epidermal cell sizes and ribbed-reticulate pattern of the outer periclinal walls microrelief, whereas they differ in the seed shape; multicellular sculpture; anticlinal walls and the hilum micropylar region features. The present data helped in confirmation of the relationships between the studied species as established in their current taxonomic treatments.


 

2/27 ANTAGONISTIC ACTIVITY OF STREPTOMYCES SPP. ISOLATED FROM EGYPTIAN SOILS

1-                  OPTIMIZING ANTIBIOTIC PRODUCTION

S.M. Abd El-All*, A.A. Rushdy** and N.M.M. Saleh*

*Microbiology Department, National Organization for Drug Control and Research   (NODCAR),

**Botany Department Faculty of Girls for Arts, Science and Education,

Ain Shams University

One hundred and fifty actinomycetes of the white and grey colour were isolated from different soils at various locations in Egypt. Cultural, morphological and physiological characteristics of these isolates indicated that they belong to Streptomyces. Five isolates namely Streptomyces bobili (FS-31), S. resistomycificus (FS-32), S. phaeofaciens (FS-33), S. vastus (FS-34) and S. poonensis (FS-35) revealed high antagonistic activity against different Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, yeast and fungi. Two strains, Streptomyces resistomycificus (FS-32) and Streptomyces vastus (FS-34), presented significant antagonistic activity against most of the tested organisms. The ability of any of the two strains to produce an antibiotic depends on carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus sources used. Environmental factors such as initial pH, medium capacity, incubation time and type of inoculum were also found to have profound influence on antibiotic production.

 

3/27 MAXIMIZATION OF COLLAGENASE INDUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS CARBONARIUS

N. Tharwat, T. Abd El-Rahman, F. Abd El-Fattah and M. Abou El-Ela

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Optimization experiments were carried out to maximize the induction and activity of collagenase of Aspergillus carbonarius. Optimization was carried out via optimization of both physical and chemical factors leading to 3.2 folds increase in collagenase activity than in non-optimized medium. The crude enzyme was stable at temperature 20-50°C; the optimum temperature was 30°C. Maximum activity was achieved after 5 days incubation. The optimum pH was 8. Cadmium and mercury completely inhibited collagenase activity. Corn steep liquor was the best natural additive for collagenase activity. Fungal collagenase could hydrolyze denatured collagen (type I), elastin, bovine serum albumin and casein.

 

4/27 ANTIPHYTOVIRAL ACTIVITY AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME NATURAL SUBSTANCES ON A HEAT RESISTANT STRAIN OF TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS INFECTING TOMATO

M.M. El-Shamy

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Egypt

Aqueous extracts obtained from dried shoots of four plants (Crocus sativus, Tussilago farfara, Avena sativa and Ocimum basilicum) belonging to four families were tested in vitro and in vivo for their antiviral properties against heat resistant strain of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) isolated from tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Money maker). The effect of different dilutions of these extracts as well as the physical properties of the extract inhibitors were also studied. The obtained results showed that all the tested extracts have inhibitory effect on heat resistant strain of TMV, but in varying degrees. The inhibitory effect of the extracts increased with the increment of the storage period with the   virus from 15 to 50 to 90 minutes both in vitro and in vivo. The using of in vitro technique showed higher inhibitory effect than that induced by in vivo. Preinoculation rubbing also showed more inhibition to virus infection than postinoculation rubbing. The most effective extract on virus infectivity was that of Crocus sativus followed by the extract of Avena sativa then the extract obtained from Tussilago farfara both in vitro and in vivo. The least effective extract was that of Ocimum basilicum both in vitro and in vivo. Complete virus inhibition (100% inhibition) was obtained on using the extract from Crocus sativus incubated for 50 and 90 minutes storage with the virus in vitro, and at 90 minutes in vivo using preinoculation rubbing. 100% virus inhibition was also obtained on using the extract from Avena sativa incubated for only 90 minutes storage with the virus in vitro. The antiviral activity of tested extracts was found to be highly affected by dilutions (when the extract dilution raised from 10-1 to 10-2 to 10-3 and10-4). The antiviral activity of extract obtained from O. basilicum was found to be the highly affected one, followed by extract from T. farfara, then the extract from A. sativa. The least effective one was the extract obtained from C. sativus. All the extracts are still active up to a dilution of 10-4. The inhibitory agents in tested extracts of C. sativus, A. sativa, T. farfara and O. basilicum were completely inactivated when heated up to 85, 81, 45 and 40oC for 10 minutes, respectively. The inhibitors were survived for more than 85, 45, 27 and 10 days at room temperature for the above 4 extracts, respectively. The inhibitors were active at pH 2-11 for extracts of C. sativus and A. sativa and were active at pH 3-9 for extracts of T. farfara and O. basilicum, respectively. The inhibitors in extracts of C. sativus, A. sativa were not precipitated by a saturated solution of ammonium sulfate, while that of T. farfara and O. basilicum were precipitated.

