Vol. 15, September, 2006

comment avoir le viagra 1/15 cialis 20mg prix en pharmacie EFFECT OF PH AND METAL IONS ON THE ANTIADHERENT ACTIVITY OF LEVOFLOXACIN AGAINST PREADHERENT PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

S. Al-Ansari

Faculty of Medicine, King abdul Aziz Universaity, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

The effects of metal ions ( Ca++ and Mg++) and pH (5.5-8.5) on the antiadherent activity of levofloxacin against preformed biofilms of acheter levitra generique en ligne Pseudomonas aeruginosa and contre indications de cialis Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates (12 isolates each), in wells of microtiter plates and on segments of vascular catheters using an in vitro model of catheter colonization, were studied. The presence of 5 mM Mg++increased the percentage of optical density of the adherent biofilms of forum viagra et hypertension P. aeruginosa and comment acheter du viagra en belgique S. aureus treated with levofloxacin (12.5-200 ug/ml) by 16-29% and 22-40%, respectively, comparing to that of the control. In the presence of 5 mM Ca++, no significant (P < 0.05) change was observed. A slight decrease in the percentage of optical density of the adherent biofilms of maux de tete avec viagra P. aeniginosa and cialis quotidien 5 mg S. aureus isolates treated with levofloxacin at pH 5.5 by 9-12% and 11-15%, respectively, was observed as compared to that obtained at pH 7. While at pH 8.5, the percentage of optical densities of the tested isolates was slightly increased by 8-12% and 8-10%, respectively. In the in vitro model of vascular colonization, the presence of 100 µg/ml levofloxacin eradicated all the adherent cells. A few colonies of the tested isolates was recovered in the presence of 5 mM Mg++ or at pH 8.5. While, no significance difference was observed in the presence of 5 mM Ca++ or at pH 5.5. Treatment of the catheter segments with 50 µg/ml levofloxacin reduced the range of the number of the adherent cells to 15-22 CFU/ml. The presence of 5mM Mg++ (plus levofloxacin) increased the range of the mean number of the adherent cell to 27-38 CFU/ catheter segment as compared to that of the controls (preadhered films treated with levofloxacin), while in the presence of 5 mM Ca++ no significance difference ( P < 0.05) in the number of the adherent cells was observed. Concerning the effect of pH, it was observed that the range of the number of the CFU/catheter segment at pH 5.5, 7.0, and 8.5 was 10-16, 15-22, and 28-36, respectively. Accordingly, the presence of Mg++ and pH 8.5 slightly decreased the antiadherent activity of levofloxacin. In contrast, the antiadherent activity of levofloxacin was increased at pH 5.5. In case of Ca++, no significant effect on the antiadherent activity of levofloxacin was observed.

viagra manger 2/15 acheter cialis non generique GBV–C/HGV INFECTION AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH HCV AND HBV INFECTIONS IN EGYPTIAN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

D.F.I. El Fouhil, W. Ahmed* and G. Mahmoud*

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al–Azhar University, and *Kidney Unit, Ahmed Maher Teaching Hospital

