Vol. 31, February, 2009

effets negatifs viagra 1/31 ROLE OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI AND / OR STREPTOMYCES SP. IN ALLIVIATION OF HEAVY METAL TOXICITY ON FABA BEAN PLANTS GROWN IN SOIL AMENDED WITH IRON OR SEWAGE SLUDGE

Hoda H. Abo-Ghalia, Azhar A. Hussain and Safa S. Hafez

Botany Department, Faculty of Girls for Arts, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

1- Effect of the interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and priligy avis france Streptomyces sp. isolated from heavy metals contaminated soil on faba bean ( commande de viagra pas cher Vicia faba) plants grown on soil spiked with or without iron (250 ppm) was studied. Iron addition resulted in a decrease in the growth parameters of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. However, AM inoculation significantly enhanced all growth parameters of bean plants, compared to non-mycorrhizal ones especially when the peut on acheter du viagra a la pharmacie sans ordonnance Streptomyces sp. was added. Mycorrhizal symbiosis also significantly increased the photosynthetic pigments, total soluble sugars, proline content, free amino acids, total soluble proteins and crude proteins. In addition the activity of antioxidant enzymes {peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD)} was increased, while iron concentrations in bean plants were decreased compared to untreated ones. The application of levitra et glaucome Streptomyces sp. in combination with AM fungi had positive effects on all physiological indices of bean plants. Also, the combination of the two types of microorganisms increased the metal tolerance index (93.5%) of bean plants compared to that of untreated ones (80%). Addition of iron into the soil had a negative effect on the rate of mycorrhizal colonization of plant roots as well as the spore density in the soil; however cialis generique pas cher en france Streptomyces sp. stimulated the mycorrhizal infection.

2- A pot experiment was conducted to studythe effect of different concentrations of sewage sludge in the soil (1٫ 2 and 4%٫ w/w) on the growth and physiological indices of faba bean plants inoculated with a mixture of AM fungi, vente de kamagra 100mg Streptomyces sp. and combien coute viagra en france Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar forum achat cialis sur le net viciae. The results showed that the application of sewage sludge at levels of 1 and 2 % increased the growth parameters of bean plants as compared to those grown in unamended soil; however 4% level of sewage sludge amendment hadn’t any significant effect. Amendment of sewage sludge to the soil led to increase in the concentrations of N, P٫ K and some heavy metals in both leaves and seeds of faba bean plants compared to those grown in unamended soil. Photosynthetic pigments, total soluble sugars, proline content, free amino acids, total soluble proteins, crude proteins and antioxidant enzymes activity were also enhanced by increasing sewage sludge concentrations in the soil. The rates of mycorrhizal colonization of bean plant roots as well as spores density in the soil were increased at levels of 1 % and 2%, while they decreased at level of 4% sewage sludge.

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2/31 DETECTION AND GENOTYPING OF ROTAVIRUS GENOGROUP A IN WATER TREATMENT PLANTS IN EL-DAKAHLIA GOVERNORATE

Waled M. El-Senousy and El-Mahdy M. El-Mahdy

Enteric Viruses Lab., Water Pollution Department, National Research Center,

Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

The presence of rotavirus strains in water samples was investigated by using a generic molecular detection method based on amplification of a VP6 gene fragment. The samples were collected from different treatment steps of traditional water treatment plant (WTP) (Meet Khamees) and two compact units (Shoha and Mahalet Damana) from El-Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt (October 2006 to September 2007) Overall, the percentage of rotavirus positive samples was 50%, 33.3%, and 25% in raw water of Meet Khamees, Shoha, and Mahalet Damana, respectively. Only one time succession of viral removal was observed in both Meet Khamees and Mahalet Damana WTPs while complete failure in viral removal was observed in Shoha WTP. Positive samples were characterized further, and VP7 and VP4 genotypes were determined. Although 15.2% of the positive samples were G untypeable, the distribution of G types in the positive samples was 75% G1, 25% G3. When the P types were examined, 9.3% of the positive samples were untypeable, and the distribution of types in the positive samples was 56.7% P[4], 33.3% P[8], and 10% P[6]. The distribution for strains of rotaviruses was 39.3% P[4]G1, 28.6% P[8]G1, 17.6% P[4]G3, 7.1% P[8]G3, 7.1% P[6]G1.

 

3/31 ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDY ON THE GENITAL SYSTEM IN FEMALE TICK HYALOMMA (HYALOMMA) ANATOLICUM ANATOLICUM (IXODOIDEA: IXODIDAE)