 

5/27 PURIFICATION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A Β-GLUCOSIDASE FROM SOME YEAST ISOLATES CAPABLE OF HYDROLYZING SOLUBLE ANTHOCYANINS.

A.A. Hassan

Microbiological Department National Center For Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

In the present study trials have been carried out to identify yeast strains responsible for the hydrolysis of anthocynanins and studying the properties of β-glucosidase produced by these isolates. Eight yeast strains were isolated and found to be able utilize cellobiose and anthocyanins and secrete β-glucosidase, Candida molishina produced the highest β-glucosidase activity after 8 days of incubation at 30°C. this enzyme showed an optimum pH in the acidic range (pH 4-5), gave temperature maximal for activity of 55°C and able to hydrolyze anthocyanins. Candida molischiana seemed to have several improved properties for eventual industrial application in the decolorization of anthocyanins using the highest activity of β-glucosidase enzyme.

 

6/27 FUNGI ISOLATED FROM NEMATODE INFESTED SOIL AND THEIR COLLAGENASE ACTIVITY

N. Tharwat, T. Abdel-rahman; I.M.K. Ismail, E. Elwy and M. Abou El-Ela

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

The number of isolated soil fungi from the studied samples was 384 isolates constituting 44 fungal species. The double treated soil sample with collagen and nematode eggs recorded the highest fungal count and high species diversity, followed by soil inoculated with nematode eggs, then the soil enriched with collagen. The untreated control soil attained the least fungal count. Aspergillus niger, A. wentii, Cladosporium lignicala and Penicillium fuscum were the most dominant species in untreated control soil; Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger dominated both soil inoculated with nematode eggs and soil treated with nematode eggs and collagen. In collagen enriched soil Aspergillus niger, A. terreus, Nematoctonus humicola and Penicillium fuscum were the most frequent species. Twenty two fungal species out of 44 could degrade azocoll in the reaction mixture. Maximum collagenase activity was attained by A. oligospora and A. fumigatus.


7/27 PURIFICATION AND PROPERTIES OF b-MANNANASE FROM ASPERGILLUS NIGER

M.A. Naeem, A.M. Ibrahim, A.A. Guirgis and K.A. Elhalafawy

Genetic engineering and biotechnology Research Institute,

Minufiya University, Sadat City.

Aspergillus niger secretes β-mannanase into the growth medium when cultivated in the presence of locust bean gum as an inducer. β-mannanase was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by means of Ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration and ultrafiltration. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 26.3 kDa. The pH and temperature optima 4.0 and 60°C respectively.

 

8/27 MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF GAMMA RAYS INDUCED MUTANTS IN SOYBEAN CONFERRING ELEVATED LEVEL OF TOLERANCE TO COTTON LEAF WORM, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.)

H.M. El-Demerdash, N.A. Ashry* and W.M. Aly

National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

* Cell Res. Sec.., Field Crops Research Institute, ARC, Giza.