The prevalence of GBV–C/HGV infection among Egyptian hemodialysis patients, the risk factors for acquisition of this infection and its routes of transmission, its association with HCV and HBV infections, and its clinical significance in hemodialysis patients were investigated. Serum samples from 65 hemodialysis patients and 25 healthy control subjects were tested for the presence of GBV–C/HGV infection by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) for detection of GBV–C/HGV RNA using primers derived from the NS3 helicase region and from the 5'untranslated region (5' UTR), and by ELISA test for detection of IgG antibodies to the GBV–C/HGV envelope protein E2 (anti–E2). HCV infection was also detected by testing the serum samples by RT–nested PCR for detection of HCV RNA using primers from the 5'UTR and by ELISA test for detection of anti–HCV antibodies. In addition, HBV infection was detected using ELISA test for detection of HBs Ag, Ig Manti–HBc and total anti–HBc in serum samples. Serum ALT and AST levels were also determined. It was found that 14 of the 65 hemodialysis patients (21.5%) were positive for GBV–C/HGV RNA [13(20%) of them were positive for the virus for both NS3 helicase region and 5'UTR and one patient (1.5%) was positive for the virus for 5'UTR only] with a higher positivity rate obtained with primers from 5'UTR. Two of the 25 control subjects (8%) were also positive for GBV–C/HGV RNA for both NS3 helicase region and 5'UTR. Anti–E2 antibodies were detected in 17 of the 65 hemodialysis patients (26.2%) and in 3 of the 25 control subjects (12%), with no simultaneous appearance of GBV–C/HGV RNA and anti–E2 antibodies in hemodialysis patients or control subjects. GBV–C/HGV RNA is a marker of present GBV–C/HGV infection, while the presence of anti–E2 antibodies is considered to be a marker of past infection by the virus. The total prevalence of present and past GBV–C/HGV infection was 47.7% (31/65) in hemodialysis patients and 20% (5/25) in control subjects. The prevalence of GBV–C/HGV RNA, anti – E2 and the total prevalence of GBV–C/HGV infection were significantly higher in hemodialysis patients compared to control subjects (P< 0.01). HCV infection was detected in 41 of the 65 hemodialysis patients (63.1%), while HBV infection was detected in 35 patients (53.8%). All control subjects were negative for both HCV and HBV infections. An association of 80.6% was found between GBV–C/HGV infection and HCV infection, while an association of 51.6% was found between GBV–C/HGV infection and HBV infection. On comparing GBV–C/HGV infected hemodialysis patients with GBV–C/HGV uninfected patients, no statistically significant difference in age, sex, association with HBV infection or duration of hemodialysis was found between both groups of patients (P>0.05), but a significantly higher association with HCV infection was found in hemodialysis patients with GBV–C/HGV infection compared to patients with no GBV–C/HGV infection (P< 0.01). Parenteral transmission was the most probable route of transmission of GBV–C/HGV infection in the studied hemodialysis patients mainly through blood transfusion and to a lesser extent through non transfusion – parenteral exposure. Blood transfusion was found to be an important risk factor and a common mean of transmission of GBV–C/HGV infection in hemodialysis patients, being significantly more frequent in patients with GBV–C/HGV infection (P< 0.01), while non transfusion–parenteral exposure was a less important risk factor in transmission of GBV–C/HGV infection, and was significantly more frequent in patients with no GBV–C/HGV infection (P< 0.01). Bilharziasis was also found to be a risk factor for GBV–C/HGV infection being significantly more frequent in GBV–C/HGV infected patients (P <0.01). Elevated serum levels of ALT and AST in hemodialysis patients were not related to the presence of GBV–C/HGV infection, but were related to the presence of HCV infection, or both HCV and HBV infections. In addition, GBV–C/HGV infected control subjects had normal ALT and AST serum levels, so GBV–C/HGV infection did not seem to cause liver damage and disease in hemodialysis patients and healthy subjects. Further studies are required to clarify the clinical and pathogenic significance of GBV–C/HGV infection in human. Meanwhile, strict regulations are required to ensure the safety of blood and blood products before transfusion, and to prevent risky non transfusion–parenteral exposure. Adherence to universal precautions and standard infection control measures in hemodialysis units is strongly recommended.

3/15 ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES OF THE EXTRACTS OF THE YELLOW TOPS (FLAVERIA TRINERVIA, ASTERACEAE)

E.A. Husseein

Department of Botany & Microbiology, Fac. Sci., Al-Azhar Univ. Cairo, Egypt.

Shoot systems of the yellow tops (Flaveria triervia) were coolected from the mountains of Ibb city, Republic of Yemen just before flowering. The shoots were washed with tap water, dried in the shad to a constant weight was obtained, ground into a very fine powder. For quick screening of antimicrobial activity, 10 grams of the fine powder were extracted with 70% ethanol using a Soxhlet apparatus. The antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract was checked by the disk-diffusion assay. The assay have shown that the ethanolic extract exhibited activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and failed to give activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For further study, fifty grams of the fine powder were successively extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone and 80% methyl alcohol till exhaustion using a Soxhlet extracto. The most pronounced effect was obtained with the methanolic fraction which inhibited the growth of Shigella dysentery, Streptococcus pyrogeness, Bacillus subtilis, Staph. Aureus, E. coli and Salmonella typhymurium.

