Vol. 16, January, 2007

vive le viagra 1/16 EFFECT OF FIVE NON- STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS ON THE ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF NYSTATIN AND FLUCONAZOLE AGAINST CANDIDA ALBICANS

M.A. El-Nakeeb, M.A. Fawzy, N.M. El-Guink and N.K. Moussa

Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Alexandria University, Egypt

The antifungal activities of the five selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and their influence on the activities of nystatin and fluconazole were assessed against le viagra faut il une ordonnance Candida albicans ( le prix de cialis au maroc C) using the efficiency plating technique at contact time up to 24 hr. The NSAIDs were tested at two concentrations (0.1 and 0.01 mg/ml), whereas nystatin and fluconazole were used at 1/4 MIC. The results revealed that the tested NSAIDs possessed significant antifungal activities. The NSAIDs were found to affect the antifungal activities of nystatin and fluconazole whether positively or negatively. At 0.1 mg/ml NSAIDs, synergism was noted with nystatin. On the contrary, at 0.01 mg/ml NSAIDs, there were variable degrees of antagonism. Regarding NSAIDs- fluconazole combinations, variable degrees of antagonism were generally observed with indomethacin -, piroxicam- and diclofenac- fluconazole combinations. In case of ketoprofen- and salicylate- fluconazole combinations, variable combined effects were observed over the time of the experiment, being synergistic at 24 hr.

achat cialis mastercard  

priligy pas cher  

pharmacie en ligne cialis 10mg 2/16 CHARACTERIZATION AND PRODUCTION OF PECTIC ENZYMES BY PECTOBACTERIUM CAROTOVORUM SUBSP. CAROTOVORUM ISOLATED FROM CABBAGE IN EGYPT

H.H. El-Hendawy, M.E. Osman and S.M. Korany

Botany & Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Cairo,   Egypt.

Fifteen soft rotting bacterial isolates were isolated from diseased cabbage composition viagra naturel (Brassica oleracea L. var. viagra chez les femmes capitata L.) plants were grown in an open field at Helwan area, Cairo Governorate during the winter of 2004. Morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics revealed that they belong to le medicament viagra Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. cialis 20 prix en pharmacie carotovorum (Erwinia carotovora subsp carotovora). This bacterial pathogen has not been isolated previously from cabbage in Egypt. The ability to induce soft rot disease symptoms in different vegetable species indicated that these isolates have a wide host range and would be a threat for other vegetables during transit, storage or in field. The production of extracellular pectic enzymes by the most virulent isolates in media containing different pectic substances or in cabbage tissue were examined. Polygalacturonase (PG) activities were not detected in either culture supernatant and cabbage extract,whereas, Pectin methyl esterase (PME) was detected in extract of infected and uninfected cabbage but not in the culture supernatants. In contrast, pectic lyases(PL) activities were contained in culture supernatant of media with the different   pectic substances and in extract of infected cabbage.The enzyme from culture supernatant and cabbage extract degraded sodium polypectate (NaPP and either 9.3% and 26% methylated pectin but not 66% methylated pectin. The enzyme from infected cabbage extract degraded 26% methylated pectin more actively than Napp and 9.3% methylated pectin and was not reduced in absence of Ca2+. On the other hand, the enzyme from the culture supernatant degraded sodium polypectate more actively than pectin with different degree of methylayion and was greatly reduced in absence of Ca2+ .This result suggest that pectin lyases could be produced in cabbage tissue by these isolates.

 

 