Faisal A. Bughdadi

Department of Biology, Teacher College, Umm Al-Qura University

Makkah, Saudi Arabia

The ultrastructure of the genital system in the female Hyalomma (Hyalomma) anatolicum is described before feeding. The ovary in transverse section is oval in shape and consists of a layer of epithelium and narrow lumen. It surrounded by delicate connective tissue or tunica propria. The ovarian epithelium consists of interstitial cell, Oogonia and oocytes at different stage of development. The irregular shaped interstitial cell surround the oogonia and extend to the ovarian lumen. The oocytes and oogonia are sometimes connected by intercellular bridges. The oviduct wall consists a single epithelial layer separated from the externally, closely adhering epithelial cells by thick basal lamina. The oviduct (OV) in transverse section is subcircular with small central lumen. The vagina, consisting of vestibular (VV) and cervical (CV) regions, is formed of an epithelium lined internally with a folded cuticular layer and surrounded externally by muscle layers. The procuticle of both vaginal parts is composed of a single layer of cuboidal epithelial cells. The accessory gland open dorsolaterally at the junction between vestibular vagina and cervical vagina. The accessory gland epithelial layer consists of small cell facing a central lumen internally and surrounded by a basal lamina and a thin cuticular layer externally. The receptaculum seminis (RS) wall is composed of an epithelial layer lined by a layer of folded cuticle and the cuticular lining covering the cell apices is thin. The thin folded wall consists of cuboidal epithelial cells surrounded by a thick basal lamina. The connecting tube (CT) opens into the cervical vagina anter-odorsally and leads into the common oviduct posteriorly. It consists of an epithelium lined by a closely-adhering cuticular layer, giving the tube lumen the appearance of an undulate labyrinth with complicated configuration.


4/31 SUCCINIC ACID PRODUCTION BY CORYNEBACTERIUM GLUTAMICUM UNDER OXYGEN DEPRIVATION

Samah M.A. Ghanem

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Helwan, Egypt.

Effect of alteration of growth conditions, addition of sodium bicarbonate and pyruvate on succinic acid production under oxygen deprivation by Corynebacterium glutamicum was studied. Sixteen C. glutamicum strains were isolated from soil, and were screened for succinic acid production under oxygen deprivation conditions. Screening the isolates showed their ability to produce succinic acid under oxygen deprivation, while succinic acid was not detected aerobically. The three isolates having highest succinic acid prodution were selected for further studies (called Cg5, Cg7, and Cg 11). Results showed that growth conditions yielded highest succinic acid production for the three isolates were: 48 hours incubation period, 34°C incubation temperature, initial pH of the fermentation medium 7.4, and 1.5% (v/v) inoculum size. Addition of 150 mM of sodium bicarbonate to the fermentation medium increased succinic acid production by 1.5 fold for the strain Cg5 (the most active strain in succinic acid production). Addition of 10 mM pyruvate found also to have also an enhancing effect on succinic acid production. An overall increase in the succinic acid yield of 211.51 %, 137.47 %, and 144.89 for Cg5, Cg7, and Cg 11, respectively, representing 2.1, 1.4, and 1.4 fold, respectively, was achieved in implicating all optimized factors for succinicacid production in one time.

 

5/31 PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIP OF SIX GLYCYRRHIZA PLANTS BASED ON rbcl GENE AND TOTAL PROTEINS

Abd El-Reheem A. Abd El-Reheem, Mahmoud M. Rifaat, Zakria A. Teleb*, Abd El-Aziz A. Salam and Walid W. Mohamed*

Department of Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University

*National Organization for Drug Control and Research ''NODCAR''

The genetic distances among five G. glabra and G. uralensis were range (0.30 – 0.04) based on rbcl gene.The results indicated that G. uralensis was found to be higher in both magnitude and range than those observed between G. glabra from different origins, revealed that G. uralensis was widely dispersed. A phylogenetic relationship was constructed from rbcl gene showed that the six Glycyrrhiza plants were divided into three clusters. The results indicated that G. glabra from Spain and Egypt were closely related. The genetic distances among five G. glabra and G. uralensis were ranged (0.31 – 0.05) based on total proteins which extracted from fresh leaves. These results showed that the agreement with those obtained from genetic distances based on rbcl gene. A phylogenetic relationship was constructed from total proteins showed that the six Glycyrrhiza plants were divided into four clusters. The results indicated that high closely related between five G. glabra but G. uralensis was separated from other five G. glabra based on their total proteins.


6/31 GLYCYRRHIZIN BIOSYNTHESIS IN GLYCYRRHIZA PLANTS BY USING MOLECULAR BIOLOGY TECHNIQUES

Abd El-Reheem A. Abd El-Reheem, Mahmoud M. Rifaat, Zakria A. Teleb*, Abd El-Aziz A. Salam and Walid W. Mohamed*

Department of Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University

*National Organization for Drug Control and Research ''NODCAR''

Licorice (roots and stolons of Gylcyrrhiza plants) is a well - known natural sweetener and its sweet constituent was an oleanane - type triterpene saponin, glycyrrhizin. Moreover to elucidated the regulation of the triterpenoid biosynthesis in G. glabra and G. uralensis, cDNAs of oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) and β-amyrin synthase (bAS) which are situated at the branching point of triterpenoid biosynthesis were cloned. Transformed E. coli with an expression vector containing open reading frame of (OSC) and (bAS) indicating that both (OSC) and (bAS) encodes oxidosqualene cyclase and β-amyrin synthase involved in the glycyrrhizin and soyasaponin biosynthesis in licorice. Large scale production of DNA plasmid was prepared for sequencing. Results showed that (bAS) a 2641 bp open reading frame for a polypeptide (87.5KDa) of 765 amino acids and for (OSC) a 1225 bp open reading frame for a polypeptide (54.5 KDa) of 469 amino acids.