Field and laboratory studies were conducted during the two successive summer seasons of 2004 and 2005. Two Egyptian soybean cultivars; Giza-22 and Giza-82 were exposed to Gamma rays emitted from Co60 source. Four Gamma ray doses; Zero, 100, 150 and 200 Gy; were used.   After two generations; M1 and M2, eight agronomic traits were tested in M2. A line was considered a true mutant when exhibits significant difference even in a single trait when compared to its respective parent. Twenty-four M2 mutant lines of soybean along with their two parents were tested for cotton leaf worm tolerance. Larvae were fed on detached soybean leaves for seventy-two hours. Number of survival larvae and larval weight after feeding were used to select mutants with enhanced levels of cotton leaf worm tolerance. Selection for cotton worm tolerance revealed that only two mutants exhibited significant differences compared to its parental line.   DNA extractions were used to test the differences on the molecular level between the two selected mutants and their parental cultivar. Twenty-three arbitrary chosen RAPD primers were used, among them 19 primers succeeded to amplify DNA fragments and 11 out of them showed polymorphism. Seven RAPD-primers were informative and revealed unique bands that related to cotton leaf worm tolerance, these bands could be used as molecular markers related to cotton leaf worm tolerance. Meanwhile, ten primers could differentiate the two mutants from each other and from their parental cultivar.

 

9/27 GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF ARTICHOKE, CURCUMIN AND GINGER AND DETERMINATION OF GENOMIC DNA, RNA AND PROTEIN.

Z.A. Teleb, W.W. Mohamed*, S.S. Abdel-Fattah* and D. Abdel Halim*

Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology

*Applied Research Center of Medicinal Plants “ARCMP”, Biotechnology

National Organization for Drug Control and Research. ”NODCAR”.

Three species of Artichoke “Cynara scolymus” i.e cultivated, hybridized and French as well as Curcumin and Ginger “Zingiberaceae” were used for evaluation studies on genomic DNA, RNA and protein of these different species. The analysis of genetic diversity was performed using Random Amplification of Polymorphism (RAPD) technique. Extraction of genomic DNA and RNA for determination of purity, concentration and identification on agarose gel (1% and 1.6%) were investigated. In addition, sodium dedocyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS/PAGE) technique for isolation of different protein bands on gel acrylamide 12.5% was determined.Also, the protein pattern was analyzed for fingerprinting as a dendogram by the cluster analysis using UPGMA Biogene software. Differential display has been widely and successfully used to identify differentially expressed genes based on different genetic variation. Identification was made based on the isolation of total RNA from different species of Artichoke, Curcumin and Ginger. RAPD-PCR for fingerprint analysis was performed. Dendogram obtained through the cluster analysis revealed the similarity matrix between the different plant species. The distance matrix analysis of RAPD data was calculated by using Biogene software. It’s represented as a dendogram using UPGMA analysis.

 

10/27 EFFECT OF CTAB AS INHIBITOR FOR MICROBIAL CORROSION OF MILD STEEL

E.A. Ghazy*, A.M. El-Shamy**, M.N. Mahmoud* and M.E. Abdel Samie*

* Microbial Biotechnology Department, National Research Centre Dokki, 12622, Cairo, Egypt.

**Electrochemistry and Corrosion lab. Department of Physical Chemistry. National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

The growth of bacteria and their metabolic products is one of the main problems in many industries. These microorganisms adhere to solid surfaces forming biofilms which causes corrosion to the steel surfaces. These problems are treated by using biocides. The present paper is aiming at the use of (Cetyl triammonium bromide) CTAB to control planketonic and sessile population of (stabilized mixed culture of sulphate reducing bacteria) SMC-SRB. The influence of this biocide is concerned with the prevention of initial attachment of mild steel surfaces with SMC-SRB, and subsequent biofilm (BF) formation. The activities of SRB within developed BF were evaluated by determination by the (Most probable number) MPN method. On the other hand, sulphide determination was measured as a result of SRB activity. CTAB was used as a biocide and in the same time its corrosion inhibition behavior was evaluated. The corrosion measurements were carried out by using weight loss, polarization techniques and surface morphology (SEM). It was found that CTAB showed high efficiency in controlling planketonic and sessile SRB, as well as high corrosion inhibition efficiency of mild steel.