4/15 BIOLEACHING OF IRON ORE USING SOME FUNGAL ISOLATES  

M.E. Osman, OH. Khattab and R.M. A

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Egypt

Dissolution activity of different fungal isolates (Penicillium viridicatum, Aspergillus niger, Pencilium citrimum, P. rugulosum and P. urticae. P. viridicatum) was examined the most potent fungal isolate on the solubility of phosphate and manganese with the least removal rate iron. The optimum conditions for phosphate and manganese solubilization by Penicillium viridicatum from iron ore were evaluated. Maximum dissolution activity was recorded at 35 C and pH 4, after static incubation period 8 days .Sucrose was the best carbon source at a concentration of 30 g/l and sodium nitrate as the nitrogen source at a concentration of 0.5 g/l for dissolution activity. Under these conditions, Penicillium viridicatum solubilized 78% phosphate and 23.3% manganese. Organic acids mainly gluconic acid was secreted in the culture filtrate with a conc. of 4933.035 µg/ml medium, which might play an important role in solubilization.

5/15 OPTIMIZATION OF CULTURAL CONDITIONS FOR FORMATION OF L-ASPARAGINE DEAMIDATING ENZYME BY PENICILLIUM POLITANS NRC 510.

T.H. Ali and S.T. Elsayed*

Department of Microbial Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry*, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

Extracts of five fungal strains belonging to filamentous fungi catalyzed, hydrolytic deamidation of L-asparagine to aspartic acid and ammonia. Penicillium politans NRC 510 gave the highest specific activity at the fourth day of growth on modified Czapek Dox’s medium containing 2% of L-proline and 0.2% NaNO3 as carbon and nitrogen sources respectively. The highest yield of enzyme under static conditions was at ratio of 1:4 - 1: 2.3 medium to air. Optimum deamidation of L-asparagine by the extracts was recorded at pH8 of 0.08 M Tris-HCl buffer and 60°C. Exposure of the extracts to 60 °C for 20 min in the absence of the substrate leads to about 50 % increase in its activity. The enzyme activity was also inactivated on exposure to temperatures above 60°C and were retained in the freezer for some months. The enzyme activity was inhibited by the products of the reaction (aspartic acid and ammonia)

6/15 BACTERICIDAL EFFECT OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AGAINST SELECTED NUMBER OF ORGANISMS IN PRESENCE OF ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS AND DEXAMETHAZONE

Z. El-Killany, O.A. Abd El-Rahman* and S.A. Zaki*

General Manager, Otsuka Factory, 10th of Ramadan. *Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University.

The course of patients undergoing cancer therapy is apt to be complicated by infection; therefore, combination therapy with antimicrobial agents and of antineoplastic agents is given in many cases. The aim of the present study is to evaluate combination therapy of antimicrobial agents during treatment with antineoplastic agents and dexamethazone on the growth of selected species of bacteria which are common among febrile neutropenic patients. Different combinations of several antimicrobial and antineoplastic agents were used against four selected bacterial species. MIC, in-vitro synergistic study and in-vitro killing-time were performed for all antimicrobial agents against the given bacterial species in presence and absence of antineoplastic agents. The MIC of imipenem in presence of cyclophosphamide and ceftazidime in presence of methotrexate were reduced to half and fourth, respectively, against Staphylococcus aureus. Against Escherichia coli, 5- fluorouracil reduced MIC of imipenem by 16 times while doxorubicin reduced MIC of ceftazidime by 32 times. All antineoplastic agents reduced the MIC of amikacin by half. 5-fluorouracil decreased the MIC of ceftazidime against pseudomonas aeruginosa by half. The MIC of imipenem in presence of cyclophosphamide or MIC of amikacin in presence of doxorubicin or cyclophosphamide was reduced to half against Klebsiella pneumoniae. In synergistic study by agar diffusion, it was found that the antineoplastic agents did not affect the bactericidal effect of the antimicrobial agents against   P. aeruginosa but affected the antimicrobial actions against other organisms depending on the microorganism, antimicrobial combination and the antineoplastic agent used. In the killing-time study, variable results were obtained in different microorganisms. In case of Staphylococcus aureus, combination became effective starting from 3.5 hrs. Against Klebsiella pneumoniae killing curve results started to be effective after 2.5 hrs. Results of killing-time study appeared against Escherichia coli starting from 2.5 hrs whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed a response to combination in killing time curve after 1.5 hrs according to the given combination. To conclude, the use of antibiotic combinations especially for post-chemotherapy neutropenic patients could reduce the incidence of bacterial infections and result in minimal emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. The result of concurrent adminstration between antimicrobial agents and cytotoxic agents differ according to the type of antimicrobial agents and cytotoxic agents used as well as the infective microorganism. . Also, 5-fluorouracil was the most effective antineoplastic agent in changing the sensitivity of each of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae to antimicrobial agents whereas cyclophosphamide was the least effective against all of the tested microorganisms. Dexamethazone affected killing curve results by either extending the time to start synergism or decreasing it.

