Vol. 33, October, 2009

1/33 STUDIES ON THE PLANT DIVERSITY IN WADI QINA, EGYPT

Ahmed M. Fawzy and Abd El-Halim A. Mohamed

Flora & Phyto-Taxonomy Researches Department, Horticultural Research

Institute, Agricultural Research Centre, Dokki, Eygpt.

The present study on the plant diversity in Wadi Qina comprises 52 species from 17 Angiospermae families: Compositae 22%, Gramineae 13%, 9% in each of Chenopodiaceae and Leguminosae and 8% in each of Cruciferae and Polygonaceae, Convolvulaceae 5%, 4% in each of Asclepiadaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Zygophyllaceae. In addition seven families are represented by 2%: Malvaceae, Orobanchaceae, Palmae, Plantaginaceae, Primulaceae, Resedaceae and Tamaricaceae. The perennial species in the studied area were 40%; while the annual ones were 60%.   Two annual parasites were recorded: Cuscuta campestris Yunck. and Orobanche ramosa L.

2/33 ISOLATION AND EVALUATION OF SOME NITROGEN FIXING MICROORGANISMS FROM YEMEN SOIL

Gamal El-Didamony*, Mohamed F. Al-Helaly**, Ali M. A. Zaid***,

Mohamed Al-Abboud**** and S. Ba-Angood*****

*Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, **Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Sana'a University, ***Plant Pathology Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt, ****Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science Ibb University and *****Department of Plant Protection, Nasir's College of Agriculture, Aden University,

Two isolates of Rhizobium leguminosorum bv. Phaseoli, nine isolates of R. leguminosorum bv .vicia were isolated from Phaesolus vulgaris and Vicia fabae, respectively from different agriculture localities of Yemen soil. Twelve isolates of Rhizobium spp. were isolated from nodules of Vigna unguiculata. Eleven isolates of Azospirillium spp. (6 isolates fro rhizosphere of Triticum vulgare, 2 isolates from Hordeum vulgare and 3 isolates from Zea mays) were isolated and purified. Azotobacter spp. (3 isolates), were isolated from Hordium vulgare (2 isolates) and Zea mays (one isolate). Legume plants grown in different localities of Yemen soil have nodules containing rhizobia with different characters. Phaseolus vulgaris have good natural nodulation under environmental conditions of Yemen soil. Rhizobium isolates showed different antibiotic sensitivity. Generally slow growing rhizobia showed more resistant toward penicillin and chloramphenicol. Azospirrilium spp. (11 isolates) showed six different antibiotic sensitivity patterns .There is no fixed correlation between the number of nodules and their activity.

 

3/33 CHARACTERISTICS OF BACTERIOCINS PRODUCED BY ENTEROCOCCUS SPP. ISOLATED FROM TRADITIONAL FOODS

Mohamed F. Al-Helali, Salah A. Al-Hashedi*and N. Al-Zoreky**

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Sana'a University, Yemen

*Bajel Complex for Food Industry -Yemen Economical Corporation, Yemen

**Department of Food Science & Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Sana'a University, Yemen

Bacteriocins produced by food-associated microorganisms are of interest to the food industry and consumers for potential use as natural preservatives. Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides or proteins with antagonistic activity against species genetically closely related to the producer strain. Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from 67 different foods collected from local markets (Yemen) and were screened for antagonistic activity against reference LAB pathogenic microorganisms by using the overlay technique. These strains were tested for their ability to produce bacteriocin in All Purpose with Tween (APT) and de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) by using differed spot assay. The antagonistic effects of the crude or cell-free supernatant (CFS) for the active isolates against the indicator, L. monocytogenes Scott A, were deserted upon treatment with various proteases; i.e., pepsin, proteases and α-Chymotrypsin. This indicated the proteinaceous nature (bacteriocins) of the crude produced by the isolates. Identification of the two active isolates (Enterococcus spp.) was carried out on the basis of its morphological, biochemical characteristics and carbohydrate fermentation profile. One enterococcal isolate was from tradition buttermilk and the other was from fresh clintro. The crude CFS of this active isolates inhibited the growth of reference bacteria such as Lactobacillus bulgaricus 210 and food-borne pathogens including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogens. The CFS produced by the Enterococcus spp. were active under various pH (5.1-7.3), and maintained approximately 84% of their activity against Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis C2 at pH 7.30. Withstanding sterilization was a characteristic of the CFS produced by Enterococcus spp. The CFS produced by Enterococcus spp. were stable upon storage at 4°C for more than six months. Enterococcus sp. (L55) produced CFS possessing a bactericidal effect on Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 whereas the MIC (%) of the CFS of the other isolate, Enterococcus sp. (LCC), was >10% against the same pathogen.