11/27 ANTIOXIDANTS IN ZEA MAYS SEEDLINGS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF EUCALYPTUS AND RED ONION EXTRACTS ON STRESSED SEEDLINGS

A.M.A. Hassan

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Zea mays (cv. Bashair 13, Inbrid line) grains were germinated and grown in the presence of 0, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15% nicotine alone or in 0.15% nicotine in 1% extract (water: methanol 1:1 v/v) of eucalyptus leaves or red onion bulbs and allowed to grow for 7 days. Fresh weight, total proteins and total available carbohydrates (TAC) were significantly inhibited particularly at higher doses of nicotine. Nicotine enhanced lipid peroxidation level in Zea mays seedlings particularly at higher doses. The lowest concentration of nicotine (0.05%) resulted in only a slight decrease in fresh weight, total protein content and total available carbohydrates and insignificant increase in lipid peroxidation. Levels of antioxidants (total carotenoids, b-carotene, a-tocopherol and ascorbic acids) were increased at the lowest concentration of nicotine to about two-fold while the control value was decreased at the higher concentrations. Addition of aquoes methanolic extract of eucalyptus leaves and red onion bulbs to the highest concentration of nicotine (that induced oxidative stress) resulted in a significant increase in fresh weight, total protein content and total available carbohydrates, but a significant decrase in lipid peroxidation was defected. The antioxidant activity was 87% and 89% for eucalyptus and red onion extracts respectively. A significant correlation lies between the antioxidant activity of eucalyptus extract and reducing sugars organic acids (pH), total phenolics, flavenoids as well as ascorbic acid, while significant correlation was defected between the antioxidant activity of red onion extract and reducing sugars, of lavenoids and total carotenoids.

 

12/27 MICROBIAL PRODUCTION OF SURFACTANTS: SCREENING AND IDENTIFICATION OF TWO PROMISING ISOLATES AND THEIR BIOSURFACTANTS

A.M. Abdel-Mawgoud, M.M. Aboulwafa and N.A. Hassouna

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Ain Shams University

Microbial production of surfactants was tested in 1945 bacterial isolates. The tested isolates were recovered from 30 soil samples either contaminated with oil products, oil products and iron or uncontaminated. Biosurfactant production was tested using 3-phases screening protocol. Primary screening was conducted by measurement of surface tension using the qualitative drop-collapse test (DCT) which resulted in the discovery of 28 high biosurfactant producing isolates. These isolates were subjected to secondary screening using a semi-quantitative microassay method for surfactants (Oil spreading test, OST) which resulted in the selection of 16 isolates (out of 28 high biosurfactant producers) that recorded highest scores. Tertiary screening was carried out on the 16 isolates using a du Nouy ring tensiometer for   more sensitive quantitative measurement of surface tension. Of the 16 isolates tested in tertiary screening; a Gram positive isolate BS5, identified as Bacillus subtilis, and a Gram negative isolate BS20, identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, each showed the highest biosurfactant productivity compared to other members of its Gram group. The biosurfactant produced by B. subtilis isolate BS5 in mineral salts medium (MSM) was identified as surfactin, while, that produced by P. aeruginosa isolate BS20 was identified as rhamnolipid. TLC analysis revealed that surfactin showed one separated spot with an Rf value of 0.8, while, rhamnolipid biosurfactant showed two separated spots having Rf values of 0.4 and 0.68.


13/27 ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF β-LACTAMASE FROM SERRATIA MARCESCENS

E.A. Azab, A.M. Abo-Shady and M.A. El-Dardir.

Section of Microbiology, Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

The inducible b-lactamase of clinical isolate Serratia marcescens 921/79 was isolated and semipurified through precipitation of nucleic acid by 1.5 % (w/v) streptomycin sulfate, dialysis, ultracentrifugation and gel filtration on Sephadex G-50-150. The degree of enzyme recovery was 27.91 % with purification factor of 3.95. The semipurified enzyme was characterized by determining the enzyme kinetic parameter, molecular weight, relative rate of hydrolysis of different β-lactam substrates and the effect of clavulanic acid and EDTA on enzyme activity. The enzyme had high affinity (low Km) for cephalexin and low affinity (high Km) for penicillin G. The enzyme had molecular weight of 38.4 KDa, hydrolyzed cephalothin easily and it was not inhibited by clavulanic acid or EDTA. The results indicated that the studied b-lactamase belongs to group 1 (cephalosporinases) of Bush classification and to molecular class C ceplalosporinases.

 

14/27 DESCRIPTION OF ‘‘BIOFILM FORMATION'' AT DIFFERENT SURFACES IN FORMATION WATER

E.A. Ghazi, M.M.S. Asker, M.F. Emam and O.H. El-Sayed, O. H.

