Vol. 14, May, 2006

1/14 SOME FACTORS AFFECTING THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CHITOSAN

M.E. Aggag; M.A. Fawzi; N.H. Fanaki, H.G. Omar and D.R. Gouda

Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt.

In the present study, the antimicrobial activity of the sterile Chitosan solution has been determined against 20 different micro-organisms, including isolates of different sources, having variable antibiotic resistance patterns and representing a wide range of different members of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as yeasts, in addition to standard microorganisms. The Chitosan tested in our study showed biostatic rather than biocidal activities against the different selected microorganisms. It was more active against Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, the MIC values of Chitosan against both the Candida and the Aspergillus standards were much higher than those obtained against the Gram-positive bacteria. The influence of several factors on the antimicrobial activity of Chitosan was studied individually against some selected microorganisms. The biostatic activity of Chitosan was found to increase with increasing its concentration, the temperature and EDTA concentration, and to decrease with increasing metal ions. The optimum pH for the anti-microbial activity of Chitosan was found to vary, depending on the microorganism tested. A challenge test was performed and we suggested that, Chitosan (0.5%) could be used together with another antifungal preservative to protect pharmaceutical preparations, cosmetics and foods from bacterial contamination.

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cialis one day prix 2/14 URINARY TRACT INFECTION AMONG PATIENTS WITH
CHRONIC LIVER DISEASE

M. Ghonaim", R. EI-Edee, T. Abd-EI Mottaleb', G. Hindway' and S. Shoeib4

Departments of Medical Microbiology and Immunology 1,3; Clinical Pathology'
and Internal Medicine", Faculty of Medicine 1,2,4 and Liver Institute.',
Menoufiya University

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most frequent bacterial infectious complications which may occur in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). These patients have many risk factors including deficiency of opsonic activity due to deficiency of complement components (C3 & C4). The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of UTI among CLD patients, to identify the most frequent causative organisms and their sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs, and to assess the role of deficiency of complement components (C3 and C4) in the occurrence of UTI in these patients. The study included 90 patients with CLD [(63 patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) and 27 patients with chronic hepatitis (CH)j and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy 'controls. The studied individuals were subjected to full history taking and complete clinical examination and then the following laboratory investigations were performed: liver and kidney function tests, complete urine analysis, bacterial count, identification of the causative organsims and testing their sensitivity to antibiotics by the disc diffusion method and estimation of serum C3 and C4 by radial immunodiffusion. Results revealed that UTI was more frequent among CLD patients compared to the controls (p<O.OJ). It was higher among LC as compared to HC patients (p<0.05) and higher among Child-Pugh class C compared to both class B and class A patients. The serum level of C3 and C4 was significantly (p<O.OOJ) reduced among CLD patients and their deficiency was related to severity of the liver disease. There was a positive correlation between C3 and C4 while C3 was negatively correlated with ALT, AST and PTand C4 was negatively correlated with ALT and PT The most frequent causative organisms were E. coli, S. saprophyticus, Klebsiella species and P. aeruginosa. In conclusion, UTI is a common bacterial infection among CLD patients and deficiency of C3 and C4 is a major risk factor. E. coli, S. saprophyticus and Klebsiella species are the most prevalent causative organisms.

super kamagra doctissimo 3/14 BIOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF HEPATOTOXICITY OF A HYPOLIPIDAEMIC AGENT (ATORVASTATIN) AND ITS MIXTURE WITH GINGER EXTRACT AT SUBCELLULAR LEVEL

Z.A. Teleb, K.M. El -Deib, M.M. Ahmed, N.Z. Ahmed and M.I. Ibrahim

National Organization For Drug Control and Research "NODCAR",

Department of Molecular Drug Evaluation

In this study, we investigate the effect of ethanol extract of ginger (250 mg/kg), atorvastatin (0.05 mg/kg) and their combination (1:1) on the level of cholesterol and triglycerides. Also, lipid peroxidation in either lysosomes or mitochondria was studied. In addition, the effect of these compounds on the lysosomal enzymatic activity “ACP, b-GAL, b-NAG, b-GLU” was investigated. Protein was isolated and determined on SDS-PAGE as well as the genomic DNA was extracted and purified for analyzing on 1% agarose. Rats were daily fed orally on an atherogenic diet for 10 weeks to induce hypercholestrolmic level. These compounds were daily administrated to rats for four weeks. Blood samples were collected at the duration time (0, 2, 4 weeks) and serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were assayed. At the end of the experiment “4 weeks”, liver was analyzed for protein, DNA, lipid peroxidation assay and lysosomal enzymes activity. The results indicated that cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly reduced under the effects of these compounds. Lipid peroxidation in lysosmes and mitochondria of rat liver as well as lysosomal enzymes activity were also reduced after the administration of ginger, atorvastatin and their combination. In addition, ginger extract reduced the DNA content. The protein concentration increased as compared to the positive control. Also, proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE, the results indicated that genomic DNA and proteins did not changed in the molecular size of DNA and the molecular weight of protein compared to untreated group. These findings suggest that ginger, lipitor and their combination have a hypocholestrolmic and lesion regressive activity in cholesterol fed rats. Our results showed that ginger, atorvastatin and their combination reduced the level of lipid profile among the duration time. In addition, the effect of these compounds on lipid peroxidation in certain lysosomes or mitochondria was pronounced by inhibitory effect. The activity of the lysosomal enzymes was inhibited by stabilizing effect on the permeability of lysosomal membranes. DNA concentration was reduced under the effect of these compounds. Protein concentration was increased and the ratio of protein/DNA was appeared to be highly significant increase.

super kamagra doctissimo 4/14 SUGAR PHOSPHORYLATION AND TRANSPORT BY THE PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE-DEPENDENT PHOSPHOTRANSFERASE SYSTEM OF AN ESCHERICHIA COLI MUTANT LACKING CARDIOLIPIN