4/33 MICROBIAL BIOSORPTION AND ADSORPTION OF SOME HEAVY METALS OCCURRED IN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS

Reda A. Bayoumi, Mervat M. Abo-State*, Mamdouh S. El-Gamal

and Mohamed A. Mabrouk

Botany & Microbiol.Dept., Faculty of Science (Boys), Al-Azhar Univ., Cairo, Egypt,

*National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Atomic Energy Authority, Madinet Nasr, Cairo. Egypt.

XII
 
Nine heavy metals resistant bacterial isolates from some industrial effluents in Egypt were isolated. These isolates were screened on three concentrations of each one of the three heavy metals (Cu+2, Hg+2 and Pb+2) used in this study. The nine heavy metals resistance bacterial isolates were identified as Escherichia coli MAM-1, Citrobacter freundii MAM-2, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MAM-3, Enterobacter cloaceae MAM-4, Klebsiella pneumoniae MAM-4, Proteus vulgaris MAM-6, Providincia rettgeri MAM-7, Acinetobacter sp. MAM-8 and Enterococcus viridans MAM-9. The most potent Gram-negative Enterobacter cloaceae MAM-4 was found to be able to grow on 254 (mg/l) Cu+2; 30 (mg/l) Hg+2 and 934 (mg/l) Pb+2. The ability of E. cloacae MAM-4 to remove Cu+2 from the broth medium ranging between 15.2 to 23.5(%). However B. cereus ATCC 11778 as standard bacteria was able to remove Cu+2 ranging between 8.9 to 54.4 (%). E. cloaceae MAM-4 could uptake 2.9–54.0(%) of Hg+2 and 9.1–28.9(%) of Pb+2 from the broth medium. However, B. cereus ATCC 11778 removed 14.9–53.0(%) of Hg+2 and 9.7–30.0(%) of Pb+2. Assess the ability of low- cost adsorbents such as sugarcane baggase (SCB); rice straw (RS) and wheat straw (WS) to adsorb the three heavy metals mentioned above from the broth medium as aqueous solution. Also assessing the ability of these low- cost adsorbents in combination with E. cloaceae MAM-4 as natural adsorbents to remove heavy metals from the broth medium at different concentrations of heavy metals. The dose response curve of Gram- negative E. cloaceae MAM-4 against Gamma radiation had been determined and trying to get mutant more ability to tolerate higher concentration of heavy metals.

 

5/33 FORMATION, REGENERATION AND EFFICIENT PLASMID TRANSFORMATION OF PROTOPLASTS OF THE MAJOR 2-DEOXYSTREPTAMINE AMINOGLYCOSIDE PRODUCERS

Khaled M. A. Aboshanab

Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Procedures for efficient protoplasts formations, regeneration and transformation of the major 2-deoxystreptamine aminoglycoside producers were carried out as prerequisites for biocombinatorial synthesis of new antibiotics. The aminogylcoside producers used in this study were Streptomyces (S.) rimosus (paromomycin), S. ribosidificus (ribostamycin), S. fradiae (neomycin), S. kanamyceticus (kanamycin), S. tenebrarius (apramycin & tobramycin), and M. olivasterospora (fortimicin B). Both pUWL218 and pUWL201PW shuttle plasmids (thiostrepton resistance) were used for protoplast transformations. Optimum incubation time and lysozyme concentration for protoplast formation were 30 min and 1-2 mg/ml for all the selected strains except for S. fradiae where it required longer incubation time (60 min) and higher lysozyme concentration (4 mg/ml). S. fradiae was found to have the lowest rate of protoplast formation and plasmid transformation efficiencies as compared to the other bacterial strains. Optimum plasmid DNA concentration was 100 -200 ng per 200 ml protoplasts for all the selected strains whereas higher concentration (500 ng) significantly increased transformation efficiency with S. fradiae. S. kanamyceticus was resistant to thiostrepton and apramycin, the two selective markers used in this work. Therefore, studying the efficiency of protoplast transformation of S. kanamyceticus has to be conducted in future using plasmids having different resistance markers.