7/15 PROLONGED SHELF LIFE AND SAFETY OF AN ANALOGUE OF SPONGE YOGHURT CAKE LIKE PRODUCTS USING WATER ACTIVITY TECHNIQUE

A.M. Abdel Salam, N.M.A. Dabiza, E.A. Hegazi* and Y.H. Abu Sree**

Dairy Science Department, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt

*Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture Cairo Univ. Giza, Egypt

**Food Toxicology and contaminants Department, National Research Centre Giza,

Egypt

Preventing fungal growth and Toxin production requires knowledge of the conditions under   which each of toxigenic fungi becomes active. In this investigation the relation between fugal growth, mycotoxins production, temperature and the factors of water activity (aw) were studied. Various fungal species including Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus and Fusarium monilforme known to produce mycotoxins were tested. The investigation encompasses the mycotoxins production at different conditions of water activity ( 0.85,0.75,0.70 and 0.61) and temperature (7±2°C and 28±2°C). The obtained results revealed that no growth of mycotoxigenic fungi and no mycotoxins production on yoghurt cake like products contained 0.61 water activity and incubated at 7±2°C and 28±2°C until 45 days of incubation period. So, this the study recommended that reducing water activity (aw) to 0.61 can keep quality of yoghurt cake–like products and prevent fungal growth and toxin production. This lead to increase of the shelf life of the products.

8/15 PRODUCTION OF Β-LACTAMASE INHIBITORY PROTEIN BY SOME STREPTOMYCES ISOLATES

M.E. Osman, F.H. Ahmed* and M.I. Mabrok*

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University

* National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR)

Bacterial pathogens resistant to various β-lactam antibiotics cause very important problem in clinical filed, therefore the present study aims to overcome the resistance problem by screening of Streptomyces isolates to determine their ability to produce β-lactamase inhibitory protein against amoxicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus . Results revealed that Streptomyces isolates (Fs - 3, Fs - 6, Fs - 18, Fs -20) were the most active organisms, therefore they were selected and subjected to complete identification. The β-lactamase protein inhibitory by (Fs -18) Streptomyces griseastramineus was precipitated using a range of ammonium sulphate saturations (10 - 90 %) at concentration 50 % - 70 %, active protein was purified8 folds with overall yield of 23 % of the original activity, specific activity 47 u/mg protein using DEAE - cellulose and sephadex G - 200 columns and SDS – PAGE to determined its molecular weight was 48 oC. The amino acids composition of the protein was containing different amino acids with high contents from gluamic, eystine, alanine and thrio nine. Mic of Staphylococcus aureus for active protein in presence of amoxycillin was 156 µg/ml and β-lactamase activity can be inhibited by sub Mic of active protein produced by Streptomyces griseastramineus and descreased from 7000 µg/ml.

9/15 BACTERIOSTATIC AND BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF SOME DICLOFENAC-ANTIBIOTIC COMBINATIONS

M.A. El-Nakeeb, M.A. Fawzy, N.M. El-Guink and N.K.Moussa

Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Alexandria University, Egypt

The effect of diclofenac on the bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of a number of antibiotics against one Gram-positive organism (S. aureus) and two Gram-negative organisms (E. coli and Ps. aeruginosa) was determined by the checkerboard broth dilution technique using microtitre plates. The effects of five concentrations of diclofenac (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 mg/ml) were tested. Diclofenac produced, in general, a synergistic effect with the different antibiotics against Gram-positive organisms, particularly at the high concentrations. The effect on the bactericidal activity of the concerned antibiotics produced by 0.1 and 0.01 mg/ml diclofenac was then tested against seven bacterial standards and isolates using the viable count technique. In some cases, the low concentration of diclofenac resulted in antagonism while the higher concentration was synergistic to the action of the antibiotics. Diclofenac was mostly synergistic against Gram-positive organisms. The synergistic effect brought out by diclofenac on the activity of bacitracin and erythromycin was the highest.