3/16 CLONING OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPE 16 L1 (HPV-16L1) GENE IN YEAST SHUTTLE VECTOR

A.A. El Moghazy

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Al-Azhar University

Cervical carcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in woman worldwide especially in developing countries. HPV16 is the most common HPV type found in lesions of the genital mucosa which may have a risk for malignant progression. The L1 gene is the major capsid protein in HPV and is responsible for virus reassemble to develop virus-like particles. In this study HPV16-L1 gene was cloned in yeast expression shuttle vector pCM190 under the tetO-CYC1 (tetracycline) promoter. This vector is yeast episomal vector able to replicate in both prokaryote and a eukaryote cells. The HPV-16L1 gene was released from pSynwtVI after digestion with restriction enzyme BglII. The obtained fragment of the HPV-16L1 was cloned into a BamHI site in multi cloning site of pCM190 downstream of the tetO promoter, ADH1, CYC1 as terminator and Ura3, AmpR, as a selection markers. The correct orientation of the cloned HPV-16L1 gene was check to conformed the cloning of HPV-16L1 in pCM190 using BamHI and NotI which cut the pCM190 and released 1.2kb fragment indicating successful cloning of HPV-16L1 in the correct orientation in pCM190 multi cloning site. The verification of cloning of HPV-16L1 in pCM190 was tested by PCR using two specific primers annealing the HPV-16L1 gene at each end and the PCR product showed the predicted size of the HPV-16L1 gene 1.5kb conforming successful cloning of HPV-16L1 in pCM190 plasmid.

4/16 EVALUATION OF SOME MUTUAL BIOCHEMICAL INTERACTIONS BETWEEN HOST (ZEA MAYS L) & STALK ROT DISEASE-PARASITES (GIBBERELLA FUJIKOURI & MACROPHOM PHASEOLINA) UNDER THE APPLICATION OF BIOAGENTS (BACTERIA) AND PHYTOAGENTS

M.E.A. Dawoud

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University

The present study was designed to evaluate some mutual biochemical and physiological interactions between the infected host plant (Zea mays L) and the stalk rot parasitic fungi (Gibberella fujikouri and Macrophomina phaseolina) under the application of bioagent (Pseudomonas fluorescens & P. putida), Trichoderma viride fungus & plant extract control agent (Curcuma plant phytoagent) in order to detect the best method for controlling the infection and increasing grain yield of the infected plants. Zea plants were grown in plastic pots (60 45 cm) 50 kg soil capacity) till harvest. The soil was supplemented with biocontrol and/or phytocontrol agents. The results showed that, Pseudomonas putida supported the host resistance against the pathogen (Gibberella fujikouri) while Macrohpomina phaseolina was highly antagonized by Trichoderma viride especially in the presence of plant extract phytoagent. Biochemical analysis (free amino acids, enzyme activities, carbon & nitrogen metabolism) showed that pathogencity resulted in a decrease in plant-1ry amino acid contents & metabolism-inducing enzyme activities. Supplementation of the infected plants with different control agents & phytoagents resulted in an increase in the amount, activity of metabolic induced enzyme, primary free amino acids contents in healthy plants and maintaining the level of these metabolites around the control ones (among infected plants). Also bioagent & phytoagent application increased the defense-induced and phenolic substances in the infected plants. Moreover, bioagent & phytoagent application increased the grain yield in healthy plants and decreased the % grain loss in infected plants.

 

5/16 TRANSFORMATION OF L1 GENE OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPE 16 (HPV-16) IN SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

A.A. El-Moghazy

Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

Infections with human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) are associated with the development of human cervical cancer, which is one of the most common causes of cancer death in women worldwide. Cervical cancer and other HPV-associated malignancies mightbe prevented or treated by HPV vaccines. The L1 gene is the major capside protein of HPV, self assemble into virus like particles and highly immunogenic.In this work, plasmid pCM190 (carries 1200bp Bgl II of L1 fragment) was transformed into conditional lysis mutants (FY23PSA1MET3) after several trails to increased transformation efficiency of this yeast strain. The highest transformation efficiency was observed when the FY23PSA1MET cells were transformed with 10ug of pCM190 HPV16L1 plasmid DNA in the presence of 50ug of single strand carrier DNA which increased the uptake of pCM190 HPV16L1 DNA about 200 fold and caused tighter binding of plasmid DNA to cell. A 20-min heat shock at 42oC was necessary for maximal yields. Under this condition the transformation efficiency of FY23PSA1MET3 strain with pCM190 HPV16L1 plasmid was very high and about 104 colonies were isolated. The selection of positive transformants were carried out on minimal medium supplemented with tryptophan and lacking uracil to allow only the growth of transformants carrying pCM190 HPV16L1 plasmid.