7/24 EFFECT OF SOME CROP ROOT EXUDATES COMPARED WITH FUNGICIDES ON MYCELIAL GROWTH OF SOME DATE PALM ROOT ROT CAUSAL FUNGI

Abeer.H.E.Abd-El Kareim, Ezz G. Gadalla and Abdel-Rahman. M. Mohamed

Central Laboratory of Date Palm Research and Development, Agricultural Research Center Giza, Egypt

Growing seedling of disease resistant date palm cv.Sakkoti, aseptically on wetted filter paper for two weeks into glass jars, resulted in inhibitory root exudates to mycelial growth of some date palm root pathogenic fungi when added into PDA plates at rates up to 10% v/v. Reductions in mycelial growth of Fusarium moniliforme reached 40%with date palm and alfa –alfa root exudates. While both cauliflower and roquette root exudates reduced only 3.3 % of mycelial growth. Reductions in fungal growth obtained with mixed root exudates of date palm with cauliflower or roquette were not greatly higher than individual date palm root exudates of each crop. Growth of Phytophthora sp. was also inhibited by cauliflower root exudates which exhibited 30% reduction in fungal growth followed by 24.44% reduction with date palm, (24.22%) with alfa-alfa, and root exudates mixture of date palm with roquette (20%) which was more reductive than individual roquette root exudates .Lowest reduction in fungal growth was detected with date palm-cauliflower mixed root exudates. Root exudates were less reductive to mycelial growth of Rhizoctonia solani than the fore-mentioned fungi. Root exudates tested of date palm, alfa alfa   and their mixtures were completely not reductive to   Rhizoctonia solani     mycelial growth. While the highest reduction in the fungal growth reached (22.22%) was detected only with individual cauliflower and mixed date palm-roquette root exudates. Lowest reduction was obtained with date palm-cauliflower root exudates mixture which reached (7.7%). Accordingly, intercropping date palm with roquette could be conveniently applied to control the infection with these fungi in date palm orchards more than other tested crops. Chemical control of these pathogens was also studied. Cupper Oxychloride and its 1/1 v/v mixture with vitavax added into PDA plates at the rate of 500 ppm completely reduced growth of Fusarium moniliforme while vitavax and its mixture with Cupper Oxychloride completely stopped growth of Phytophthora sp. at the rate of 250 ppm. But Rhizoctonia solani was greatly sensitive to Cupper Oxychloride which completely reduced the fungal growth at 10ppm. However, the Cupper Oxychloride –vitavax mixture completely stopped growth of the three fungi at the rate of 500 ppm. Therefore, date palm off-shoots dip treatments at rates of this fungicide mixture should be studied to find out the most effective rate for controlling the infection with these fungi before transplanting.

 

 

8/31 PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PROTEASES FROM ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS VAR. COLUMNARIS

Mohamed E. Osman, Omkolthoum H. Khattab and Yasmin M. EL-Sabaa

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University,

Ain Helwan, Egypt.

Extracellular proteases produced by A. flavus var. columnaris grown on wheat bran mineral salts medium were purified and characterized. Proteases were precipitated from culture supernatants using ammonium sulphate and then purified by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100.The obtained protease has a molecular weight of 50 kDa using SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH, optimum temperature, pH stability, thermal stability and substrate concentration are 9, 55°C, pH 6 - 10.5, 50°C, 20mg/ml, respectively. Metal ions such as Zn2+ and Ba2+ marginally enhanced the activity while Hg2+ inhibited it sharply.

 

9/31 PRODUCTION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS PRODUCED BYSTREPTOMYCES SPECIES

Gamal Mohammed El-Said El-Sherbiny

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Madient Nasr, Cairo

In the course of a screening program for new antimicrobial agents, an actinomycete strain could be isolated from a sand soil collected from north western meditrranian coast of Egypt on a depth of 30cm. The isolates were found to have the ability to produce an antimicrobial agent(s). This actinomycete isolates were identified to the species level as a Streptomyces nasri-12 from the collected data of characterization when grown on different ISP media, and with the help of morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the isolate under study. The active metabolite from Streptomyces nasri-12 was extracted by ethyl acetate. The separation, purification and characterization of the active metabolite was performed using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Thephysicochemical studies of the purified active metabolite including solubility, spectroscopic characteristics and chemicalreactions have been investigated. The biological activities of the purified activemetabolite i.e. MICs values were determined and the antimicrobial activity against a bacterial isolate from gingival diseases was carried out.

 


10/31 GROWTH DYNAMICS AND ACCUMULATION OF NUTRIENTS AND HEAVY METALS IN PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS (CAV.) TRINPLANTS IN FREE SURFACE CONSTRUCTED WETLAND

Ahmed A. Khalafallah, Mona Alaam* and Diaa El Din El-Quosy*

Botany Depart, Women College for Arts, Science and Education, Ain Shams Univ.

*Ministry of Public Works and Water Resources.