10/15 CO-RESISTANCE TO NON-B-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS AMONG B-LACTAM RESISTANT CLINICAL ISOLATESOF ESCHERICHIA COLI

A. Al-sharif, S. Radwan, W. El-tayab, A. Abo-Kamar* and A. Saafan**

Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of pharmacy (Girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, *Tanta and **Bani Sweef Universities, Egypt

Antimicrobial resistance is a well known clinical and public health problem. In this study a total of 112 resistant E. coli isolates were recovered from different clinical samples. Detection of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was carried out. Screening of extended spectrum B-lactamase ESβL producers was done using iodometric overlay B-lactamase typing method (IOM). E coli isolates were also treated with ultraviolet irradiation and the antimicrobial susceptibility was done before and after irradiation. Also, analysis of DNA plasmid and agrose gel electrophoresis were applied to E. coli isolates before and after irradiation. Most of E coli isolates were found to be resistant to B-lactam antibiotics, fluroquinolones and other tested antibiotics. Non susceptibility to cefotaxime and ceftazidime were 60% and 50% respectively. Resistance to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and gentamicin was significantly more prevalent in ampicillin resistant strains than in ampicillin susceptible strains. The plasmid profile analysis showed heterogeneous population of plasmids that ranged in size from 1.5 to 150 Md. Treatment of the E.coli isolates with ultraviolet radiation resulted in loss of resistance in four isolates. It was noted that antimicrobial agents to which resistance was lost were non B-lactam antibiotics, mainly to fluroquinolones. Plasmid profile analysis of the resulting mutants prove the loss of specific plasmids from those mutants which varies in sizes as 1.5, 5, 60 Md. As a result, the mechanism of resistance differs among different strains of the same species. The co-resistance to non-B-lactam antibiotics observed among these isolates suggest the presence of more than one resistance determinants on the same plasmid and/or the presence of more than one plasmid in the same isolate. Moreover understanding the antimicrobial resistant behavior of resistant isolates needs further studies.

11/15 THE EFFECT OF SOME FACTORS ON THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF DICLOFENAC, SALICYLATE, SOME ANTIBIOTICS AND THEIR COMBINATIONS

M.A. El-Nakeeb, M.A. Fawzy, N.M. El-Guink and N.K.Moussa

Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Alexandria University, Egypt

The effect of some factors as pH (5- 8), cations (Zn2+ and Mg2+ at 25 and 50 μg/ml) and inoculum size (103, 105 and 108 CFU/ml)) on the antibacterial activities of diclofenac, salicylate, some antibiotics and their combinations was studied against three standard strains (S. aureus, E. coli and Ps. aeruginosa). The results obtained varied depending on the factor dealt with and on the involved combination. Diclofenac and salicylate were most active against Sa at pH 6. However, in case of E and, to a less extent, P, there was no significant effect. The pattern of pH effect on diclofenac – and salicylate- antibiotic combinations varied with the chosen antibiotics and the tested organisms. Regarding the cations, 25 μg/ml Mg2+ reduced the effect of diclofenac and salicylate on the growth of the three test organisms (Sa, E and P) to some extent while 50 μg/ml Mg2+ had no effect. In case of 50 μg/ml Zn2+ the activity of diclofenac and salicylate was reduced against Sa, to a less extent against P, while the opposite occurred with E. The presence of 50 μg/ml Mg2+ reduced the activity of diclofenac – antibiotic combinations and to a less extent those of the salicylate combinations against E. At 25 μg/ml Mg2+, diclofenac -, salicylate – antibiotic combinations had reduced activities against P. The activity of diclofenac - and salicylate – antibiotic combinations against Sa at 50 μg/ml Zn2+ was slightly reduced. The effect of Zn2+ on diclofenac and salicylate combinations against E was barely recognizable. In case of P, 50 μg/ml Zn2+ increased the activity of diclofenac – antibiotic combinations but had little or no effect on salicylate combinations. Concerning the effect of inoculum size, the bactericidal activity of diclofenac against Sa decreased by increasing the inoculum size from 103 to 108 CFU/ml. In case of E, the diclofenac activity increased at 105 CFU/ml, while in case of P there was no apparent effect of the inoculum size. In general, changing the inoculum size of the test organism with gentamicin produced variable antibacterial activities. However, the activity of diclofenac- gentamicin combination against the three tested strains was highest at 105 CFU/ml, tetracycline- diclofenac and – salicylate combinations were most active at 103 CFU/ml, while ofloxacin- diclofenac and – salicylate combinations showed maximum activities at 108 CFU/ml. The effect of diclofenac on the permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane was studied by pretreating the cells of two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative organisms with 0.1 and 0.01 mg/ml diclofenac followed by determining the susceptibility of the treated cells to the antibacterial activity of ofloxacin and tetracycline. Diclofenac was found to alter the cell permeability of the tested organisms affecting their susceptibility to the tested antibiotics.