 

6/33 SELECTION OF ANTI-MALIGNANCY ACTIVITY OF PARACOCCUS ALCALIPHILUS ALKALINE PROTEINS (PAAP) AGAINST MAMMALIAN CELL LINES IN VITRO.

Mahmoud N. El-Rouby, Rawhia A. Arafa*, Enayat M. Desouky*, Hussein A. Abou El-Hag**, Hend A. Abass and Mohamed T. Mansour

Virology and Immunology Unit, Cancer Biology Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt.

*Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, El-Azhar University, Egypt.

**Microbiology and Immunology Department, Veterinary Unit, National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt.

Anticancer agents were discovered from bacterial products that have the ability to selective the target cancer cells without or with less toxicity to normal cells. Anticancer agent derived from Paracoccus alcaliphilus alkaline protein was conducted. Twelve types of bacterial isolates belonged to three different groups of microorganisms were used in this study.   Paracoccus alcaliphilus QDR62 organism was chosen for the purification of active material (Paracoccus alcaliphilus alkaline protein) due to its high toxicity on cancer cells and less toxicity on normal cells. Three cancer cell lines [Hepatocellular Carcinoma (Hep-G2), Central nervous system or brain tumor (U251), Ehrlich Ascitis Carcinoma (EAC) were used in this study. Furthermore, one normal cell line [Fibroblast cells of human lung (MRC5)] was used as control. The P. alcaliphilus alkaline protein showed preferential cytotoxicity to human and animal cancer cell line in vitro. Alkaline soluble protein revealed dose dependent cytotoxicity against two tumor cell lines (EAC and Hep-G2) with lethal concentration 50 (LC50) of 21 and 5.5mg/ml respectively. While the alkaline protein extract did not show any significant cytotoxicity against CNS (U251). The alkaline soluble protein selectivity to malignant cell lines was clear since it hasn’t any effect on normal cell line (MRC-5) even with the highest concentrations. The cytopathic effect induced by P. alcaliphilus QDR62 alkaline protein was characterized by remarkable kariolysis of the nucleus, cell ballooning, loss of cell membrane integrity and ended with complete cell lysis. The electrophoretic pattern using native-PAGE for the alkaline protein extract of P. alcaliphilus revealed that it consists of single protein fraction, stained clearly by sensitive silver stain, which is fractionated later via SDS-PAGE into three subunits with M. wt. (25, 20 and 19 kDa, approximately). Amino acid analysis was done and determines that there are thirteen amino acids found in alkaline protein with different concentrations. In conclusion P. alcaliphilus alkaline protein has significant and preferential cancer cell-killing activities that may be used to cancer control and biotherapy in the near future.

 

7/33 RAPID DIAGNOSIS OF HIGHLY PATHOGENIC CLINICAL STRAINS OF YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS USING PCR AND PRESERVATION OF 70KBP VIRULENCE PLASMID

Mahmoud M. Zaky

Botany Department, Faculty of Science at Port-Said, Suez Canal University, Egypt.

Clinical strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis were screened for 70 Kbp virulence plasmids it was found only 20 % carrying 70Kbp plasmid, when subjected to different concentrations of Naledixin for mutation, the plasmids were lost from one strain Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP3295, which leaded to the modification of L.B medium into human blood (H.B) L.B medium to strains showed 70Kbp virulence plasmid with additional small plasmids which proves the incorporation of plasmids with chromosomal DNA and similarity with Yersinia pestis. All strains of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis harboring virulence plasmids were detected for FyuA and Irp2 genes of the High pathogenicity island using PCR. And it was found that all plasmid harboring strains contains high Pathogenicity Island.