6/16 Shelf life of hot smoked herring as affected by different methods of salting during cold storage at 4 ± 1ºC

A.E.A. El-Hanafy

Central Lab. For Aquaculture Research, Agriculture Research Center, Egypt.

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of dry and wet salting with different brine concentration 5, 10 and 20% NaCl on the shelf life of hot smoked herring (Clupea harengus) during refrigerated storage at 4 ±1ºC. The fish were salting by different methods (dry salting 1:1 w/w) and brined in solutions of 5; 10 and 20% NaCl and the control samples were kept without salting, the fish were then hot smoked, cooled and stored at 4 ±1 ºC. The chemical quality attributes (total volatile basis nitrogen; trimethyleamine; thiobarbituric acid and pH); some microbiological aspects (total microbial count; total mold and yeast; Enterobacteriacea; Salmonella spp. and Staph aureus) and sensory analysis were determined. The results of chemical quality attributes; microbiological analysis and sensory evaluations revealed that the storing ability of hot smoked herring were 15 and 60 days at cold storage for the control and dry salting samples respectively, and were 30; 60 and 60 days at cold storage for brined group with 5; 10 and 20% NaCl concentration which also the samples were rejected at these periods by the panelists according to sensory analysis. It can be concluded that the use of wet salted (brining) 10 % NaCl before hot smoking to prolong the shelf life of hot smoked herring during cold storage to 60 days. The use of 10% salt may be useful to avoid the use of salt (NaCl) which is harmful to the human health.

 

7/16 ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA (FRIES) KEISSLER AS A NEW CAUSATIVE AGENT OF POTATO EARLY BLIGHT IN EGYPT

O.A. Abdul Wahid, I.M.K. Ismail and A.M.A. Abo-Esha

Botany Department, Faculty of Science Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Dept. of microbiology, soil, water and environmental Research Institute, Giza, Egypt.

One hundred and seventy–five samples of potato plants with typical symptoms of early blight diseases were collected from different growing areas and proceeded for the isolation of the Alternaria pathogen. Short beak spores of Alternaria, rather than long beak spores were isolated from all specimens. Isolation was carried out by two separate persons independently using various systems for surface sterilization. Completion of Koch's postulates proofed that the isolated short beaked Alternaria was the causative agent of this disease. The pathogen was identified as A. alternata (Fries) Keissler. The identification was confirmed by Mycology and Plant Diseases Survey Department, Plant Pathology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt. Pathogenic potential was not as the same among different isolates. To the best of our knowledge it is the first report on this pathosystem in Egypt.

 

8/16 BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF CHICKPEA WILT DISEASE CAUSED BY FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F. SP CICERIS BY USING SOME RHIZOBACTERIA

F.Sh.F. Badawi, H.Sh. Shehata, G.A.A. Mekhemar and M.M. Mazen*

Soils, Water and Environment Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center (ARC), Giza, Egypt.

*Plant Pathology Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt.

Two strains of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis and Rhizobium) were tested for their effect on Fusarium oxysporum f sp ciceris (the causal organism of chickpea wilt disease) under laboratory, greenhouse and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, all strains inhibited linear growth and spore germination of F. oxysporum. Bacillus subtilis was the most effective. Seed treatment with B. subtilis, Ps. fluorescence or their combination significantly reduced chickpea wilt disease incidence compared to untreated control under greenhouse and field conditions. Pseudomonas fluorescens combined with Rhizobium and Pseudomonas fluorescence combined with Bacillus subtilis and Rhizobium recorded the highest reduction in disease incidence. Results of pot experiment showed that uninoculated plants with Rhizobium recorded the lowest nodules, indicating the necessity of using effective strains to achieve a good nodulation. Co-inoculation with Rhizobium and Pseudomonas or Bacillus exhibited the highest values of all tested parameters under investigation. While, such parameters (nodulation status, dry weight of shoot, shoot N-content and yield) showed the least figures for diseased plants in comparison with control treatment. Healthy and diseased plants recorded lower nodules when chemical control by rhizolex was applied and consequently all other symbiotic parameters were greatly affected. On the other hand, a clear recovery was obtained when Fusarium oxysporum was biologically controlled by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis, which had more than compensated the loss due to disease. Results of field experiment behaved similarly to those obtained in pot experiment. Co-inoculation of chickpea plants with Rhizobium combined with Pseudomonas fluorescence or Bacillus subtilis gave the best results in terms of nodulation, growth and yield of chickpea plants compared to the individual ones or untreated treatments.