Microbial Biotechnology Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

Different solid surfaces such as stainless steel, copper, mild steel and glass were immersed in the formation water of Red sea. This paper assesses the ability of Biofilm (BF) growth on different solid surfaces. The analysis of formation water and composition of solid surfaces were determined. Isolation, purification and characterization of BF bacteria were studied and surfaces morphology was studied. Compact of the BF formation was detected through determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) of cetyltriammonium bromide CTAB as pure biocide against BF bacteria. Detection of exopolysaccharides was investigated as well.

 

15/27 BIODIVERSITY AND SEASONAL VARIATION OF FRESHWATER FUNGI COLONIZING SUBMERGED WOOD IN EL-IBRAHIMIA CANAL

G.A. Abd-Elaah

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Egypt

The present investigation was concentrated to study the biodiversity and seasonal variation of freshwater fungi colonizing submerged wood samples collected from El-Ibrahimia canal at El-Minia and Assiut Governorates. A total of 29 identified and 5 unidentified species of freshwater fungi were recovered from 160-submerged wood samples collected during summer and winter months from both Governorates. These fungal taxa included 25 Ascomycetes (21 identified and 4 unidentified), 6 Deuteromycetes and 3 Hyphomycetes (2 identified and 1 unidentified). The diversity of fungi found in El-Minia samples (24 taxa, 18 Ascomycetes and 6 Deuteromycetes) was higher than that of Assiut samples (18 taxa, 15 Ascomycetes and 3 Hyphomycetes). The most common fungi of Ascomycetes were Calyculosphaeria tristis (summer, winter), Dothidea puccinioides (w) Calostilbella calostilbe (s, w) and Leptosphaeria australiensis (w) in El-Minia samples, and Pleospora vagans (s, w), Leptosphaeria agnita (s, w) and Phomatospora (s, w), in Assiut samples. The most common fungi of Deuteromycetes were Alternaria maritima (w) and Fusarium moniliforme (s) in El-Minia samples. Dictyosporium elegans (s) and Botryodiplodia theobromae (s, w) were predominant Hyphomycetes in Assiut samples. Eight fungi were commonly isolated from both Governorates, while 16 fungi were only isolated from El-Minia samples and 10 fungi were recovered only from Assiut samples. The winter months supported the growth of 17 freshwater fungi, while summer months enhanced the growth of 10 fungi.

 

16/27 A Numerical analysis of some Apiaceae species in Egypt

A.H. Mohamed, A.A.F. Khafagi and D.G. Gabr

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls)

 

Relationships among 13 species belonging to 10 genera of Apiaceae were re-assessed by numerical analysis of combine data resting on macro-micro morphology and seed protein electrophoresis. The results of electrophoresis pattern of seed protein showed that the totalnumber of protein bands obtained by scanning the gel of the 10 species were 26 distin­guished bands. The number of bands varied from species to another, ranging between 2 to 8 bands for a species. The species were divided into two main clusters. The vegetative and floral characters are important in the delimitation of clade within Apiaceae. The present results suppose the separation of the three species Foeniculum vulgare, Anethum graveolens and Ridolfia segetum from three different tribes and suggest to union them in Ammineae tribe, in conformity with Drude classification 1897-1898.   The combined analysis of electrophoresis pattern of seed proteins and morphological characters resulted in higher degree of resolution in the Apiaceae.

 

17/27 OPTIMIZATION OF POLYGALACTURONASE PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER U-86 UTILIZING SOME FOOD INDUSTRIAL WASTES.

W.A. Bazaraa, S.M. Mohsen and K. Doukani

Food Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Various strains of Aspergillus were screened for polygalacturonase synthesis and Aspergillus niger U-86 proved to be the highest producer (6.0 U.10 ml-1). Production of polygalacturonase by strain U-86 was optimized and the highest polygalacturonase production (25.0 U.10 ml-1) was achieved when the test organism was allowed to grow (3 days, 30 ºC) in a medium containing 2.5 % citrus pectin and 0.75 % ammonium sulfate at pH 3.5. The enzyme was found to be highly inducible by citrus pectin, while the presence of either glucose or fructose repressed its synthesis. Apple pomace and orange pulp, as agro industrial wastes, were successfully utilized for the production of polygalacturonase under the optimized conditions.