Lake Manzala Engineered Wetland Project (LMEWP) was designed for treating 25000 m3 of Bahr Al-Baqar wastewater. Free surface flow basin vegetated by Phragmites australis plants was adopted for the present investigation which aimed to determine the best growth stage for reed plants harvesting for improving water treatment processes. Phragmites australis plants were harvested twice during the study period, the 1st harvesting was on September 2006 and the 2nd was on March 2007. Plant growth criteria and accumulation of nutrients and heavy metals in aerial shoots were determined at four locations far from the inlet by 50, 100, 150 and 200m. Present data showed that growth criteria of Phragmites australis (shoot density, shoot height, leaf area and dry biomass) were maximized after four months from the 1st and 2nd harvestings and showed that shoot height, leaf area and dry biomass decreased by increasing the distance from the inlet, while shoot density increased. Chlorophyll contents of plant leaves increased by increasing plant age to four months and decreased in the following months, while carotenoids continuously increased. Macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na) accumulated in Phragmites australis shoots; however, highest accumulation was recorded after four months from the harvesting. Heavy metals (Fe, Pb, Ni and Cd) recorded their maximum accumulation in reed plants shoots after four months from harvesting and decreased in the following period. It can be reported that 104m2 vegetated with Phragmites australis plants (4 months old) removed 53.86, 7.42, 63.98, 12.71, 11.92, 13.72, and 2.56, kg for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na and Fe, respectively, while six months aged plants removed 0.59, 0.55 and 0.25 kg of Pb, Ni and Cd, respectively. The present results suggest harvesting Phragmites australis plants after four months from the harvest to maximize the removal of nutrients or after six months for maximizing heavy metals removal.

 

11/31 A DOUBLE ANTIBODY SANDWICH ELISA FORMAT FOR QUANTIFICATION OF ANTIBODIES TO B. PERTUSSIS

Ebtsam M El-Kady, Ahmed F. Wahby* and Somaia A. Eissa**

Microbial Biotechnology National Research Center Dokki-Cairo Egypt

*Molecular Biology National Research Center Dokki-Cairo Egypt

** Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicin, Cairo University

Bordettela Pertussis (B pertussis) antigens and a reference antiserum are prerequisite for determination of antibodies in the indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, the interpreted data is liable variation which is mainly attributed to the nature of the ELISA plates and the source of antigens. In the present work ELISA plate antigen coats for measuring the anti-B pertussis antibodies were prepared in two steps; the first is the adsorption of highly avid mouse anti-B pertussis antiserum to the ELISA plates followed by the binding of B. pertussis antigens to the antibody coat. Human sera (n=56) were titrated in two ELISA formats revealed that compared to the indirect ELISA, the double antibody sandwich ELISA is much more reproducible and sensitive. This result demonstrates that the characteristics the created antigen coat by the specific binding of antigens to the antibody coated   ELISA plates is more reproducible than the passively adsorbed antigens to the ELISA plates. Furthermore it revealed that, the high avidity of the mouse anti-B pertussis antiserum and the reference human ant-B.pertussis antiserum allowed the adsorption of almost all the corresponding antigens which decreased the effect of the antigen batch variation. It is obvious that we can   took advantage of the specifically bound antigen coat in establishing ELISA for measuring the corresponding antibodies .The procedures could have wide application in epidemiological studies.

 

12/31 GERMINATION AND GROWTH RESPONSES OF PLANTAGO AFRA L. TO SOME GROWTH REGULATORS AND DIFFERENT STRESSES

Kamal El-Din H. Batanouny, Sameh A. Amin and Mai S. Fouad

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, El Fayoum University, Egypt

Plantago afra is considered as a winter crop growing in October or November and collected within May and June. The plant is lying under the list of endangered plants due to the threatening of its habitats. The study gives an account of the suitable conditions for seed germination; e.g. temperature, salinity and serial concentrations of GA3 and IAA. The effect of different water regimes on the studied species growth and productivity was investigated in vivo. The growth of the studied species is directly proportional to the applied water regime. The mucilage content of the seeds has given special attention.

 

13/31 APPLICATION OF SAFE BIOTECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEM FOR DEGRADATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

Reda A. Bayoum, Ali A. El-Bassosi*, Yasser M. Mostafa*, Abdel Hakim T. Kandil** and Heba A. El-Gheriany**

Botany and Microbiolog Department, Faculty of Science (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

*Egyptian Petrolium Reserch Institute (EPRI), Nasr City, El-Hay Eltamin, Cairo.

**Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Helwan, Egypt.

An investigation concerning application of safe biotechnological system for bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crude oil pollutants in corrugated plate interceptor (API) polluted water in refining industrial effluent of Cairo Oil Refining Company (CORC). Seventy three, fifty, twenty nine, fifteen, thirty eight and six hydrocarbon (crude oil) utilizing bacterial isolates were obtained from six water samples collected from out area (OA), skim basin inlet (SBI), skim basin outlet (SBO), a corrugated plate interceptor(API), dissolved air floatation inlet (DAFI) and DAF outlet (DAFO) localities, respectively in summer season. Seven, three, two, two, one and zero hydrocarbon (crude oil) utilizing fungal isolates were isolated from OA, SBI, SBO, APII and DAFI in summer season on medium A. Twenty six, thirty eight, seventy four, twenty nine, twenty three and fifty two hydrocarbon (crude oil) utilizing bacterial isolates were obtained from six water samples collected from the previously mentioned localities respectively in summer season from CORC industrial effluent treatment plant on medium B. As well, two, seven, four, three, one and one hydrocarbon (crude oil) utilizing fungal isolates were isolated from CORC industrial effluent treatment plant. Eighty six, twenty five, twenty eight, fifty six, thirty and thirty two hydrocarbon (crude oil) utilizing bacterial isolates were obtained from out area (OA), skim basin inlet (SBI), skim basin outlet (SBO), API (API), DAF inlet (DAFI) and DAF outlet (DAFO), respectively. PAHs removal percentages (%) in API effluent after biodegradation of four selected isolated bacterial isolates in summer season from total nine isolates 78.21,88.16,84.09 and 83.38 % with S1OA12,S4DAFI21, S7DAFI22 and S8API12 respectively. Also four selected bacterial isolates from total ten isolates from winter season exhibited high removal percentages (%) of PAHs in API effluent 99.63, 92.74, 98.60 and 97.37% with W5OA31, W7DAFO22, W8APII31 and W10DAFO23 respectively. W5OA31, W7DAFO22, S7DAFI22 and W7DAFO22 exhibited high removal percentages of PAHs in crude oil polluted API effluent using mineral medium (medium), 89.4, 95, 99.7 and 43.5 % respectively while two isolates S8API 12 and S7DAFI22 exhibited removal percentages of 84 and 88.2 % respectively. The most potent four selected bacterial isolates that exhibited high removal percentages of PAHs were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes W5OA31, Pseudomonas oleovorans W7DAFO22, Enterobacter cloacae S7DAFI22 and Pseudomonas stutzeri S8API12. These four bacterial isolates were recommended to be used for the removal of PAHs in API effluent and also bioremediation of crude oil polluted industrial effluents in CORC plant.

 

14/31 ROLE OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE AND CALMODULIN ON ANTIOXIDATIVE RESPONSES OF BANANA CULTIVARS GROWN UNDER SALT STRESS

Samia M. El-Khallal*, Tahani A. Hathout*, Ayman A. El-Fiki** and Noha E. ِِAliwa**

*Botany Department, Faculty of Girls for Arts, Science and Education,

Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

** National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo, Egypt.

In the present study, application by 5mM CaCl2 or 0.001mM calmodulin (CaM) alleviate oxidative damage in shoots of banana cultivars grown in MS media supplemented with 50mM NaCl. Results appeared that level of H2O2 markedly decreased in banana shoots, as compared with salinized – control. CaM-treated plants of Williams cultivar have low level of H2O2. In response to 50mM NaCl, content of malondialdhyde (MDA), which was used as an index of lipid peroxidation significantly increased in both cultivars. Treatments with CaCl2 or CaM significantly decreased MDA especially in Williams cultivar. As the result of oxidative damage in banana shoots, antioxidant system including ascorbic acid (ASA) and antioxidant enzymes (CAT, APOX, POX and SOD) significantly increased. Results appeared that ASA increased in all treatments, but the highest value was found in Williams cultivar grown in CaM-nutrient media. High levels of APOX and POX was recorded in Grand Nain cultivar treated with CaCl2. However, 0.001mM CaM gave the highest activity of SOD especially in Williams cultivar. Our results indicate that application with CaCl2 and CaM induce salt resistance in banana cultivars through enhancing antioxidant system which reduced generation of reactive oxygen species.

15/31 ROLE OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE AND CALMODULIN ON PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF BANANA CULTIVARS GROWN UNDER SALT STRESS

Samia M. El-Khallal*, Tahani A. Hathout*, Ayman A. El-Fiki** and Noha E. ِِAliwa**

*Botany Department, Faculty of Girls for Arts, Science and Education,

Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

** National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo, Egypt.

Calcium plays an important role in increasing plant resistance to salinity. In the present work, addition of calcium as Ca+2 salt (CaCl2 ) or Ca+2 binding protein (calmodulin, CaM) to the nutrient media markedly alleviate the harmful effect of NaCl on growth of banana cultivars (Williams and Grand Nain). Shoot growth (% of survival, number of leaves, shoot length, fresh and dry weights) of both cultivars significantly increased by the addition of 5 mM CaCl2 or 0.001 mM CaM to 50 mM NaCl, as compared with salinized control. Application with 0.001 mM CaM had the highest promoting effect on banana growth than 5mM CaCl2. The content of chl.a, chl.b, carotenoids and total pigments significantly decreased in leaves of both banana cultivars in response to salt stress. Supplemental Ca2+ markedly increased levels of pigments in banana leaves and the highest content was found in CaM treatments. The mean values of K+ and Ca2+ ions significantly decreased in shoots of banana cultivars grown in MS media containing 50 mM NaCl, while Na+ and Cl- ions and ratios of Na+/K+ and Na+/Ca2+ increased. Treatments with CaCl2 and CaM markedly increased K+ and Ca+ and decreased accumulation of Na+ and Cl- ions in NaCl-stressed banana shoots of both cultivars. Also, ratios of Na+/K+ and Na+/Ca2+ significantly decreased in CaCl2 or CaM treatments. Contents of soluble sugars and soluble proteins decreased in banana shoots in response to NaCl, but addition of CaCl2 and CaM markedly increased these contents. On the other hand, proline levels significantly increased in shoots of salinized banana cultivars. The highest proline content was recorded in shoots of Grand Nain cultivar treated with 5 mM CaCl2. Finally, results cleared that CaM was more effective than CaCl2 for counteracting the harmful action of salt stress on banana cultivars. Also, results appeared that Williams cultivar was more salt resistance than Grand Nain.