 


8/33 MORPHO-BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME MINT (Mentha spp.) GERMPLASM MAINTAINED IN NATIONAL GENE BANK, EGYPT

Abeer H. El Halwagi, Reda M. Rizkand El-Mewafy A.E. El-Ghadban*

National Gene Bank (NGB), Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

*Medicinal & Aromatic Plants Research Department, Horticulture Research Institute and National Gene Bank (NGB), Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

Nine Mentha spp. germplasm collected and maintained in the green house of the National Gene Bank of Egypt during 2008-2009 seasons. The Mentha spp. germplasm subjected to characterize and document addressing essential oil constituents as well as macro-morphological attributes. Total of eight macro-morphological attribute and fourteen essential oil attributes measured. Essential oil percentages ranged from 0.54% in Mentha sativa cv. siwy to 4.16% in Mentha longifolia subsp. Typhoides. The major essential oil constituents detected were: α-pinene, β-pinene, phellandrene, menthone, methyl acetate, menthofurane, 1,8-cineol, iso-menthol, menthol, pulegone, limonene, carvone and caryophellene. Some germplasm have essential oil with a high content of a particular constituent, like pulegone (80.23 % in Mentha pulegium) and menthol (67.38 in Mentha sativa cv. siwy). Phellandrene, mean of essential oil percentages and carvone are important to distinguish the two subspecies (subsp. typhoides and subsp. schimperi) of Mentha longifolia and Mentha suaveolens from the rest of studied taxa. Pulegone has the importance value to distinguish Mentha pulegium from the rest of studied taxa. In combination of taxa and all attributes, the Mentha germplasm separated into three groups. The first group contain the two subspecies (typhoides and schimperi) of Mentha longifolia highlighted the importance of leaf shape, leaf color, leaf petiole, α-pinene, β-pinene, phellandrene, menthofurane, carvone and mean of essential oil %. The second group contains the Mentha pulegium due to the effects of stem habit, menthyl acetate and pulegone. The third group contains the rest of studied Mentha germplasm. These data will be used to enhance sources of information of Mentha spp. germplasm in the gene bank.

 

9/33 GENETIC ANALYSIS OF ABNORMALITIES IN TISSUE CULTURE-DERIVED DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACYLIFERS L.), BARHI CULTIVARS

Khaled A. Soliman, Reda M. Rizk* and Sherif S. H. El-Sharabasy**

Genetics Dept, Fac. of Agri., Ain Shams Univ., *Ain Shams Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ACGEB), Faculty of Agri. Branch. Cairo, Egypt, National Gene Bank, Agri. Research Center, **The Central Lab. of Date Palm Research and Development, Agri. Research Center, Giza, Egypt

Abnormalities and habituation as well as normal Barhi cultivars of tissue culture –derived was collected and subjected to morphological and genetic comparison. The level of abnormality was very low (dwarfism, 0.07%; Excessive vegetative growth, 0.25% and apical bent, 0.1%The dwarfism and excessive vegetative growth were recovered and become a normal case within 4 years of field intensive care. Meanwhile the apical bent was not recovered and in most cases die. The electrophoretic analysis of leaf protein revealed that the abnormalities samples haven't two bands (76 and 27.5) in the normal plants. The excessive of vegetative growth haven't the unique (positive marker) band of molecular weight 18.5 KD which found in the normal plant. Regarding ISSR analysis, bands of molecular weight 760 and 515bp of primer HB-12 were absent only from the apical pent abnormalities sample and present in all the rest of studies samples. Bands of molecular weight 895 and 195bp of primer HB-15 were absent from dwarfism sample, while present in all the rest of studied samples, which found in the normal plant. The absence of this band could be taken as a positive marker for excessive of dwarfism abnormalities. At RAPD level, a band of molecular weight 245.5 bp of primer B-05 was specific to apical pent abnormality. A band of molecular weight 177.5 bp was specific to excessive of vegetative growth. ISSR as well as RAPD-PCR could be used to detect the abnormalities resulting in tissue culture derived of Barhi cultivar.