9/16 INFLUENCE OF RHIZOBIUM BIOFERTILIZATION AND/OR COMPOST ON FABA BEAN PLANTS GROWN IN SANDY SOIL AT EGYPT

T.E.E. Radwan

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt

A field experiment was carried out in newly reclaimed sandy soil, Ismailia, Egypt, during the growing season of 2004-2005, to study the effect of rhizobial inoculation and/or organic fertilization with compost on nodulation, growth and yield of faba bean plants (Vicia faba L.) without or with PK-fertilizers supply. Results revealed that Rhizobium inoculation with application of compost recorded the highest significant increases in nodule numbers and its dry weight as compared to control. Also, this treatment recorded significant increases in shoot dry weight, N&P-shoot contents over the control. On the other hand, full dose of N-fertilizers recorded the lowest nodule numbers and its dry weight although it caused high increases in shoot dry weight, N&P-shoot contents and crop yield. Rhizobial inoculation combined with compost plus 15 kg N/fed gave the highest significant increases in seed and straw yields and seed crude protein per cent over the uninoculated control plants while rhizobial inoculation or compost recorded lower increases but still over the uninoculated control plants. Concerning to PK-fertilization, there is significant increases in nodule numbers and its dry weight, shoot dry weight, N&P-shoot contents as compared to treatments received no PK-fertilizers. Regarding to seed yield, seed crude protein and straw yield, there were no significant differences between treatments with PK-fertilizers. Also, results confirmed the necessity of dual application with rhizobia and compost.

10/16 ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF SOME LOCAL FUNGI.1. PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON FACTORS AFFECTING ITS PRODUCTION

L.A.R. Sallam, M.E. Osman*, W.A. Ahmed**, O.H. Khttab* and A.A. Abo EL-Nasser*

National Research Center, Department of Microbiology and Natural Products Chemistry Egypt.

* Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University.

**Department of Cancer Biology, Cancer Institute, Cairo University.

Twenty fungal species were investigated concerning their biological and antitumor activities. Only four species; via Aspergillus fumigatus, Cylindrocarpon candidum, Penicillium citrinum and Verticillum sp. have antimicrobial effect. The biomass of these fungi were extracted with acetone and ethyl acetate to obtain that was tested as antitumor agent to wards, Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). It was found that Aspergillus fumigatus and Cylindrocarpon candidum showed high antitumor effect, while Penicillium citrinum and Verticillum sp. had a relatively lower antitumor activity. Studies on the physiological factors affecting the production of antitumor agent by Aspergillus fumigatus and Cylindrocarpon candidum. were reported elucidated in further manuscript. It was found the maximum activity of Aspergillus fumigatus and Cylindrocarpon candidum on EAC at 25 0C, pH 7, and glucose as carbon source and peptone as a nitrogen source. Maximum activity of Aspergillus fumigatus and Cylindrocarpon candidum were after 5 & 7days incubation periods respectively.

11/16 THE ESCHERICHIA COLI ptsG GENE: CLONING, EXPRESSION AND PURIFICATION OF THE GENE PRODUCT USING MALTOSE-BINDING PROTEIN FUSION SYSTEM.