 

16/31 THE USE OF CAMEL RENNET IN SOFT CHEESE MADE FROM CAMEL'S SKIM MILK

Mostafa M. Ashour; Atia A. Abd El-Baky; Mervet M. Mokhtar*;

El-Sayed M. Abd El-Wahed and Alaa H. Ibrahim*

Department of food science, Faculty of agriculture, Zagazig University, Egypt.

*Department of Animal and Poultry Breeding, Desert Research Center, cairo, Egypt       

Skim camel's milk was used in manufacture of white soft cheese. The camel and calf rennet were used. The results indicated that the TS% content of cheese manufactured from skim camel milk and treated with camel rennet was higher than in cheese treated with calf rennet with significant differences (p<0.05) between all treatments in TS%, TP/DM%, Fat/DM%, Salt/DM%, Ash% pH and TA%. In case of sensory evaluation fresh soft cheese manufactured from skim cow milk and treated with calf rennet only had the highest scores than that of all treatments, after 8 weeks the same treatments treated with camel or calf rennet had the highest score of body and texture and total score than that of all treatments but in appearance the treatment treated with calf rennet only had the highest scores than that of all treatments The retained fat, protein and total solids in the cheese manufactured from camel skim milk. It was noticed that the highest weight, yield%, recovery of fat %, protein % and milk total solids% of cheese produced recorded in fresh cheese made from camel milk treated with camel rennet than that the same treated with calf rennet. The same trend was observed for two treatments in recovery of milk total solids% and the highest recovery of milk total solids % found in cheese made from milk treated with camel rennet. In cheese manufactured from 50% mixed camel skim milk it is clear that the weight, yield%, recovery of protein % and milk total solids % of cheese manufactured from milk treated with camel or calf rennet was decreased gradually during storage periods and the highest weight of cheese manufactured recorded in fresh cheese made from 50% mixed camel skim milk treated with camel rennet. Also, the highest percentage of loss in weight after 2 weeks storage for cheese made from 50% mixed camel milk treated with calf rennet and decreased gradually during storage periods for two treatments. While, the highest recovery of fat % found after 8 weeks. Thus camel rennet can be used to improve the of cheese weight %, yield% and recovery of protein% and fat% and milk total solids % for camel milk cheese.

 

17/31 INTERACTIVE EFFECT OF GIBBERELLIC ACID ON WHEAT GRAIN GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH UNDER NaCl SALINITY

Hanan Helmy Latif

Dept of Biological and Geological Science of Education, Ain Shams Univ.

The present study was carried out to germinate wheat grain and seedling growth under salinity stress via treatment with gibberellic acid. The obtained results showed intense changes in chlorophyll a,b, carotenoids; soluble sugars, crude protein, and lipids contents; of seedling growth as well as decrease of grain germination due to germination under salt stress (4 or 6 mg/L NaCl). On the other hand, grain treated with GAs was remarkable increased germination percentage and seedlings growth. Gibberellic acid applied was able to treat the effect of salinity on phytochemical whereas increased these compounds compared with irrigation with 4 or 6 mg/L NaCl only. In addition, the results clearly indicated pre found changes in amylases; invertase and Mg2+ ATP ase due to germination process as their activities increased sharply during the first five days of seedling growth. The enzyme activities were decreased up to the 15th day. However, those enzymes showed variable to salt stress and application of gibberellic treatment. Salt stress depressed sharply the peroxidase activity of onset of germination, while it attained its activity with increasing seedling age. Application of gibberellic acid stimulated markedly the peroxidase activity in salt stressed seedlings.

18/31 Isolation of Lysozyme, LACTOPEROXIDASE, Lactoferrin And immuonoglobbulin G (Igg), from camel milk with referance to THE LACTATION months and Grazing on style

Mostafa M. Ashour; Atia A. Abd El-Baky; Mervet M. Mokhtar*;

El-Sayed M. Abd El-Wahed and Alaa H. Ibrahim*

Department of food science, Faculty of agriculture, Zagazig University, Egypt.

*Department of Animal and Poultry Breeding, Desert Research Center, cairo, Egypt.