18/27 FINGER PRINT ANALYSIS OF CITRUS ESSENTIAL OILS

A.A.S. Labib

Food Technology Research Institute, ARC, Giza, EGYPT

In this study HPLC procedure was applied to differentiate between three types of Orange essential oil and an advanced statistical method (discriminate analysis) was used to analyze the data of the resulted HPLC Chromatograms.It was found that seven retention times (11.579, 13.627, 14.946, 16.106, 17.473, 20.239, and 21.651min.) were observed in all tested samples, indicating that there were mainly seven major compounds presented in the samples with different quantities. The variables distinguishing oil types were X2 and X6 corresponding to the retention time of 13.627 and 20.239. As the computed p-value was lower than the significance level (α = 0.05), the “zero” hypothesis (H0) which stated that the means vectors of the 3 classes (oil types) are equal, was rejected;   and the “alternative” hypothesis (Ha), which stated that the oil classes are different from each other, was accepted. The samples were projected in the two factors containing the whole variance between samples (92.76 + 7.24). The samples had the same features tend to be projected together along the factor axes. So, it is easy to distinguish between the three oil types by applying the statistical discriminate analysis method for the HPLC separation data of the essential oil. In the same manner, using the developed HPLC analytical method, and by applying the statistical discriminate analysis, one can make a fingerprint for each essential oil to assure its identity and to detect any adulteration.
 
19/27 INDUCING FIRMNESS OF FROZEN PEAR SLICES BY IMPREGNATION WITH CALCIUM AND PECTINESTERASE

E.S. Abd El-Wahab, A.A.S. Labib and H.T. Allam

Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

The present work was undertaken to study the effect of using Ca++ and pectinesterase (PE) on some quality parameters of frozen pear slices, such as texture, and other chemical and organoleptic properties. The results of firmness as puncture force show that, the increase of calcium ion concentrations and pectinesterase units (PEU), led to the increase of the puncture force. Concerning the total bound calcium, the data revealed that the control pear slices contained 73, 70 and 67 ppm of Ca++ after incubation at 4°C for 2, 4 and 8 days respectively. The total bound calcium of the slices treated with 500 ppm Ca++ in the presence of 10 units of PE was 230.37% after 4 days at 4°C. The binding ratio was 31.43 by using 500 ppm, with 10 units, while it was 20.58% with 1000 ppm Ca++ with the same units of PE, compared to the fresh slices. Data revealed that alcohol insoluble solids (AIS) increased by adding calcium and pectinesterase. Sensory analysis of pear slices during incubation ascertained that the taste of pear slices was palatable even by incubation in 500 ppm Ca++ ions and 5 to 10 units of PE. Concerning storage at -18oC, the treated pear slices did not altered in their main characteristics (color, texture and ascorbic acid) during, and after storage for 3 months. Sensory data after storage period ascertained that the treated sample has higher score in their sensory attributes such as color, taste, aroma and subjective firmness.   Finally, it can be concluded that, the treatment of pear slices with 500 ppm of Ca++ in the presence of 10 units of PE gave high firmer slices after incubation at 4°C for 4 days, and maintain the other quality properties after thawing.

 

20/27 THE USE OF CYANOBACTERIA AND AZOTOBACTER IN MAIZE PRODUCTION UNDER SANDY SOIL CONDITION

S.T.A. Tantawy and *E.A. Hassan

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University

*Agric. Microbiol. Dept.Soils, Water and Environ. Res. Inst., Agric Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

A field experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm of Agricultural Research Center, Ismailia, Governorate, Egypt to study the influence of cyanobacteria and Azotobacter inoculation both individually or in combination in presence of different nitrogen levels on the growth , NPK uptake of maize, available NPK in soil after maize harvesting as well as the soil biological activity in terms of total algae count total bacterial count, Azotobacter count, cyanobacteria count, CO2 evolution, dehydrogenase (DHA) and nitrogenase activities. Results revealed that inoculation with Azotobacter and cyanobacteria generally increased significantly the grains and straw yields, NPK uptake by grains and straw, available NPK in soil after maize harvesting as well as the soil biological activity over the control treatment. The priority was for the treatment received 1/4 N dose plus Azotobacter and cyanobacteria inoculation which gave values were not significantly different from those recorded due to full nitrogen dose application alone. In conclusion, the application of Azotobacter and cyanobacteria combined with 1/4 N dose in maize according to the results achieved in this study, are promising in cereals production if much attention is paid in studying this phenomenon.