12/15 EFFICIENCY OF WASTE STABILIZATION POND SYSTEM IN REMOVING SOME PATHOGENIC BACTERIA AND THE POSSIBLE ROLE OF AQUATIC ACTINOMYCETES

S.A. Rabeh, E.A. Azab* and M.M. Aly**

National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Inland Waters and Aquaculture Branch, Cairo, Egypt.

*Division of Microbiology, Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

**Biology Department, Faculty of Education, Kafr El-Sheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt.

A wastewater stabilization pond system was constructed in Suez experimental station to clean the raw sewage. In addition to actinomycetes, total and some pathogenic gram-negative bacteria were recorded in raw sewage and in the pond system during Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter (2004-2005). Some pathogenic gram-negative bacteria were characterized and identified as E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis, Serratia liquefaciens and Shigella sp. Also nineteen actinomycetes were isolated and eleven of them were characterized as Streptomyces. In raw sewage, the numbers of these bacteria recorded higher level during Summer and spring while lower numbers were recorded during Winter and Autumn. In contrast, higher numbers of the studied bacteria in the pond system were recorded during Winter and Autumn and decreased during Summer and Spring. This means that the removal efficiency of the pond system for these bacteria was higher during Summer and Spring. The numbers of these bacteria decreased in pond 1 up to pond 6, reaching for some pathogenic isolates to 0.0 in pond 5 and for all target organisms in pond 6 during Summer. Seven actinomycetes showed antibacterial activities against E. coli and three Streptomyces exhibited activities against the other pathogenic gram-negative bacteria isolated from the same wastewater. The most antibacterially active Streptomyces was characterized as Streptomyces cavourensis. The antibacterial material isolated from Streptomyces cavourensis had no toxic effect against Artimia salina and showed a deleterious effect on the respiration and K+ leakage from E. coli cells. This indicated that the aquatic actinomycetes isolated from the wastewater pond system may play a significant role in removing the pathogenic gram-negative bacteria present in the examined water.

13/15 DETECTION OF EXPANDED –SPECTRUM Β-LACTAMASES AMONG ISOLATES OF ENTEROBACTERIACEAE AND PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA RECOVERED FROM BACTERIURIA CASES IN BANI SWEEF GOVERNORATE, EGYPT.

A. Saafan and M.A. Ramadan*

Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy,Bani Sweef University, *Cairo University, Egypt.

A total of 120 bacterial isolates were recovered from urine samples of 115 patients with bacteriuria from Bani Sweef General Hospital over a 6-month period in 2004. These isolates included Escherichia coli (62.5%), Klebsiella spp.(16.66%), Proteus mirabilis (4.16%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16.66%). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing to 16 different antimicrobials was evaluated by the agar dilution method. The detection of β-lactamases production by the recovered isolates was carried out using the chromogenic cephalosporin method. Seventy three isolates (67.5%) of the penicillins-resistant isolates were β-lactamses producers. The capacity of these isolates to produce expanded-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) was evaluated by the double-disk test and characterized by the isoelectric focusing technique. It was found that the production of these enzymes were among the 10 isolates resistant to penicillins, first, second and third generation of cephalosporins. The isoelectric focusing points studies revealed that these isolates possessed either one or more of the ESBLs with pIs of 5.4 ,5.6, 7.6 and 8.0. Plasmid analysis of the ten ESBL producers was performed by alkaline lysis method and were separated by electrophoresis. The sizes of plasmids ranged between 1.2 MDa and 130 MDa. Conjugation experiments revealed that a transferable 100 MDa plasmid was responsible for the production of the ESBLs among the isolates. The variety of expanded –spectrum β-lactamases found   among members of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Ps. aeruginosa isolated from patients with bacteriuria in Beni-Seuf, Egypt, is alarming and adds to the growing list of ESBLs in countries where these enzymes pose a serious problem for antimicrobial therapy.