M.M.M. Aboulwafa

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Ain-Shams University

The ptsG gene, that encodes the major glucose transporter enzyme II (EIIGlc) carried onto the recombinant vector pET19b-ptsG-H4-ampr was amplified by PCR and separated by gel electrophoresis. The isolated ptsG gene was inserted into a pMALE- ampr expression vector down-stream malE gene, which encodes maltose-binding protein (MBP). Seven recombinant plasmids were obtained and all of them gave the expected restriction map using EcoRI and BamHI restriction enzymes. Also PvuII restriction map for each of these recombinant plasmids showed the characteristic restriction pattern of the proper direction of ptsG insertion. This pattern showed five bands of molecular sizes 3179, 1689, 1676, 769 and 674 bp, three separated bands and two overlapping bands. Upon sequencing the inserted gene of four recombinant plasmids, all of them showed the sequence of ptsG gene. One of these recombinant plasmids (pMAL-ptsG- ampr) was transferred and expressed in E. coli BL21DE3. The recombinant strain produced was designated BL21DE3(pMALE-ptsG-ampr). The expression of enzyme II glucose-maltose binding protein (EIIGlc-MBP) was detected in the 2 h high speed supernatant (HSS) of crude cell lysate of the recombinant strain. The transphosphorylation activity profile of the gel filtration fractions of the 2h HSS showed two (by a small gel filtration column) or three (by a large gel filtration column) activity peaks. The expressed EIIGlc-MBP was purified by affinity chromatography using amylose resin. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blot analyses of the purified products revealed that: (a) peak 2 from the small gel filtration column contained both EIIGlc-MBP and free maltose binding protein (MBP) from the host strain, (b) peak 2 from the large gel filtration column contained only EIIGlc-MBP but not MBP, (c) peak 3 from the large gel filtration column contained only MBP, (d) the native EIIGlc was not retained on the affinity purification column since peak 3 showed EIIGlc activity but no band for this enzyme, (e) when the purified product from peak 2 produced by the small column was passed through a long gel filtration column, EIIGlc-MBP could be obtained as two peaks 1 and 2, without free MBP. In conclusion, (1) EIIGlc can be expressed as a fused protein with MBP in Escherichia coli, (2) purification of soluble EIIGlc-MBP can be improved by either separation of its soluble form as peak 2 using a large gel filtration column or by passing the purification product from peak 2 of the small gel filtration column through another long column to get ride of the contaminant free MBP.

 

12/16 ISOLATION, PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT (S) PRODUCED BY STREPTOMYCES SARACETICUS

B.M. Refaat

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University,

Madenit Nasr, Cairo, Egypt

Twenty six actinomycete isolates of the white and gray colour series were isolated from South Sinai, Egypt. Only one isolate revealed high antagonistic activity against different Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. The cultural, morphological and physiological characteristics of this isolate indicated that it belongs to Streptomyces saraceticus. The physical and biological properties of the active metabolite from this organism was also studied.

 

13/16 IMPACT OF NIETROGEN FIXERS AND PHOSPHATE DISSOLVING BACTERIA ON FABA BEAN UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT AMOUNTS OF PHOSPFORUS

T.E.E. Radwan, B. A. Hassona*, Ilham I. El-Khatib* and B.A.A. Kandil*

Botany Dept., Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt.

* Microbiology Dept. Soils, Water & Environ. Res. Institute, ARC, Giza, Egypt.

A field experiment was conducted at Malawi station, Agric. Res. Center (ARC), Minia, Egypt during 2004-2005 winter season. The response of faba bean(Vicia faba L.)cv. Giza 40, grown in clayey soil to inoculation with Rhizobium luguminosarum bv. viciae either solely or dually with Bacillus megatherium var. Phosphaticum, Pseudomonas fluorescens and/or Bacillus polymyxa on growth, N&P contents, nodulation, seed yield, straw yield and seed crude protein of faba bean under the amendment of 0, 50, 75 and 100 percent of the full recommended dose (FRD), 100 kg P/fed of super-phosphate (15.5 % P2O5)were evaluated at 45 and 75 days from sowing. Results revealed that the dual inoculation with R. leguminosarum with Bacillus polymyxa under 0% P led to significant increases in plant growth, N&P contents, nodulation, seed and straw yields and seed crude protein per cent compared to control. Under P-application, the same treatment under 75% P gave the highest increases in plant growth, N&P contents and nodulation, but at 50% P, the same treatment led to the highest increases in seed and straw yield and seed crude protein per cent. The effect of other inoculation processes on the aforementioned increases in plant parameters were in the order, dual inoculation with R. leguminosarum with Bacillus polymyxa, followed by R. leguminosarum combined with B. megatherium var. phosphaticum then R. leguminosarum combined with Pseudomonas fluorescens and finally the sole inoculation with Rhizobium. Also, results confirmed the necessity of dual inoculation with rhizobia and other rhizobacteria for faba bean growth and productivity.