 

21/27 DECOLORIZATION OF FAST RED BY BACILLUS

SUBTILIS HM

M.E.M. Mabrouk and H.H. Yussef *

* Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Damanhour Branch, Alexandria University, Egypt.

** Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Egypt.

A dye–decolorizing bacterium was isolated from dye contaminated sample and identified as Bacillus subtilis HM by 16S rDNA sequencing. The bacterium was able to decolorize aerobically eight different sulfonated azo dyes. Decolorization of Fast Red was achieved through microbial degradation rather than biosorption or adsorption as indicated by the uncolored biomass or its methanol extract. The dye was efficiently decolorized in static compared to shaked cultures. The bacterium exhibited a remarkable color removal capability over a wide range of dye concentrations (12.5125mg L-1), pH´s (5-9) and temperatures (25-40 °C). Addition of glucose improved dye decolorization. Omitting both carbon and nitrogen sources from the medium caused 57.6% decrease in color removal. Optimization was achieved using the Plackett-Burman statistical design, inoculum size appeared to be the most significant factor. Under a near - optimal conditions, almost 99 % decolorization was obtained after 6h with 1.14 fold increase compared to data under basal condition.    

22/27 Effect of copper element on the growth and fiber quality of two cotton varieties

H. Ezzat

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

In the present work, leaf area, fresh weight, dry matter, plant height and water content of two cotton varieties c.v. Giza 85 and c.v. Giza 86 were significantly decreased with increasing copper sulphate concentrations particularly in c.v. 86. Chlorophyll (a) and (b) content and photosystem II (PII or P680) activity were also decreased. This was accompanied by a significant increase of carotenoids/chl a+b ratio revealing the important role of carotenoids for the protection of photosynthetic apparatus against photo-oxidation. The copper content in both cotton varieties increased with increasing Cu2+ concentrations (especially in c.v.86) whereas P+, Ca2+ Mg2+, Fe3+ and Mn2+ were decreased. The obtained result revealed a marked change in the free amino acids concentrations in the leaves of both two tested cotton varieties. Methionine, glutamic and alanine in the shoot of c.v.85 were increased as being compared to control while alanine and methionine decreased in the shoot of   c.v.86. That is may be explained the role of amino acids to forming metal-binding complex. The estimated characters of fiber quality of Cu-treated c.v. Giza 85 showed uncleared measurements as being compared with untreated ones, revealing that the quality does not affect by increasing the accumulation of Cu2+ in plant during the growth.

 

23/27 ANATOMICAL STUDY OF RHIZOPHORA MUCRONATA LAM. GROWING IN SOUTHERN RED SEA COAST OF EGYPT.

I.H. Al- Gohary

Plant Taxonomy unit, Desert Research Centre, Mataria, Cairo, Egypt.

 

Anatomical characters of the root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit of Rhizophora mucronata Lam. are presented with view of finding out the diagnostic anatomical structures of these organs in the plant growing naturally in the marine habitat at the Southern Red Sea coast of Egypt.


24/27 camel Milk production and QUALITY, as affected by Long Term FEEDING ON Atriplex (saltbush)

M.M. Ashour, A.A. Abdel-Baky, M.M. Mokhtar*, S.M. Shawkat*

and A.H. Ibrahim2

Department of food science, Faculty of agriculture, University of Zagazig , Egypt.

*Department of Animal and Poultry Breeding, Desert Research Center ,cairo, Egypt.