M.M.M. Aboulwafa

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Ain-Shams University

A study using two isogenic vente de viagra en ligne Escherichia coli strains, a wild type strain MG1655 and its cardiolipin mutant clsKO, revealed that both strains showed almost identical optical densities and pH values under different growth conditions. For the pellet fraction of crude cell lysate, the relative specific activity rates for the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)- dependent and transphosphorylation (TP) reactions of three phosphotransferase enzymes (enzyme II glucose, EIIGlc; enzyme II mannose, EIIMan; enzyme II mannitol, EIIMtl) were very similar in both strains. The incorporation of glucose in the buffered and non buffered growth medium did not affect the specific activity rates of the three enzymes of the wild type strain relative to those of the isogenic mutant for both PEP and TP reactions. On the other hand, in both tested strains the specific activity rates of the three enzymes for both reactions was dependent on the growth conditions. The presence of glucose in the culture medium increased the specific activity rates of EIIGlc and EIIMan for both PEP and TP reactions. While, EIIMtl specific activity rates for the two reactions were decreased. Growth associated acidosis due to glucose incorporation in non buffered medium did not affect EIIGlc specific activity rates for both PEP and TP reactions. While, EIIMan specific activity rates for both reactions and EIIMtl specific activity rate for PEP reaction only were deacreased. For 2 h high speed supernatant (HSS) fraction of crude cell lysate, again the relative specific activity rates for both PEP and TP reactions of the three enzymes were similar for wild type strain and its isogenic mutant. In both strains, the presence of glucose in the culture medium increased the specific activity rates of PEP and TP reactions for EIIGlc and EIIMan and TP specific activity rate for EIIMtl while the PEP specific activity rate of EIIMtl decreased. Growth associated acidosis due to glucose incorporation had no effect on PEP and TP specific activity rates of EIIMtl while it decreased PEP specific activity rates of EIIGlc and EIIMan but not that of TP for both strains. The transport activity of cells grown in Luria Bertani (LB) broth for the wild type Escherichia coli strain and its mutant strain were nearly similar for the non metabolizable sugars methyl alpha glucoside and 2-deoxyglucose. Regarding metabolizable sugars, the wild type strain retained relatively lower amounts of radioactive glucose and mannitol than those of the mutant strain and this difference was obvious in case of mannitol. For cells grown in LB containing 0.4% glucose, the transport of non metabolizable sugars of the wild type Escherichia coli strain was very similar to that of the mutant. The situation in case of metabolizable sugars was different where the wild type strain retained relatively more glucose and mannitol than the cardiolipin mutant and the effect was more pronounced in case of glucose. The results give an evidence that cardiolipin has no major role for the in vitro and in vivo activities of enzyme II glucose, enzyme II mannose, and enzyme II mannitol in site recommandé pour cialis Escherichia coli.

aliment comme le viagra 5/14 EFFECT OF SOME AMINO ACIDS AND GAMMA RADIATION ON THE PRODUCTION OF pharmacie en ligne vente de viagra b viagra quels effets -GALACTOSIDASE ENZYME BY CITROBACTER KOSERI

S. Ghanem*, T. El-Kelani**, and H.M. El Shafey**

prix moyen levitra pharmacie *Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Post code 11795, Ain Helwan, Cairo, Egypt.

**Microbiology Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, P.O. Box 29, Nasr city, Cairo, Egypt.

Citrobacter koseriisolated locally on methanol mineral salt agar medium was tested for the production of b-Galactosidase enzyme. Six amino acids were tried throughout the study: methionine, L-leucine, glycine, L-lysine, D-alanine, and L-glutamic acid; with concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 4.00 mM. The results show that methionine, L-leucine, and low D-alanine concentrations had an inhibitive effect on growth. Weak stimulation of growth coincided with increasing the concentration of glycine, L-lysine, and high D-alanine concentrations. Concentration of 2 mM glutamic acid had the maximum stimulative effect on growth. While glutamic acid and L-leucine had an inhibitory effect on b-Galactosidase production, and addition of glycine seemed to have no effect on the production of b-Galactosidase enzyme. Addition of L-lysine stimulated the production of the enzyme, and methionine was the most stimulative amino acid for b-Galactosidase production using 3 mM concentration. All doses of gamma radiation tried (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25 KGy) suppressed the production of the enzyme. Suppression the enzyme production by gamma radiation was increased by increasing the dose used.

6/14 COMPARATIVE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF FIVE NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS AND THEIR COMBINATIONS WITH DIFFERENT ANTIBIOTICS

M.A. El-Nakeeb, M.A. Fawzy, N.M. El-Guink and N.K.Moussa

Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Alexandria University, Egypt

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been used in combination with antibiotics in ophthalmology and other branches of medicine providing a substitute for the steroid - antibiotic combinations without the adverse effects of the steroids. The interactions of NSAIDs with structurally diverse compounds of different pharmacological actions have been studied largely; however, information on the microbiological interactions are meager. The aim of the present study is to investigate the antimicrobial activities of NSAIDs and their influence on the antibiotics from a microbiological aspect. Fifteen organisms (standards and isolates) were used in this study. Four standard strains (E. coli, Ps. aeruginosa, S. aureus and B. subtilis), three urine isolates (E. coli), two wound isolates (Ps. aeruginosa), four pus isolates (2 S. aureus, 1 S. epidermidis and1 Pr. mirabilis), one laboratory contaminant (Bacillus sp.) and one sputum isolate (Klebsiella sp.). The tested strains were isolated and identified by the classical techniques, and the susceptibility of the organisms to different antibiotics was determined by the modified disc agar diffusion method. The antibiotic resistance pattern revealed that all the tested isolates were multiresistant . The five NSAIDs used throughout this work were: diclofenac, ketoprofen, salicylate, piroxicam and indomethacin, and the antibiotics were: amoxicillin, bacitracin, cefoperazone, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline and ofloxacin. The bacteriostatic activities of the NSAIDs were determined by the agar dilution method. The data revealed relatively higher activity against Gram-positive organisms compared to Gram-negative organisms with most of the tested drugs. Salicylate had relatively higher activity against Gram-negative organisms. Diclofenac and indomethacin were considered the most active NSAIDs tested. The effect of 0.1 mg/ml of each of the five selected NSAIDs on the bacteriostatic activities of eight antibiotics against eleven clinical isolates and four standard strains was determined by the agar dilution technique. The outcome of the experiments was variable, however, the results revealed that indomethacin – antibiotic combinations were mostly synergistic against Gram-positive isolates. Diclofenac produced the highest synergism with bacitracin and erythromycin against the different Gram-positive isolates.