 


14/16 POLYMER-STRIPS A METHOD FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF PHB DEPOLYMERASE ACTIVITY IN ALCALIGENES XYLOSOXIDANS   SUBSP. DENITRIFICANS AND CITROBACTER SP.

S. R. Salem, H.M.A. Soliman* and A.A. Amara**

Faculty of Education, Alexandria University, Egypt.

*Institute of Advanced Technology and New Materials (IATNM), Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications.

**Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute (GEBRI), Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications.

            Degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), which represent the most common species of short chain polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), is a common feature of microbial strains. Two strains were identified previously by standard criteria as Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans and Citrobacter sp., and characterized for their ability to degrade both PHA (Polyhydroxyalkanoate) and Phenol, have been further investigated at this study for their ability to degrade PHB. The strains successfully grown on PHB and utilize it as a sole carbon source. The depolymerase activity have been determined and the polymer surface has been scanned using scaning electron microscope to prove the degradation process. We recommended using A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans and C. sp., for PHASCL/MCL (Polyhydroxyalkanoate Medium Chain Length and Short Chain Length) degradation and in their related biotechnological applications.

 

15/16 CHARACTERIZATION OF THE E. COLI ENZYME II GLUCOSE FUSED TO MALTOSE-BINDING PROTEIN

M.M.M. Aboulwafa

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Ain-Shams University

The transphosphorylation activities of gel filtration fractions of the 2 h high speed supernatant (HSS) of crude cell lysate of Escherichia coli strain BL21DE3 (pMALE-ptsG- ampr)gave three activity peaks. Expressed enzyme II glucose fused to maltose binding protein (EIIGlc-MBP) was purified from peaks 1 and 2. The transphosphorylation activity (TP) profile of the recombinant EIIGlc-MBP of unpurified peak 1 showed an inhibition at higher glucose-6-phosphate concentrations. On the other hand, unpurified peak 2 gave hyperpolic profile (no substrate inhibition for the enzyme). This indicates that the EIIGlc-MBP in peak 1 is in a form differs from that in peak 2. The TP activity profile for the purified EIIGlc-MBP from both peaks showed substrate inhibition at higher concentrations of glucose-6-phosphate. So purification changed the catalytic property of peak 2 from no substrate inhibition to substrate inhibition. Gel filtration of purified EIIGlc-MBP from peak 2 gave two activity peaks eluted similarly as peaks 1 and 2 from 2 h HSS. This indicates that upon purification some of EIIGlc-MBP molecules associate to be eluted from the column as peak 1. The phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent and transphosphorylation reactions showed that the relative specific activities of the purified prep from peak 1 were approximately double those of the purified prep from peak 2. So, association of EIIGlc-MBP molecules increases their catalytic activities. The conclusions that could be deduced include: (a) the expressed EIIGlc-MBP is present in two different physical forms, a large one eluted first from the column and another small one comes as a second peak, (b) the catalytic properties of the small form of unpurified EIIGlc-MBP is characterized by the absence of substrate inhibition while the large form is characterized by the presence of substrate inhibition, (c) fusion of EIIGlc to MBP did not significantly affect its catalytic property, (d) purification enhances interaction among EIIGlc protein molecules and the association of these molecules to a larger physical form, (e) catalytic activity of EIIGlc-MBP increases by intermolecular association.

16/16 ENDOTOXEMIA IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS C: CORRELATION WITH INTERLEUKIN-6 AND TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA

S.A.Zaki

Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Al-Azhar University.