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of lactation months and type of diet on the activity of lysozyme, lactoperoxidase and lactoferrin, IgG concentration in camel’s milk. It was noticed that the lysozyme and lactoperoxidase activity and lactoferrin concentration which were isolated from milk produced from camel fed on berseem hay and atriplex groups fluctuated through out lactation months with no significant difference (p < 0.05) for berseem hay group. Results indicated that the concentration of lactoferrin, IgG and activity of lysozyme which isolated from camels fed on Atriplex was higher values than those isolated from milk obtained from camels fed with berseem hay. Meanwhile the activity of lactoperoxidase activity isolated from camel fed with berseem hay was higher than that isolated from camels fed on Atriplex with significant difference (p<0.05) between the two groups, in concern with lysozyme activity and lactoferrin concentration. No significant difference (p<0.05) between the two groups in lactoperoxidase activity and IgG concentration.

 

19/31 USING OF NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF SOME BAKERY PRODUCTS

Ferial Ismail, Salwa EI-Magoli, Hoda. G. M. Ali** N. Ibrahim*

and M. Ramadan*

Food Sci. Dep., Fac. of Agric. Cairo Univ., Egypt.

*Food Tech. Res. Inst, ARC. Egypt.

**Nuclear Res. Cent., Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt.     

In this study the technological process of pretzels was investigated. Different types of antioxidants were added to the main ingredients (α tocopherol, β carotene and fat coated ascorbic acid). Also, natural sources i.e, wheat germ as source of vitamin E, dehydrated carrots powder as source of vitamin A and dehydrated guava powder as a source of vitamin C, were added in comparison with the synthetic antioxidant (BHT). Pretzels were processed according to the method in AACC (1995). The bakery product was fortified with sources of natural at the levels of 5, 10 and 15% Sensory evaluation and physical properties indicated that the best characteristics were observed at the level of 10%. Stability of antioxidant, during processing was investigated. Also biological effects of the natural sources of vitamins were studied. Results indicated that vitamin E was high stable than vitamin A and C. Biological evaluation of natural antioxidant in the end product, products showed that glucose, cholesterol, LDL, GOT and GPT values were reduced compared to the diabetic control and BHT groups. Also natural antioxidants were more effective as positive action for reducing the activity of liver enzymes AST or ALT. Meanwhile, synthetic antioxidant (BHT) showed negative action on liver function.


20/31 THE PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ORIGANUM MAJORANA ESSENTIAL OIL AS ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT

Mona M. Abd El Mageid; Shahinaz A. Helmy; Lobna A. M. Hareedy*

and Marwa T. Hussein*

Department of Food Sci., Fac. Of Agric., Cairo Univ., Giza, Egypt

*Food Tech. Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

Marjoram is extensively used as an aromatic and medicinal plant. Therefore the chemical composition of marjoram essential oil was determined by GC/MS. The thirty eight identified compounds were representing 96.82%. The hydrocarbon compounds accounted 61.48%, while the oxygenated compounds constituted 35.34%. The main compound was α-phyllandrene (8.87%), followed by α-terpinene (7.37%), γ-terpinene (7.25%) and terpinen-4-ol (6.33%). Marjoram essential oil was examined for its antimicrobial activity against 4 bacterial and 7 fungal strains using Disc Diffusion method. Data ascertained that marjoram essential oil had an inhibitory effect against all tested fungal and bacterial strains, especially, at high concentrations, while Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRLY 2034 was more resistant. Furthermore, antioxidant effect of marjoram essential oil was examined by the 2, 2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. Data ascertained that marjoram essential oil exhibited an antioxidant activity, especially, at high concentration (50000 ppm), which gave 88.82% inhibition comparing with the synthetic antioxidant, BHT at 200 ppm which gave 65% inhibition. The biological effect of marjoram essential oil on hypercholesterolemic rats was examined compared with BHT. Results proved that oral administration of marjoram essential oil at 1mg and 2 mg/kg body weight decreased the serum cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and total lipids compared with control group (rats fed on high fat diet containing cholesterol). Also, feeding with BHT exhibited reduction in the previous parameters. Moreover, marjoram essential oil reduced the liver function enzymes AST and ALT and kidney function (urea, uric acid and creatinine) of rats. On the contrary, oral administration of BHT for 6 weeks increased the liver function enzymes and kidney functions.  

 

21/31 RHIZOSPHERE MICROFLORA OF WHEAT FOLLOWING APPLICATION OF THE FUNGICIDE CHITOSAN DERIVED FROM CRAB-SHELL CHITIN TO SOIL INFESTED WITH RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI KÜHN (AG-8)

Aisha M.H. Al-Rajhi

Collage of Training Teachers / Riyadh-Saudi Arabia

Significant variations were detected in species composition between untreated rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of wheat plants. Application of different concentrations of the fungicide chitosan derived from crab-shell chitin (5-250 μgml-1) to these soils caused significant alterations in species assemblages as compared with untreated soils. Also variations in species composition were denoted between treated rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils. Chitosan concentrations of (10-100 μgml-1) significantly affected microbial counts in soil and rhizosphere of wheat plants. Counts have been stimulated at chitosan concentrations ranging from (10-50 μgml-1) for fungi and (10-100 μgml-1) for bacteria. At concentrations higher than the upper limits of these ranges, R/S values were not significantly affected. The results also indicated that Rhizoctonia solani Kühn populations were unaffected by chitosan at the concentration (10 μgml-1). Above this concentration and within the conditions of the experiment, the pathogen maintained its population at detectable inocula. Population counts of Aspergillus candidus, a species reported to be able to degrade chitosan, were high in both treated rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils.