7/14 HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE AMONG PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

M. Ghonaim1, R. El-Edel2, T. Abd-El Mottaleb3, G. Hindway1 and M.A. Rady 4

Departments of Medical Microbiology and Immunology 1,3, Clinical Pathology2

and Internal Medicine4 Faculty of Medicine1,2 and Liver Institute3,4,

Menoufiya University

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) and Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the commonest bacterial infections worldwide. Infection by H. pylori has been epidemiologically linked to CAD and there may be a possible relationship between H. pylori infection and CAD among diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to study the relation of infection with H. pylori and the lipid profile, C-reactive protein (CRP) as an inflammatory marker and development of CAD among type 2 diabetic patients. The study included 3 groups: Group I included 30 patients with type 2 DM without CAD (18 males and 12 females) ranging in age from 38 to 60 years. Group II included 30 patients of type 2 DM with evident CAD (19 males and 11 females) ranging in age from 42 to 66 years old. The duration of DM was matched in the 2 groups Group III included 20 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. The studied individuals were subjected to full clinical examination then the following laboratory parameters were analyzed: fasting blood sugar (FBS), postprandial blood sugar (PBS), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and lipid profile. Isolation and identification of H. pylori were performed from gastric biopsy specimens. The results revealed that the rate of isolation of H. pylori and serum levels of fasting blood glucose, triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), cholesterol and hsCRP were significantly (p<0.001) higher among diabetic patients with CAD as compared to diabetics without CAD. Moreover, these parameters were significantly (p<0.001) higher among H. pylori-positive as compared to H. pylori-negative patients within the same group. These findings may suggest a role for H. pylori infection in pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis and CAD in type 2 diabetic patients mostly due to its ability to alter lipid profile and to promote the synthesis and release of acute phase reactants.

8/14 PRODUCTION, PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PROTEASE PRODUCED BY BREVIBACTERIUM OTITIDIS, CBS-76

E.Y. Tohamy, M. Abou El-Hawa and E. Kotb

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

A total of 128 bacterial isolates were selectively isolated from different sources (urinary tract, cancer patients and atmosphere of Zagazig University). The isolates were then, screened on the basis of secreted proteases. The most potent isolate No. 76 was preliminary identified then confirmed by the Biolog System as Brevibacterium otitidis, CBS-76. The maximum protease production by this isolate was observed after 2days of incubation at 35°C and pH 7. Furthermore, the maximum production of protease was observed at 1.2% salinity. The best carbon source was 1% galactose and nitrogen source was 0.5% casein. Ammonium sulphate precipitation increased the specific activity by 10.30 folds, further purification by gel filtration using Sephadex-G200 increased the specific activity by 11.49 folds. Analysis of purified protease revealed an apparent molecular weight of 47 KDa with 15.2% glutamic acid content. The purified protease showed the maximum activity after 68h. at 35ºC and pH 7.2. the purified enzyme was inhibited in the presence of EDTA but maximally activated in the presence of sodium arsenate. The optimum substrate concentration was 0.25% casein. Furthermore, studying the effect of purified protease on mice, LD50 found to be 8 µg protease /100 g body weight. Histological study in affected mice using transmission electron microscope, revealed that nuclei of treated mice hepatocytes appeared with inactive heterochromatin and the nucleoli tend to disintegrate. While the cytoplasm contains swollen mitochondria and some destructed mitochondria lost their inner cristae. And fat droplets accumulated in the cytoplasm in the form of empty vacuoles (steatosis). On studying, novel inhibitors derived from common drugs derivatives of saccharin sodium, compound 6 and 9 showed the maximum percentage of enzyme inhibition.

9/14 POST-ANTIFUNGAL EFFECT OF CERTAIN ANTIFUNGAL
AGENTS AGAINST CANDIDA ALBICANS ISOLATED FROM
FEBRILE NEUTROPENIC CANCER PATIENTS

M. Amini A.K. Abdulall- and H. A. El-Mahallawy'

Department of Microbiology and immunology Faculty of pharmacy, 'Cairo University
and lAI Azhar University (girls), Cairo and

3Department of Clinical Pathology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University

Opportunistic fungal infections are becoming increasingly common in immunocompromised patients. Hematogenous candidiasis adds substantially to the morbidity and mortality rates of patients with cancer. In such group candidiasis is usually difficult to eradicate completely, with patients receiving antifungal agents continuously or intermittently for long periods of time. This type of drug therapy probably leads to resistance, hence reliable and convenient in vitro testing can be useful for selecting subsequent antifungal therapy. There are limited data on the post- antifungal effect (P AFE) of C. albicans isolated from immunocompromised cancer patients manifesting with infection. Consequently; we evaluated in vitro the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and P AFE of four commonly prescribed antifungal drugs in our hospital settings namely the National cancer institute, Ain Shams University hospital and Kaser Elainy University hospital; in order to obtain basic data on thepharmacodynamics of these drugs in recent clinical isolates so as to provide further clues for the recalcitrance of C. albicans species in the face of antifungal therapy. The MIC and P AFE tests were carried out for 12 C. albicans isolates obtained from blood cultures of 12 adult cancer patients manifesting with episodes of febrile neutropenia. All C. albicans isolates studied demonstrated susceptibility to amphotercin B; whereas they were resistant to fluconazole, miconazole and ketoconazole. Moreover, amphotercin B induced a significant PAFE, in contrast to the 3 azole drugs used. An evolving resistance pattern is evident for azoles in the in vitro MIC testing of C. albicans isolates from cancer patients with candidal infections; besides, a very short PAFEs. On the other hand, amphotercin B induced significant P AFEs and demonstrated effective killing of all isolates in MIC. The in vitro MIC and PAFE tests should be considered in the planning of dosage protocols whenever antifungal therapy is required.