 

10/33 PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CELLULASE-FREE XYLANASE FROM STREPTOMYCES PSEUDOGRISEOLUS

Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed Fadel, Azza Abou Zeid*, Fathy A. Mansour** and Ahmed S. Abdel-Razik

Microbial Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Egypt

*Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt

**Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Egypt

Cellulase-free xylanase from a local isolate of Streptomyces pseudogriseolus was purified 19 fold using ammonium sulphate (80%) and gel filtration (Sephadex G100). The enzyme was partially purified near to homogeneity having a molecular weight of about 45kDa as estimated by SDS/PAGE. Studying the biochemical characteristics of the purified enzyme revealed that the enzyme showed maximum activity at 60oC and pH 6.0. The enzyme could be stable over a pH range from 5 to 11 and thermally stable up to about 50oC. The effect of different metal ions and urea concentrations were also studied. The enzyme showed specificity towards xlyose polymers (xylans) only. The xylan hydrolysis products by obtained enzyme indicated that the only products were oligoxylans and no xylose has been recorded indicating that this enzyme is an endoxylanase.

 

 

11/33 ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RED AND BROWN ALGAE EXTRACTS

Mona M. Abd El Mageid*; Nadia A. Salama*; Mahmoud A.M. Saleh**

and Hossam M. Abo Taleb**

*Department of Food Sci., Fac. of Agric., Cairo Univ., Giza, Egypt

**Food Tech. Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

Red algae (Asparagopsis taxiformis) and brown algae (Sargassum vulgare) are belonging to the Seaweeds. Both algae are traditionally consumed in the Eastern Countries as a part of daily diet. Human consumption of red algae represent 33%, while brown algae represent 66.5% mainly in Japan, China and Korea. However, demand for seaweed as food has now also extended to North America, South America and Europe. The seaweeds are known also to contain bioactive products that display antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. In this study, different solvents, hexane, chloroform, ethanol and methanol have been used to obtain extracts from both algae under investigation. All the extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Best results were shown by hexane extracts of both algae against gram-negative and positive strains such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium. Water extraction solution was prepared from the two algae and the phenolic content and their antioxidant properties were studied. The phenolic compounds were found to be 9 and 13 mg catechin equivalent/g dry sample for A. taxiformis and S. vulgare respectively. Biological evaluation was also carried out by using male rats (185-195g) to examine the antioxidant activity of the water extracts by using stomach tube. Nine groups of rats each containing 6 rats were fed with different tested diets for 10 weeks. G1 fed with basal diet, G2 fed with high fat diet containing 1% cholesterol. G3, G4 and G5 fed with (high fat diet) HFD+chol, and water extraction from Asparagopsis daily containing 1, 1.5, 2 mg polyphenol/200g rat/day respectively. G6, G7andG8 fed with HFD+chol and water extraction from Sargassum containing 1, 1.5, 2 mg polyphenol/200g rat/day respectively. G9 fed with HFD+chol and had a BHT 4mg/200 g/day. Serum cholesterol for G6, G7 and G8 had the lowest concentration of total cholesterol. LDL concentration in rat serum reflected the effectiveness of water extract from Sargassum as antioxidant specially G8 which lowered LDL. The natural antioxidant polyphenols from both algae were affected as positive action for reducing the activity of AST or ALT. Meanwhile, synthetic antioxidant showed negative action for these enzymes.

 

 

12/33 MOLECULAR GENETIC EVALUATION OF SOME DATE PALM CULTIVARS (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L) IN EGYPT

Sayed Y. Mohamed and Sherif F. El-Sharabasy*

Biotechnology Research Lab, Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, *TheCentral Lab. of Date Palm Research and Development, Agri. Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