14/15 STREPTOMYCES ORIENTALIS AS A BIOLOGICAL AGENT TO CONTROL FOLIAR SPOT BLOTCH OF WHEAT CAUSED BY BIPOLARIS SOROKINIANA

E.A. Azab, M.F. Fareed* and H.E. Agwa**

Division of Microbiology, Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

*Home Economic Department, Faculty of Specific Education, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

**Biology Department, Faculty of Education, Kafr El-Sheikh University, Kafr

El-Sheikh, Egypt.

The wheat crop is an important crop in Egypt and allover the world. The spot blotch disease caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana causes the crop losses in different location of the world. In Egypt the fungal pathogen was isolated from infected wheat plants cultivated in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate. An antagonistic actinomycete isolated from cultivated soil showed high antifungal activity against the pathogen, Bipolaris sorokiniana. This actinomycete was characterized morphologically, physiologically and biochemically, and identified as Streptomyces orientalis. The antifungal compound (agent) produced by Streptomyces orientalis showed antimicrobial activities against some bacteria and fungi. By treating the fungal pathogen with this material, morphological abnormalities and high rate of potassium ion leakage from the cells were recorded. The treatment of the infected wheat plants with the culture filtrate of the antagonistic Streptomyces orientalis reduced the disease symptoms to about 50% compared to the untreated plants.


15/15 STIMULATION OF ALKALO-THERMOPHILIC ASPERGILLUS TERREUS XYLANASE BY LOW - INTENSITY LASER RADIATION

S.A. Ouf, N.S. Geweely, M.A. Eldesoky* and A.A. Eladly**

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt.

*Lab of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt.

**Lab of Laser Microbiogy,National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science (NILES), Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt.

In this study, A. terreus was irradiated by 7.3 mW He-Ne laser. Xylanases recovered from non-irradiated and irradiated fungus were purified and characterized. The maximum production of xylanase (42.2 U/ml) was obtained after 5 minutes laser irradiation.. On purification steps using G-100, the specific activity of xylanase recovered from the irradiated fungus was 292 U/mg proteins representing 37.0 fold of purification over the crude extract compared with 95.6 U/mg proteins representing 12.8 fold for the enzyme recovered from the non-irradiated fungus. The enzyme recovered from irradiated fungus had lower molecular weight as compared with that recovered from non-irradiated one. Characterization of the purified enzymes revealed that the enzyme recovered from the irradiated fungus was more thermostable and had a wider range of optimum reaction temperature 60-70ºC and pH 4.0-12.0, compared to non-irradiated one.

16/15 ISOLATION AND APPLICATION OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM STRAINS WITH LACTOBACILLUS DELBRUECKII SUBSP BULGARICUS IN SOME FERMENTED DAIRY PRODUCT

A.M.Kamal, H.A. El-Demerdash, M.K. Metwally

Faculty of Environmental Agriculture Sciences, Food Processing Department, Suez Canal University, Egypt.

Six Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) strains (HM1, HM2, HM3, HM4, HM5, HM6) were isolated from Egyptian soft cheese. These strains were tested for their plasmid-carrying strains. The results indicated that E. faecium HM1 revealed heat resistance up to 48º C, resistance to high salt concentration up to 5% NaCl, and high acid production to pH 4.5 after about 4 hr of incubation at 42°C. It also showed a probiotic properties such as ability to grow at bile salt up to 2%, growth at pH 3.0 and Vancomycin resistance. Comparing the growth of E. faecium HM1, E. faecium HM1-1 (plasmid-cured derivative of E. faecium HM1),Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus (L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus) HM, E. faecium HM1/L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricusHM and E. faecium HM1-1/L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricusHM at 42º C, showed that the mixed culture of E. faecium HM1/L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricusHM showed the highest growth rates in UHT milk. The highest score of sensory properties was recorded for the treatment E. faecium HM1/L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus HM at 48º C followed by the control then the E. faecium /yoghurt treatment. It is concluded that, the selected strain of E. faecium HM1 exhibited good production and high technological properties in addition to its probiotic properties. Hence, this strain can be used in the production of some fermented dairy products and cheese manufacture.