10/14 CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME SPOREFORMING BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM EGTPTIAN MARKET MILK WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HEAT-RESISTANCE

E.Y. Tohamy1, H. M. Hassan2., A.A. Abo-zeid1, A.M. Nasr2

1- Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Zagzig University.

2- Dairy Technology Department, Animal Production Reserch Institute,

Agricultre Research Center, Dokki, Cairo

One hundred thirty five bacterial strains were isolated from market Egyptian milk. Sixty five isolates were found to belonging to genus Bacillus. All Bacillus strains were identified using BIOLOG IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM"GP2 microplate". Nine strains were found to be   Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ,   four strains were found to be Bacillus cereus and one strains was found to be Bacillus sphaericus. These results were confirmed using RAPD-PCR.In the inhibitory of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei for Bacillus well diffusion method on nutrient agar media was used on the fourteen Bacillus sp. It was found to be founded that the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus was more than Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei except on B. sphaercus, the inhibitory effects of L. acidophilus; L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei was the same. Further, the effect of heat treatment within the temperature range of 85-135oC., and various exposure times was studied. The highest resistance was found in B. amyloliquficans spores, which survived the temperature of 135 o C. the greatest reduction of spore numbers was found in B. cereus.

11/14 INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT STORAGE CONDITIONS ON THE QUALITY OF SOME EGYPTIAN HONEY TYPES

S.M.A. Taha

Microbiology Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), AEA, P. O. Box 29, Naser City, Cairo, Egypt

The influence of different storage conditions on the quality of different types of honey (clover, sweet marjoram and black cumin) was investigated. Samples were stored for 18 months in the following conditions: at + 4 0 C; at ambient temperature (15-25 0 C) in the dark; at ambient temperature (18-30 0 C) in the light. Several sensory and physicochemical properties were evaluated. Microbiological quality of different types of honey was determined on each sample. They were also examined for the presence of Coliforms, E. coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella species and Enterococcus faecalis. Also, the effect of different storage conditions on the antibacterial activity of honeys was studied. The results showed that sensory properties (color, odor, taste and consistency) and physicochemical properties (pH, refractive index, moisture content, total protein, viscosity, total sugars and reducing sugars) of different honey types remained almost unchanged during 18 months of storage. Also, the mineral content did not also markedly change during 18 months of storage. All honey analyzed presented mesophilic counts well near the maximum value legally allowed. The results also showed that microbial counts were gradually decreased during the 18 months of storage in all the different conditions analyzed. All honey samples under investigation were free from pathogenic bacteria either at zero time or during subsequent storage. Data exhibited that black cumin honey was the most effective against studied bacteria, while the antimicrobial activity of sweet marjoram and clover honey were almost the same. The results also showed that Enterococcus faecalis was the most resistant to the tested honey while Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive. The results showed that there was no marked loss in the antibacterial activity of the three honey types during 18 months of storage at refrigerated and at room temperature in the dark, but at room temperature in the light a marked loss in the antibacterial activity of tested honeys was observed. The sensory and physicochemical properties of the honey samples did not show relevant changes in the storage conditions investigated. Hence, a storage period of 18 months does not seem to negatively influence the quality of the tested honey.

12/14 IN VITRO STUDY ON THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF
LEVOFLOXACIN, AMIKACIN AND CEFEPIME AGAINST
MULTIRESISTANT PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA CLINICAL
ISOLATES

M.A. Kassem and E. Aboulmagd

Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria
University, Alexandria 21521, Egypt.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ill vitro antibacterial activities of levofloxacin, amikacin and cefepime; either alone or in combination; against eleven multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates. The antibiotic resistant patternsof the eleven clinical isolates were carried out using twenty five antibiotic discs. The tested clinical isolates were resistant to twenty or more of the antibiotic discs used. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and the minimum lethal concentrations of the three tested antibacterial agents were determined using the macro broth dilution technique. The activities of the three tested antibacterial agents alone or in combination were examined by (i) disc diffusion technique; (ii) chequerboard titration and (iii) time-killing method. Fractional inhibitory concentration (FIe) indices of the three antibiotic combinations were calculated for six of the tested isolates and revealed that amikacin-cefepime combination exhibited synergism against five isolates while each of amikacin-levofloxacin and cefepime- levofloxacin combinations showed synergy against only two isolates. The bactericidal activities of the three tested antibacterial agents either alone on in combination were examined by the time-killing method using concentrations of 0.5x MIC. Synergy was evidenced P-: 100 fold increase in the bacterial killing) against all the tested isolates specially after 24 h incubation. In presence of antibiotic combinations, complete killing of some tested isolates which are resistant to both antibiotics tested separately was shown. No antagonism was observed with the three combinations tested.