In our study we have attempted to evaluate molecular genetic markers between three cultivars of date palm, dwarf in Sakeiy, dwarf and deformation in Khalase and coloration in Medjool in compared with normal plant of each cultivar. Cultivars were discriminated by their leaves or (fingerprinted) by protein, isozymes, (RAPD) and (ISSR) using PCR. The data obtained in Sakeiy cultivar showed seven bands present in dwarf plant as positive specific molecular markers and they were absent in normal plant. While, there were ten bands present in normal plant as positive specific molecular markers and absent in dwarf plant. In Khalase cultivar, there were fifteen bands present in dwarf and deformation plant as positive specific molecular markers and absent in normal plant. While, there were six bands appeared in normal plant as positive specific molecular markers and absent in other plant. On the other hand, results obtained in Medjool cultivar, ten bands were observed in coloration plant as positive molecular markers and they were absent in normal plant. While, in normal plant, data showed eighteen bands were present as positive molecular markers and absent in coloration plant. The genetic variation detected among closely related genotype indicates the efficiency of protein, isozyme, RAPD and ISSR markers for evaluation and construction of genetic linkage maps and the molecular genetic diversity of these cultivars it is support the use of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in date palm cultivars breeding programs.


13/33 COMPOSTING OF ARTICHOKE WASTE, RICE STRAW AND CATTLE DUNG BY MICROBIAL INOCULANTS AND ELEMENTAL SULFUR

Mohamed Z. Sedik*, Waleed D. Saleh*, Azmy N. Estefanous**

and Yahia I. Mahmoud**

*Dept. Agric. Microbiol., Fac. Agric., Cairo Univ., Giza

** Dept. Agric. Res. Microbiol., Soils, Water and Environ. Res. Inst. Agric. Res. Center (ARC), Giza

Artichoke-processing wastes were collected from the Prefabricated Station at Kafr El-Dawar, El-Behaira Governorate, while, rice straw and fresh cattle dung were collected from Moshtohor surrounding farms, Kalubia Governorate. Rice straw was air dried and chopped to small pieces (3-5 cm) before compost preparation to give a large surface area for liquid adhesion and direct contact with microorganisms. Bacterial strains of Phenerochaetee chrysosporium and Bacillus polymyxa were used to enrich six compost mixtures. The composite sample from each treatment was then taken at 1 – 2 – 4 - 8 and 16 week period of composting and subjected for some physical, chemical and microbiological analyses. The results revealed that the ranges of temperatures of composting process were 62-44oC (thermophilic), 58-36oC (mesophilic) and 28-25oC (pysrophilic). The composted mixtures showed gradual increases in EC during the composting period, values at the end of composting were 5.18, 5.56, 5.50, 5.27, 5.60 and 5.70 dS/m depending on the mixture type. The organic matter contents declined with increasing composting time in all composted mixtures. The total losses in organic matter percentage were 59.07, 61.87 and 63.82 for mixtures C1, C2 and C3, while total losses were 57.23, 58.78 and 60.29 for mixtures C4, C5 and C6 with elemental sulfur. The percentage of total nitrogen in composted materials increased with increasing the time of composting till the end of the experiment, the maximal loss of 44.95% was observed in the treatment C3, while the lowest N losses of 41.23- 42.96% were detected in mixtures received elemental sulfur. The C/N ratios narrowed from initial values of 30.40, 30.98, 30.84, 30.88, 30.88 and 30.63 to final values of 21.79, 21.32, 20.28, 22.51, 21.68 and 20.98 for the tested composted mixtures respectively. The available potassium was higher than that of phosphorus being 989-1265 ppm for the treatments received microbial inoculants and 152- 272 ppm for the mixtures including elemental sulfur addition leached microbial inoculants (186-274 ppm and 979-1304 ppm). Thermophilic counts ranged between 5.3x109 and 8.0x109 cfu/g depending upon composting mixtures. The mesophilic actinomycete numbers dropped during the first four weeks then increased gradually to reach their maxima after 8 weeks. While, the thermophilic actinomycete numbers reached to maximal counts after two weeks. The thermophilic fungi proliferated rapidly and showed their maximal peaks at the fourth week of composting for all the studied compost mixtures. Numbers of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Salmonella and Shigella decreased during the composting period and not detected at the end of composting in all cases.