17/15 MICROBIAL CONSORTIA ADHERENCE TO INTRAVENOUS CATHETERS USED IN SOME EGYPTIAN HOSPITALS

M.S. Ali, T.R. Mohamed, S.I. Fouda, H.M. Hafni and M.S.E. Ashour

Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

In order to investigate the problem of microbial adherence to intravenous catheters (IVCS) and factors affecting it, two hundred and fifteen (IVCS) obtained from inpatients admitted to Department of general surgery (Imbaba and El-Sahel hospitals) showed microbial adherence in 94% catheters after 2-4 days of their insertion. Of them 48% showed poly-microbial consortia adherence. Three hundred and three microbial isolates were identified and arranged in descending order Staphylococcus epidermidis (87 isolates-43.1%), Candida albicans (80 isolates-39.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (73 isolates-36.1%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (63 isolates-31.2%).Fungemia with C. albicaus was detected in 29% of patients.Statistical analysis showed significant correlation between fungemia and broad spectrum antibiotic administration, fungemia and C. albicans adherence to intravenous catheters, significant correlation between antibiotic administration and both C. albicans and Pseudomonas adherence, as well as the composition of microbial consortia isolated and the chemical make up of the catheter. Implications of these results are discussed in the text.

18/15 IMPROVING THE HYGIENIC AND CHEMICAL QUALITY OF SILVER CARP USING COMBINED LOW SALT AND IRRADIATION

E.A. Afifi; H.A. Shawkiand A.E.A. El-Hanafy*

Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt.

*Central Lab. for Aquaculture Research, Agriculture Research Center, Egypt

The present study was conducted to evaluated the combined effect of low dose gamma irradiation (1,2,3 and 5 kGy) and/or salting (10% salt solution) on chemical, microbiological and sensory properties of silver carp fish during cold storage at 4ºC ±1. At periodic intervals, quality of silver carp fish was determined by sensory evaluation (appearance, odor and texture); Chemical composition (moisture; protein; fat and ash); freshness index (total volatile bases nitrogen(TVBN); Trimethylamine (TMA); Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and pH) and Microbiological parameters (total bacterial count (TBC); psychrophilic bacteria; Enterobacteriaceae and mold and yeast counts. The control sample of silver carp fish was acceptable up to 6 days, in comparison to a storage shelf life of 18,24;27 and 30 days for the unsalted fish irradiated at 1,2,3, and 5 kGy, respectively. Salting (brine solution 10%) prior to gamma irradiation at 0,1,2,3 and 5 kGy give a shelf life of 12, 18, 24, 27 and 30 days, respectively. Salting give a firmer texture to the silver carp fish during cold storage. It could be concluded that irradiation at 3 kGy can improve the hygienic quality of silver carp fish and enhance shelf life. Dipping in salt solution (10% NaCl) prior to irradiation did not have any additional advantage in the shelf life extension of fish by irradiation, other benefits were noted such as: enhanced irradiation–induced elimination of the evaluated microorganisms; improved fish texture during cold storage.    


19/15 THE USE OF PROBIOTIC LACTOBACILLUS REUTERI IN THE TREATMENT OF GIARDIASIS IN CHILDREN

A.H.A. Eassa and S.I. Fouda*

Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, *Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University

Through an immunomodulatory effect and by secreting aggregating metabolic intermediates, probiotic lactobacilli are believed to offer both therapeutic and prophylactic benefits against a number of bacterial and viral enteropathogens. In vitro and in vivo studies have also shed light on the role of such microorganisms in the treatment of some experimental parasitic diseases such as cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis. In the current study, the therapeutic effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on 39 children with giardiasis was evaluated as a pilot study. Treatment regimen was designed to be one tablet daily for one week, each containing 108 cfu of L. reuteri. Results showed a beneficial anti-giardial effect of L. reuteri especially after two weeks of treatment with clearance of Giardia lamblia stages (cysts and trophozoites) and coproantigen from stool specimens. The cure rate was 69.2% one week after treatment and increased to 76.9% two weeks after treatment. It is concluded that besides its potential prophylactic effect, L. reuteri administration alone or perhaps with conventional anti-protozoal agents may offer higher cure rates, less treatment failures and less side effects in the therapy of giardiasis and some other enteric parasitic infections of man.

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