 

 

13/14 ANTIOXIDATIVE DEFENSE IN TOMATO LEAVES INDUCED
BY PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE PV. TOMATO 478,
PSEUDOMONAS SOLANCEARUMRSWz,
SALICYLIC ACID,
N2O2
AND WOUNDING

W.A. El-Shouny, A.R. El-Shanshoury and N.G. Allam

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

Antioxidative response of tomato leaves (Egyptian Lycopersicon esculentum super streamb) to inflltratien by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato 478, P. solancearum RSW2, H202, salicylic acid (SA) and wounding was studied. The two months-old tomato plants were used in this study. The wounded and inflltrated plants were harvested and analyzed after 1, 3 and 5 days. The activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) was quantitatively estimated. POD significantly increased by increasing the time after treatment and reached maximum after 3 days. In contrast, CAT significantly decreased over 3 days after treatment, then began to be recovered. The expression of isoenzyme loci as a marker for gene expression of POD was studied using PAGE. Enhancement of isozyme activities was correlated to increase in band intensity and appearance of an additional isozyme band (locus), that appeared with the treatments of SA, viable P. solancearum RSW2 and wounding compared to control (non-treated plant). The lipid peroxidation (LP) and electrical conductivity (Ee) were determined in the treated plants. A significant increase appeared as early as hypersensitive reaction (HR) was occurred. This study may lead to the conclusion that measured parameters should be considered as a signal for systemic acquired resistance (SAR), and are of greet importance for plant protection.

 

 

14/14 MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF AROMATIC SUBSTANCES BY
LOCAL BACTERIAL ISOLATEs

V- Supplemental enhancement and genetic characterization of
Pseudomonas putida strain

O. M. El-Tayeb*, A. A. Abdelrahman** and A. S. Hanora**

Department of Microbiology & Immunology and the Microbial Biotechnology Center,
Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University* and Suez Canal University**, Egypt.

In a previous study, we reported the isolation of a strain of Pseudomonas putida (MA30) which is capable of utilizing the aromatic compound p-nitrophenol (PNP) as a sole source of carbon. Using this isolate, repeated addition of small doses of 30 ug/ml of PNP followed by doubling the doses, increased the efficiency of the strain to utilize up to 360 ug/ml of PNP with pH control. We also reported that a phosphorus, but not a nitrogen compound, is an essential supplement for indefinite PNP utilization. Such supplementation with phosphorus alone or with nitrogen also increased capacity and decreased lag period of PNP degradation. In the present report, measuring PNP concentrations by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which is more objective than the colorimetric measurement used previously, the influence of phosphate was confirmed by the observed growth-dependent increase in the optical density of the treatment mixture. We also looked for the presence of plasmids DNA in the strain, by analysis of its DNA extract by agarose gel electrophoresis. Two plasm ids were detected; one is about 1.3 kbp and the other is about 1.9 kbp. We carried out curing experiments on the strain by growing it in presence of either ethidium bromide (EB) or 9-amino flavine (9AF). The variants obtained were serially treated with one of the curing agents or the other and sub-variants were tested for PNP degradation activity and for their plasmid content in order to find a correlation between either or both plasmids and degradation activity. Variant No. 8 was recovered from a 9AF treatment and showed complete loss of both plasm ids as well as degradation activity. On the other hand, variant 9 was recovered after exposure three times to EB and showed loss of the larger plasmid DNA (1.9 kbp) only and retained its ability to degrade PNP. Other variants did not lose either plasmid and retained their ability to degrade PNP. These results demonstrated that the smaller plasmid (1.3 kbp) plays a role in the degradation of PNP either alone or in collaboration with other genetic elements located either on the chromosome or as undetected extra- chromosomal elements. Finally, understanding such a process may help to develop a process for continuous open-ended degradation of toxic aromatic substances such as PNP in industrial wastes by Pseudomonas putida after further amplification of the smaller plasmid content of the strain.

15/14 NEW COMPOUNDS FROM CERTAIN MARINE ALGAE FROM MARSA ALAAM RED SEA EGYPT WITH PROMISING ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY

R. A. Salah El Din*; R. F. Arafa** and A. D. El Gamal***

*Botany & Microbiology Dept, Fac. of Sci, Al-Azhar Univ. (Girl Branch), Cairo, Egypt.

**Botany & Microbiology Dept, Fac. of Sci, Al-Azhar Univ., Assuit, Egypt.

***Botany & Microbiology Dept, Fac. of Sci, Al-Azhar Univ., Cairo, Egypt.

The antimicrobial activity of Halimeda opuntia green alga and Sargassum latifolium brown alga extracts from Marsa Alaam were screened against four bacterial species Viz.; Eischerichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Llisteria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus using a disk assay method. Of the two species tested, H. opuntia extracts were the most active against all the tested organisms. The ethyl acetate extract of S. latifolium was the only active against all the tested bacteria strains.The isolation and identification of the most active fractions by GC/Mass analysis indicated that H. opuntia contains two compounds. The first was undecane compound, which, is asaturated aliphatic hydrocarbon and the second was cyclotetradecane. Whereas the compound isolated from S. latifolium was polysaccharide in nature.


16/14 AUGMENTATION OF THE PRIMARY ANTIBODY RESPONSE IN VITRO BY DICLOFENAC

1Ali A. Abdelrahman and 2Hisham El-Bashbishy

1Medical Microbiology and immunology Dept., Faculty of Medicine & 2Biochemistry Dept., Faculty of Science, 1, 2 Taibah University, Medina Monawarh, Saudi Arabia

     The primary immune response plays an important role in body defense mechanism against bacteria, viruses and cancer. Immunomodulation by pharmacological or chemical agents may alter such a defense mechanism. This study was conducted to characterize and determine the effect of Diclofenac (DF) on the murine primary immune response (As immunoglobulin M, IgM) in vitro. The primary anti sheep erythrocyte was generated by C57BL/6 splenocytes (l x107), cultured for five days in media supplemented with 20% fetal calf serum and 2 x l06 sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Splenocytes were then harvested and the Jerne plaque assay and complement fixation tests were used to determine the numbers of plaque forming cells (PFC) and 1gM titer, respectively. Exposure of splenocytes to DF in a concentration of (8 x10-8 to 6 x10-7 M) have resulted in augmentation of the antibody PFC (19% - 52%) and IgM titer response in a dose-dependant manner against SRBC in vitro. Diclofenac has a significant immunostimulation in comparison to the control. However, higher concentration of DF (1 x10-2 to 1 x10-5 M) have provoked suppression of the control antibody PFC and IgM titer response (98% - 32%) associated with 24% maximum decrease in cell viability and yield as confirmed by trypan blue exclusion. Diclofenac at 1 x10-6 Mdid not show any immunostimulation without affecting cell viability and yield. We concluded that the augmentation of the primary immune response in vitro mainly occur at 1x 10-7 M concentration of DF.