14/33 UTILIZATION OF ORANGE PEEL IN THE PRODUCTION OF Α-TERPINEOL BY PENICILLIUM DIGITATUM (NRRL 1202)

Adel Z.M. Badee, Shahinaz A. Helmy and Nashwa F. S. Morsy

Food Science and Technology Dept., Fac. of Agric., Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

The use of orange peel oil in the biotransformation of d-limonene was investigated. The physico-chemical properties of cold pressed orange peel oil, used in this investigation were determined to define its identity. The chemical composition of orange peel oil was determined by using GC∕MS. Monoterpene compounds amounted to 97.97%, followed by aldehdyde components 1.09%. The main componentof orange peel oil was d-limonene, which represented 96.08%, of the total content. A strain of Penicillium digitatum NRRL 1202 was used to carry out the biotransformation of d-limonene to α-terpineol. Two different media, malt yeast broth (MYB) and malt extract broth (MEB) media were used. It was found that the highest bioconversion of d-limonene into α-terpineol was obtained by using MYB medium (pH=6.1). The α-terpineol selectivity recorded 67.7%, by using MYB medium at 25-27°C after 31 h from the second substrate addition. Meanwhile, the selectivity was 47.03% by using MEB medium (pH=5.4) at the same conditions. The bioconversion, in MYB medium, increased with increasing time, whereit recorded 79% and 95.5% after 3 h and 7 h from the second substrate addition at the first day, respectively. Meanwhile, bioconversion of d-limonene in the second day reached 91.0% after 7 h, from the fourth addition of orange peel oil. On the contrary, the bioconversion of d-limonene by using MEB medium recorded 87.8% after 7 h from the second substrate addition at the first day. Meanwhile, bioconversion of d-limonene in the same media reached 100% after 7 h, from the fourth addition of orange peel oil at the second day.

15/33 EFFECT OF MYCOTOXIN (AFLATOXIN M1) ON LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTIONS IN THE ALBINO MICE

Nasser A. Al-Hazmi*, El-Sayed F. Taha** and Salah M. Al-Garni***

* Science Department, Teachers collage, King Abdul-Aziz University,

** Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo university.

*** Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdul-Aziz University.

The daily oral administration of contaminated milk with Aflatoxin M1 (0.11 ng/ 0.1 ml milk/day) in albino mice for 6 months caused significant increase in liver enzymes: sGOT (ALT), sGPT (AST), ALP and BIL in blood, indicating to hepatotoxic as a result of Aflatoxins contamination. There was a significant increase in blood urea, uric acid and creatinine in the serum of albino mice. The addition of Vit. C. (0.5 mg Vit. C / 0.1 ml milk/day) partially improved the toxic effect of Aflatoxin on both liver and kidney functions.

 

16/33 EFFECT OF HOT WATER TREATMENTS ON MICROBIAL LOAD, CHILLING INJURY ALLEVIATION AND KEEPING QUALITY OF TOMATO FRUITS

Taha Sh. Fath El-Bab, Gamal A. Mohamed, Hany W. Botros and Gehan A. Mahmoud*

Dept. of Plant Researches, Atomic Energy Authority, Abu-Zabal, Egypt.

* Dept. of Fruit Handling, Horticulture Research Institute, Agric. Res. Center, Giza.

Two experiments were carried out in the summer seasons of 2007 and 2008 on the cultivar F.N-8 mature-Green and pink tomato fruits were treated with warm water for 10 minutes at 35, 40, 45 or 50oC and then either held continuously at 21oC until red ripe (Maximum 18 days), or at 5oC (chilled) for 10 days then 20oC until red ripe (Maximum 24 days). Tomatoes used to evaluate decay incidence were held at 20oC for an additional 6 days past the red ripe stage. When tomatoes reached the red-ripe stage, total soluble solids, pH, firmness, and weight loss were determined .The predominant fungi associated to decayed tomato fruits are Penicillium oxalicum, Fusarium equiseti, F. chlamydosporium, Alternaria solani, A. alternate, Aspergillus flavus and A. niger. Also the predominant bacteria isolated from the decayed tomato fruits were Salmonella sp., E. cocci, Bacillus circulans and Bacillus subtilis. The decay incidence was rated and the days to ripen was recorded. Chilling rather than warm water increased the tomato TSS, but neither of the treatments affected the tomato acidity. Warm water treatment enhanced firmness of tomato held at chilling temperature. Weight loss was reduced in chilled and warm water treated tomato, except for 50 oC that showed an increase in weight loss. Non-chilled pink and mature-green tomatoes ripened in 5 or 11 days respectively, while chilled tomatoes ripened in 12 or 22 days (including a 10 - days holding at chilling temperature). Pre-storage warm water treatment can be beneficial within the range of 45 to 50°C in reducing decay, alleviating chilling injury, prolonging the storage period and improving some quality characteristics of the tomatoes.