Sixteen milking camels were used to study the effect of feeding on Atriplex (saltbush) on milk yield and chemical composition. Experimental animals were divided into tow groups according to weight. The two groups were fed with concentrate diet consisted of 60% ground yellow corn plus 40% ground barley grains. The berseem hay (Trifolium alexandrinum) gave to the first camels group and Atriplex halimus gave to the second camels group. Results indicated a significant differences (p<0.5) between lactation months and daily milk yield (Kg/day) milk chemical composition (total solids, total protein, lactose, fat and ash, pH, titratable acidity, specific gravity and conductivity) and milk mineral content. The use of Atriplex halimus increased (p< 0.05) the daily milk yield , total solids, total proteins, lactose and Na, K and Ca content while decreased (p<0.05) in conductivity (ms/ cm). To produce one kg milk from camels group fed with berseem hay (control group) required 2.08 M cal metabolism energy and 79.51gm digestible crude protein while in case of camels group fed with fresh Atriplex halimus required 1.35 M cal metabolism energy and 76.73 gm digestible crude protein respectively. It was concluded that the camel fed with Atriplex halimus (saltbush) for a long term did not negatively affect milk production and its chemical and physical composition. So that, the Atriplex can be considered a solution for cost reduction of camel feeding during dry seasons.

 

25/27 THE EFFECT OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF EUCALYPTUS ROSTORATA ON ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY AND GLIOTOXIN PRODUCTION

H.A. Hamedo and A.R. El Shamy*

Faculty of Education El Arish Suez Canal university

*Department of Natural and Microbial Products- National Research Center

A Study was undertaken to explore the effect of volatile oils from Eucalyptus rostrata against two Fungal species Trichoderma virens and Fusarium solani. The radial growth and dry biomass of the tested fungi were drastically reduced in response to the volatile oils. A complete inhibition of the two fungi was observed at 15 and 20 ppm The MIC, and The MFCs of the two fungi were determined. Based on the study, it was concluded that eucalypta volatile oils has potential for the supperession of phytopathogenic fungi, gliotoxin production of the two pathogenic fungi was determined, in all cases and found to be.

 


26/27 EFFECT OF HEAVY METALS POLLUTION ON THE UPTAKE AND METABOLISM OF 14C-UREA BY WATER HYACINTH PLANT IN RELATION TO INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

M.A. Shafik

Department of Biological and Geological Sciences, Faculty of Education,

Alexandria University.

Seasonal samples of water hyacinth plants, water and sediments were collected, through the full year 2004. These samples represent 10 sites near the pipes discharging the industrial wastewater of 10 industries along El Mahmoudia canal of Alexandria. This study aimed for detecting the pollution caused by heavy metals to biotic and abiotic components of El Mahmoudia. Samples were collected after 10 years of the application of the Egyptian environmental low no. 4. Shrinking of water bank through the period from 1992 to 2004 into 1/5, resulted in concentrating heavy metal in both water and sediments. This inturn, cause complete absence of phytoplankton species from samples collected through the year 2004. Heavy metals pollution (by foundry industry) greatly affected 14C-urea uptake and metabolism in water hyacinth; specially the pathway leading to synthesis of protein and free amino acids. The mechanism of urea uptake in the unpolluted samples was the active transport, while it was passive diffusion in the heavy polluted samples of foundry. Induction of urease enzyme in water hyacinth plant occurred in a very fast rate (20 sec) in both polluted and unpolluted samples. For polluted samples, the uptake of urea, labeled and non-labeled occurred within few seconds, soon after the enzyme induction. At early stages of urea incubation, the uptake occurred first, then followed by the metabolism, after the first 20 sec. the uptake of urea coincides with the metabolism. All the urea taken up found its way to insoluble and soluble fraction of the ethanol. The results pointed out to the predominance of: Insoluble fraction over the soluble; Protein amino acids over free amino acids; Radioactive free over radioactive protein and Non radioactive urea over radioactive urea. Under polluted conditions, metabolism was depressed specially of 14C-urea. Depressed metabolism was accompanied with ammonia accumulation in both protein and free amino acid. Radioactivity measurements indicated that no 14C-urea metabolism occurred through early stages of uptake, only non-labeled urea. When metabolism was depressed only conversions between amino acids and conversions between cell constituents were available, in addition to amino acid from the storage pool of non-labeled amino acids. El Mahmoudia canal was recognized as a highly polluted site with heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Co and Ni) due to heavy industrial disposals and (not leakage). Some of these metals are enriched by a factor of 102 –6 x 103. The order of abundances of heavy metals among biotic and abiotic components investigated were: Fe > Zn > Mn > Pb > Ni > Cd > Cu > Cr. The highest polluted industry was Foundry; followed by matches, paper and electronics. Salt and starch and textile industries came next. The least polluted industry through the 10 investigated was food and drugs.
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