 

17/14 CHARACTERIZATION OF MOLECULAR RESISTANCE
MECHANISMS TO CHLORAMPHENICOL IN EXTENDED
SPECTRUM J3-LACTAMASE-PRODUCING ESCHERISCHIA
COLI
STRAINS

M.H.M. Al-Agamy, I.Wiegand*, B. Wiedemanrr*, M.S. Ashour, A-S.A-H. Helal
and K.A. El-Ghareeb

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar
University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt and *Department of Pharmaceutical
Microbiology, Bonn University, Bonn, Germany

This study aims to investigate the basis of molecular resistance mechanisms for chloramephenicol (CHL) in extended spectrum fJ-lactamase-producing (ESBL) E. coli strains. The resistance of 30 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates to CHL and florfenicol (FLO) were 96.66% and 100. 0% respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by microdilution broth method to CHL and FLo. Twenty eight (96.66%) out (If 29 CHL-ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were had CHL MIC 2128 ug/ml wherease, MIC of FLO was found to be > 32 ug/ml (96.66%). Nine different representative strains were selected for further studies. The CHL resistance determinants in the following E. coli strains i.e. E3, E7, E8, E43, and E51 were carried on transferable plasmid(s) whereas attempts to obtain transconjugants from the strains designated as E6, E15, En and E35 were failed. Existence of six different CHL resistance genes i.e. catI, catlI, catIII, catB, cmlA and jloR genes were tested using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific primer pairs. The catII and catlII genes were not detected in the tested E. coli strains. On the other hand, E. coli strains designated as E6, E33, E43, and E51 were harboured the catI gene on their plasmids. The other tested E. coli strains i.e. E3, E7, E8, E15, and E35 were catI gene negative. On the other hand, E. coli strains designated as E8 and E43 were the only ones which illustrated of cmlA efflux gene. The jloR gene, which responsible for FLO resistance, was not detected in the tested strains in spite of all isolates were resistant to FLo. Further studies we needed to known mechanism responsible for FLO resistance or non-specific mechanism in these strains.

18/14 EFFECT OF POTASSIUM TELLURITE ON ULTRA STRUCTURE OF SOME TELLURO-TOLERANT FUNGI

A.A. Abu-Seidah1 and M.H. Mourad2

1Faculty of Education, Suez Canal Univ., Suez, Egypt

2The Regional Center for Mycol. and Biotechnol., Al-Azhar, Univ.

Telluro-tolerant fungal species, Aspergillus versicolor, Alternaria alternata and Fusarium oxysporum isolated from the garden soil on sulfur free Czapek's Dox medium amended with potassium tellurite (100.0 mg/L) were studied. Organisms were isolated on sulfur containing metal-free medium were considered as acontrol. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) investigations show that the metal treated fungi seemed to be of thinner cell wall and cell membrane than in untreated cells except for F. oxysporum cells. Their cells seem to be unaffected at low concentration and increased at high concentration. Numerous round lipid globules, dense accumulation of black material predicted as precipitation of elemental tellurium were observed. Increases of vacuoles represent one of the most significant observations. These vacuoles appeared to contain dark granules suggested as elemental tellurium as well. The mitochondrial dimensions were greatly affected by the presence of tellurite. They become spherical and smaller in size.

19/14 COMPARATIVE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF FIVE MACROLIDES AND THEIR COMBINATIONS WITH EDTA, COLISTIN AND TRIMETHOPRIM AGAINST CLINICAL BACTERIAL ISOLATES

Amal M. Khalil

Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Alexandria

The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 5 selected macrolides (MAC) comprising Azithromycin (AZ), Clarithromycin (CLR), Erythromycin (ER), Roxithromycin (ROX) and Spiramycin (SP) were determined by the agar dilution technique against 65 clinical isolates comprising Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The outcome of the test proved the high bacteriostatic activity of all MACs against S. aureus showing MIC 50 ranging between 0.25-8 µg/ml. On the other hand the MIC values obtained against gram-negative isolates were high especially against Ps. aeruginosa isolates reaching more than 1024µg/ml. AZ proved to be the most active MAC against the gram-negative isolates. Then combined bacteriostatic effect of the MACs was assessed with the addition of 0.5% EDTA or 1 µg/ml Colistin (COL) against selected gram-negative isolates in the purpose of improving their outer membrane (OM) permeation barrier. EDTA revealed better potentiation effect than COL. On testing the combined bactericidal effect, 1/2 MICs of both the MAC and COL were used against the E. coli isolate. The outcome was not very satisfactory. However, on testing the bactericidal effect of the MACs in presence of Trimethoprim (TMP) in the ratio 3 MAC: 1 TMP against 3 selected clinical isolates E. coli, Ps. aeruginosa and Kl. pneumoniae the results were much more promising especially in the case of ER. In conclusion, combining TMP with MACs is promising in broading their antimicrobial spectrum especially that of ER, which is a relatively cheap commonly used antibiotic.

20/14 PROTEIN PATTERNS (SDS-PAGE) AS A MEAN IN CLASSIFICATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SOME PENICILLIUM SPP.