 

17/33 THE FLAVONOID OF CYNANCHUM ACUTUM L.

Zeinab Ahmed El-Swaify

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University     (Girls Branch), Cairo, Egypt.

Cynanchum acutum was studied phytochemically for itsflavonoid compound contents. Five flavonoidal compounds were isolated from the plant and identified by using 1H-NMR, GC/MS and UV. These compounds were quercetin, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, Kaempferol, kaempferol-3-O-a- rhamnoside and chlorogenic acid. A quantitative estimation of the total flavonoids in methanolic extract was carried out by using spectro -photometric methods.

 

18/33 THE MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PROCESSED BEEF BURGER TREATED WITH LACTIC ACID BACTERIA

Sobhy M. Mohsen, Amal S. Hathout*, Lamyaa E. El-Sideek*

Food Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

*Toxicology & Food Contaminant Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

The recent role of pathogenic organisms as food borne microorganisms is related to the increase of outbreaks compared to traditional food pathogens. A study was conducted to prevent the growth and production of pathogenic microorganisms in beef burger during storage for 45 days. Beef burger was processed using four different strains of lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. delbreukii sub sp. bulgaricus, L. casei and L. reuteri at a concentration of 1x107 CFU/ml. During 45 days of storage, it was noticed that the use of lactic acid bacteria enhanced the preservation of beef burger and the decrease of the pathogenic microorganisms Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and total fungal count. Thus, these lactic acid bacteria enhanced the preservation of beef burger and extended the period of shelf life.

 


19/33 PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTI- MICROBIAL STUDIES ON CHROZOPHORA OBLONGIFOLIA(DELILE)SPRING FROM GEBEL ELBA, EGYPT.

* Zeinab Ahmed El-Swaify ** Nermin Nasr El-Din *** Aisha M. Abd- El-Kawy

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-AZahar University

(Girls Branch), Cairo, Egypt.

The phytochemical studies on Chrozophora oblongifolia revealed that it contains flavonoids, carbohydrate/ glycosides, tannins, steroids, sulphates, chlorides and alkaloids. The free and combined sugars, amino acids, phenolic acids, fatty acids, hydrocarbons, sterols and minerals were determined. Assay of volatile oil of Chrozophora oblongifolia was also carried out. Different extracts of the plant material examined against some species of bacteria and fungi.

 

20/33 INFLUENCE OF GROWTH REGULATORS AND PLANTING MEDIA ON IN VITROPROPAGATION OF ARTEMISIA JUDAICA L.

Mohamed M. EL-Zafzafy and Mohamed A. Hamza*

National Organization for Drug Control and Research, Applied Research Center of Medicinal Plants. (NODCAR).

*Horticulture Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

The present work was carried out in tissue culture lab and farm of National Organization for Drug Control and Research, Applied Research Center of Medicinal Plants (NODCAR), and tissue culture & biotechnology lab of Horticulture Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt, to study the in vitro propagationof   Artemisia judaica L., The results clearly showed that, MS basal medium supplemented with 2.0mg/l. BA   recorded the maximum significant   results in shoot number 86.65, while, MS basal cytokinins free medium was recorded the best results in leaf number, 7.8, shoot length, 8.92cm., plant strength, 4.82 and rooting %, 53.3 comparing with other type and levels of cytokinins examined, IBA 0.1 mg/l. was recorded the highest value in rooting percentage,100%, root number, 9.19 and root length, 5.86 cm., non rooted plants and the mix between peat moss and sand (1/1-v/v) were recorded the best results in acclimatization of plants.
Scroll to top