 

22/31 SELECTION OF HIGH QUALITY BAKER'S YEAST MUTANT FOR BREAD-MAKING

Sobhy. M. Mohsen, Nagwa. M. El-Shimi, Naglaa A. Abdallah*

and Heba S. Mostafa

Food Science and Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

*Genetics Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Four strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae i.e. NRRL Y-2034, NRRL Y-2072, NRRL Y-2073, and commercial baker's yeast strain were tested for their quality characteristics required for good bread making. Results showed that, strain NRRL Y-2034 exhibited higher fermentation power, invertase and maltase activity, trehalose content and dry weight compared to other strains. Mutation of this strain were obtained by Ethyl Methane Sulfonate (EMS) and revealed that out of 30 isolated mutants, two (i.e. EM-7 and EM-5) exhibited higher fermentation capacity, invertase and maltase activities than the original strain NRRL Y-2034. When the mutant (EM-7) was used in bread making, the staling of balady bread loaves was reduced during storage for 72 h by 18.2 %. The organoleptic characteristics of the produced loaves had also the highest overall acceptability being 92 compared to original strain NRRL Y-2034 and commercial baker's yeast (being 75 and 79.3 ), respectively.

 

23/31 POTENTIAL FOR IMPROVING EGYPTIAN CLOVER PRODUCTION AND QUALITY BY CO-INOCULATION WITH PSEUDOMONAS AND RHIZOBIUM

Medhat Y. Abou – Zeid, Hoda E. Ibrahim*, Heba Sh. Shehata and Amal W. Abo El-Khair

Microbiology Dept. Soils, Water and Environment, Res. -Inst., Agric. Res. Center (ARC), Cairo, Egypt.

*Forage Crops Res. Dep., Field Crops Res. Inst., (ARC) Cairo, Egypt.

Two field experiments were carried out in winter season of 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 in a clay soil at Giza Experiment Farm, Agriculture Research Center (ARC) to promote plant growth and improve quality of Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) cultivar Helalee by co-inoculation different Pseudomonas spp. and Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii. Results of 5 cuts indicated that inoculation with Rhizobium or co-inoculation with Rhizobium and Pseudomonas spp. had positive effects on number of tillers/m2 and plant height (cm) for both seasons, where the third cut was superior to other cuts of clover plants. Fresh and dry yield (ton/fed) increased significantly as a result of inoculation, where co-inoculation with Rhizobium and Pseudomonas fluorescens B gave the highest fresh and dry yield in the first season, recorded 65.40 and 7.86 ton/fed which were increased by about 35 and 30 % over control, respectively. In the second season, it were 68.03 and 8.43 ton / fed which increased yield by about 41 and 40% over control by inoculation with P. aeruginosa, respectively. The second cut was the superior to other cuts in fresh and dry yield for both seasons. Bacterial inoculation gave significant increases in root length and diameter, and root nodules number and dry weight after the first and second cuts for the second season. Co-inoculation with Rhizobium and P. putida led to the highest root nodules number and dry weight in the first cut, while it was inoculated with only Rhizobium in the second cut. Results also indicated that co-inoculation of used bacteria had a significant effect on some chemical constituents i.e. crude fiber %( CF %), ash%, crude protein% (CP %) and nitrogen free extracts % (NFE%). Where CF%, ash% and CP% increased significantly by co-inoculation with Rhizobium and P. fluorescens A, especially CP%, which increased by about 26% over control. While, NFE% was decreased significantly by co-inoculation with Rhizobium and P. fluorescens A. Regarding some nutritive values of clover, i.e. digestible crude protein % (DCP%) and total digestible nutrients (TDN%), data revealed that there were significant differences by inoculation, DCP% was increased by about 35% over control as a result of co-inoculation with Rhizobium and P. fluorescens A, whereas, TDN% decreased significantly by inoculation.

 

24/31 UPTAKE OF CERTAIN HEAVY METALS BY TWO FRESH WATER ALGAE AND THEIR EFFECTS ON SOME ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES

Yassin M. El- Ayouty, Alaa A. Said and Mostafa M. Sami

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
Anabaena sp. and Chlorella vulgaris were shown to adsorb both zinc and cobalt with a variable efficiency. The efficiency for zinc uptake was preferable by Anabaena sp. rather than Chlorella vulgaris. Meanwhile, cobalt adsorbed by Chlorella vulgaris more than Anabaena sp. The relatively lower concentrations of both metals stimulated the activity of some metabolic enzymes (nitrate reductase, superoxide dismutase and malate dehydrogenase) with a variable degrees. On the other hand, as the concentration of both metals elevated the metabolic activities of the previous enzymes were sharply decreased. Results, also evaluated that, zinc at low concentrations counteract the inhibitory effect of the higher concentration of cobalt and vice versa, when they seeded in the nutritive medium of Chlorella vulgaris. Moreover, Anabaena sp. was grown only at the bimetallic combination of lower concentrations of zinc (2.5ppm) and cobalt (0.5ppm), where, the other bimetallic combinations have no sign of growth.       
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