A. F. Afifi, E. A. Kamel, E. M. Fawzi and M. M. Houseny

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Education,

Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo, Egypt.

In the present work, 37Penicillium isolate from different localities were cultivated on two types of media for determination of protein patterns (a) Czapek Dox’s medium "inorganic nitrogen" and (b) Waksman’s medium "organic nitrogen". The fungal proteins were analyzed using discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method. The relationships between the studied Penicillium species expressed by average taxonomic distance (dissimilarity) have been demonstrated as phenogram, based on the analysis of the recorded characters using the NT-system program package for IBM-pc as described by Rohlf (1993). The study revealed that a wide variation in the protein patterns was observed between isolates grown on Czapek Dox’s medium and those grown on Waksman’s medium. Also, there is a remarkable correlation between geographical origin of isolates and protein profiles of the studied isolates.

21/14 TREATMENT OF SOME DERMATOPHYTES ISOLATED
FROM HOSPITALS DUST BY SOME PLANTS EXTRACT AND
ACTINOMYCETES ISOLATES

S.M. Amer*, .M.M. Aly** and S.M. EI-Sabbagh***
* Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University.
**Biology Department, Faculty of Education, Kafr El-Sheikh, Tanta University.
*** Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Menoufyia Univeristy.

Tweenty -three fungal species represented 14 fungal genera were recovered from hospital dust in Gharbia and Kafr El-sheikli Gavernorates. Most of them are Trichophyton (4 species), Microsporium (2 species), Epidermophyton (one species) and Candida (2 species).Several saprophytes, cycloheximide and 5 jZourocytocine resistant fungi were recovered but with different frequency and these belonged to Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosprium, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Mucor, Paecilomyces, Pen icillium. Rh izopous and Trichoderma. Four plant extracts (Thymus vuligars, Synadenium grantii, Ipomoea carnea and Cuminium cynum) and filtrate of 5 species of Actinomycetes (Streptomyces albidojlavus, St. graminofaciens, St. thermodiastaticus, St. spectabilis and St. rochie) were tested against four dermatophytes species in addition to Candida albican. Plant extracts gave inhibition to dermatophytes more than Actinomycete strains. Thymus vuligars was the most effective inhibitor to dermatophytes with MIC ranging from J 50- 200j1.g/ml. One isolate of dermatophyte (T. verrucosum) was tested for proteolytic. lipolytic and keratinolytic activities. Thymus vuligaris plant extract inhibited the production of these enzymes.

22/14 ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIFUNGAL
SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CANDIDA SPECIES ISOLATED FROM
CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OF CANCER PATIENTS

S. Radwan and A. EI-Sharif

Microbiology and Immunology Dept., Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University

The incidence of systemic fungal infection in immunosuppressed patients has augmented in the two decades. Candidal meningitis is a rare infectious disease that usually leads to substantial morbidity and mortality. Over a period of one year, forty two cases with suspected fungal meningitis were studied. Most of them were suffering from acute myeloid leukemia. Microscopic examination and broth culture of cerebrospinal fluid were carried out to diagnose Candidal meningitis. Fungi were detected in eighteen cases. The main identified species were Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis. and Cryptococcus neoformans. Their antifungal susceptibilities were determined, Amphotericin B was the most potent antifungal, followed by ketoconazole. While most of the studied organisms showed unexpected resistance to fluconazole. Fungal pathogens as Cryptococcus and Candida should be considered as important causes of meningitis in immunosuppressed patients.

 

23/14 EVALUATION OF SIDEROPHORE PRODUCTION USING
CHROME AZUROLE ASSAY

A.S. Bashandy

National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority,
Cairo, Egypt

Siderophores are cation binding agents produced by microorganisms. They are specific Jor Fe (Ill) but may bind other cations. In this study, two bacterial strains identified as B. megaterium and E. coli were selected, Jrom 15 isolates isolated Jrom soil, as the most siderophore producers. The suitability oj chrome azurol agar assay as a quantitative methodology Jor siderophore production was carried out. The effect of several variables, pH, incubation time and iron concentration on siderophore production were also studied. As can be seen the CAS-reaction rate was not affected by different pH conditions, the siderophore production on chrome azurol agar, made it possible to find a linear correlation between the advance oj color change in CAS blue agar and the incubation time. All the species showed a good growth under both iron-sufficient and iron-limited conditions. The highest rate oj CAS reaction was observed for B. rnegaterium growing in non-iron supplemented medium. In liquid medium, the siderophore production was evaluated by the universal CAS-liquid. The siderophores production by the selected species in liquid medium not supplemented with iron showed the same profile as in solid medium, with B. megaterium as the higher siderophore producer. The stability oj siderophore Co or strontium complex was investigated. The results of the spectral analysis of the produced exudates showed that the produced siderophores have a binding capacity to Co and Sr. The addition oj a strong complexing agent (EDDHA) does not influence the stability oj the formed metal complex.

24/14 The role of adherence and urease in pathogenicity

of proteus isolates from urinary tract infections

Fathy M E Serry, Moussa K Okasha, Hassan A Abdel Salam, and

Mo'men M. Ez Elarab

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University

Proteus isolates from uti showed statistically significant (p=0.002) higher adherence capacity to uroepithelial cells (average of 128±24.6 bacterial cells per epithelial cell) compared to isolates from other sources (33.15±25.3). The role of urease in crystal formation and growth was examined. Microscopically, the inoculated urine samples by proteus, showed different forms of crystals which increased in size by time in contrast to the uninoculated controls. The urease inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid reduced the increase in ph, od, and ammonia concentration. Such reduction prevented crystal formation.

 

 

25/14 COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE SUSCEPTIBILITY TO
DETERIORATION AMONG SOME EGYPTIAN

BREAD-WHEAT CULTIV ARS

A.F. Moustafa*, A. Ismail ** and G.L. Hassan **

* Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt
** Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Education, Suez Canal University,
Port Said, Egypt

The susceptibility to deterioration among grains of eight Egyptian bread-wheat cultivars, stored at the atmospheric relative humidity of 60 % for six weeks, revealed a great variability of deterioration rates. A follow-up study of the accumulation of three mycotoxins namely Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), Ochratoxin A (OTA) and Zearalenone (ZEA) showed that, a- the two cultivars Sakha 8 and Sakha 69 were the most resistant to deterioration where no mycotoxins detected throughout the experimental period; b- The cultivar Gemmeiza 7 came next" in view of resistance" by showing negligible amounts of ZEA (0. 6pglkg) only at 6th week of storage; c- The remaining cultivars revealed variable abilities where detection of mycotoxins in appreciable amounts started rightaway on the third week of storage . In view of accumulated amounts of my cot ox ins, the two cultivars namely Sakha 93 and Gemmeiza 9 proved to be the worst by showing the greatest amounts of my cot ox ins after six weeks. Based on the preceding observations and for safe bread making, we strongly recommend the cultivation, of the cultivars: Sakha 8& 69 and Gemmeiza 7 on a large scale for bread wheat production and consequently safe bread making and meanwhile recommend reducing as possible the cultivation of the susceptible cultivars: Sakha 93,Gemmeiza 5&9,and Giza 168.

26/14 THE PREVALENCE OF METHICILLIN RESISTANCE AND SUSCEPTIBILITY OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATES FROM A UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL IN RIYADH CITY

Fathy M. E. SERRY, Nazla R. Abul-Enin*, and Reem H. Al-Rashoudi*

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt, and *Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia,.

Three hundred Staphlyococcus aureus isolates were recovered from various clinical specimens received to bacteriology laboratory of King Khaled University hospital, Riyadh over a five month-period during the years 2000/2001 with a rate of 5.4% of the positive cultures. Sixty two isolates (20.7%) of these were identified as methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) by the oxacillin agar screen method and 248 (82.7%) of the isolates were beta-lactamase producers comprising 98.4% (61) of MRSA and 78.6% (187) of methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). Higher prevalence of MRSA was found among inpatient (26.6%) than outpatient's isolates (10.7%). Antibiotic susceptibility testing by agar dilution method demonstrated high susceptibility to vancomycin (100%), Synercid (99.7%), mupirocin (99%), rifampicin (93.7%), gentamicin (87%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, TMS ((84.4%) and ciprofloxacin (81.7%) but lower susceptibility was found to linezolid (51.7%). Differential susceptibility show higher resistance of MRSA , thus 62.9%, 59%, 53.2%, 32.2% and 22.6% of MRSA were resistant to ciprofloxacin, TMS, gentamicin, and rifampicin, while 2.5%, 2.9%, 2.5%, and 2.1% of MSSA were resistant to ciprofloxacin, TMS, gentamicin, and rifampicin, respectively. MIC50s and MIC90s reflect also susceptibility differences between MRSA and MSSA isolates for ciprofloxacin, TMS, gentamicin, and rifampicin in favour of the latter.

27/14 SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE AND RESISTANCE OF HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE ISOLATES FROM KING SAUD UNIVERSITY HOSPITALS TO SIX COMMON ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS

Fathy M. E. Serry, Nazla R. Abul-Enin*, AND SAHAR A AL-HOGAIL2

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy1, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt, and Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences2, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

100 H influenzae isolates collected from King Saud University Hospitals, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were tested for susceptibility to ampicillin (Amp), chloramphenicol (C), tetracycline (Te), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMS), ciprofloxacin (Cip), and cefotaxime (CTX) by disc diffusion (DD) and E tests methods. All the isolates showed complete susceptibility to Cip and CTX by either method. Different degrees of discrepancies between the results of the two methods were obtained with the other four drugs that were particularly high for Amp and Te. While the DD method recognized 95%, 85%, 69% and 61% of the isolates as susceptible to C, Te, TMS, and Amp, the corresponding figures as determined by E test were 96%, 90%, 71%, and 77%, respectively. E-test recognized 29% and 17% of isolates as resistant to TMS and Amp, respectively. Only one isolate was resistant to either of Te and C. One (1%) very major and 10 major discrepancies were obtained with Amp, and 2 major were obtained with Te. Minor discrepancies were obtained with all but Cip and CTX. Twenty three and 15 isolates were considered as antibiotic multiresistant as determined by the DD and E test, respectively. Ten out of 13 tested multi-resistant isolates each had a plasmid DNA of approximately 30-40 kb in size. Twenty seven (27%) isolates were β-lactamase producers, with higher predominance among serotype b (42.9%), and biotype III (42.1%). β -lactamase positive isolates demonstrated significantly higher MIC50 and MIC90 values for Amp, Te, and C, but not for TMS. From three tested isolates (one chloramphenicol resistant and two intermediate), only one intermediate isolate was CAT positive. Analysis of resistance patterns suggests a positive correlation between resistance to ampicillin and either Te, C or both, but not TMS.

28/14 PREVALENCE OF ROTAVIRUS INFECTION IN CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS IN ISMAILIA, EGYPT

N. F. Mahmood, S. Abdalla and A. Zeitoun*

Microbiology and Immunology Dept., Faculty of Pharmacy, *Pediatrics Dept., Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

Rotavirus is the leading etiological agent among the causes of acute diarrhea in infants and young children. This study aimed to determine the incidence of rotavirus infection in Ismailia governorate, Egypt. Rotavirus antigen was detected in 51.56% (33/64) of fecal specimens collected from children < 5 years of age with acute diarrhea using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The highest rate of rotavirus antigen detection was observed among 6-12 months of age (57.6 %). The seasonal peak of rotavirus infection was observed in October and November.

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