Endotoxins (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) are constituents of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. Systemic endotoxemia has been implicated in various pathophysiological sequelae of chronic liver disease.Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-a) is an immunoregulatory cytokine with a wide range of biological activities.IL-6 is a pro-inflammatory interleukin which plays a major role in the progress of chronic hepatitis C. The aim of the present study is to determine the level of endotoxins, IL-6 and TNF-a in HCV-infected patients and controls and to correlate the level of endotoxins with that of IL-6 and TNF-a in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Fifty HCV patients as well as thirty apparently healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The presence of HCV-RNA as well as quantitation of HCV-RNA was performed using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Patients were divided according to their viral load into patients having low viremia (n=8), intermediate viremia (n=13) and high viremia (n=29). Endotoxin level was measured using the chromogenic Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate (LAL) test while TNF-a and IL-6 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). There was a highly significant difference between serum levels of endotoxins, IL-6 and TNF-a in HCV-infected patients and controls (P<0.0001) and they all correlated with the degree of viremia. Endotoxin level positively correlated with TNF-a and IL-6 levels (P<0.001). This data indicate that chronic liver disease are generally complicated with endotoxemia and that TNF-a and IL-6 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of endotoxemia and that they may participate in liver damage after trauma due to HCV.

 

17/16 POTENTIALITIES OF SOME EGYPTIAN MARINE ALGAE FOR PRODUCTION OF ANTIFUNGAL COMPONENTS AS INFLUENCED BY TIME OF COLLECTION AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE ALGAE

M.E.E. El-Naggar, H.M. Soliman, F.A. Badria* and G.S. Abol-Wafa

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Egypt

*Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of pharmacy, Mansoura University, Egypt

Over a full year, seasonal variations in antifungal activity of four marine species of Chlorophyta (Ulva lactuca and U. fasciata) and Rhodophyta (Pterocladia capillacea and Corallina mediterranea) from the Mediterranean sea and Suez-canal, Egypt were investigated. Marked seasonal variations in levels of the antifungal activity were observed. In most cases, the highest levels were observed during spring while the lowest effects were generally obtained during winter time. To gain some information about the relation between the chemical composition of these algae and their potentialities for production of antifungal compounds, fatty acid composition of these algae were also examined. The fatty acids; myristic and palmitic were detected in each alga. Fatty acid data indicated that there was a strong seasonal variations in distribution patterns and in the relative percentages of fatty acid components. In all species, regardless of their systematic position, the fatty acid, palmitic constituted the major part of the total amount of saturated fatty acids. In winter, the examined species were characterized by high proportions of unsaturated fatty acids. In most cases, a significant relationship was observed between the fatty acids viz; heptadecanoic, arachidic and eicosenic and antifungal activity of the marine algae; Ulva lactuca, U. fasciata, Pterocladia capillacea and Corallina mediterranea. Our analyses revealed that concentrations of total saturated and unsaturated fatty acids showed significant correlations with the antifungal activity.

 

18/16 Vancomycin Resistance and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Enterococci Isolated from Food

S. M. El-Alfy, S.A. Selim, M.H. Abdel Aziz, A.M. Diab and R.R.M. Makharita

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Egypt

The purpose of this study was to investigate incidence of some virulence factors belonging to enterococci in food-borne bacterial pathogens and their resistance to antibiotics, in particular to vancomycin, of enterococci from samples of food sold in Egypt. From August 2005 to April 2006, a total of 174 food samples of packages of retail meat, cheese, poultry and pickles were purchased from separate grocery stores (in Ismailia City, Egypt) and cultured on asculine azide kanamycin agar for the existence of enterococci No enterococci were detected in pickles food samples. There was noticeable difference between the meet and cheese samples with respect to the dominance of Enterococcus spp. Most of the enterococci were identified as E. faecalis (46.2%), E. faecium (36.5%), E. casseliflavus (9.7%) and E. avium (7.6%). E. faecalis only strain produced gelatinase. The incidence of β-hemolysin trait being higher for E. faecalis strains (31.8%), than for E. faecium strains (10.5%). E. faecalis strains were mostly resistant to streptomycin, followed by cefotaxim, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, rifamycin and nitrofurantoin. In contrast, The E. faecium strains were mostly resistant to cefotaxim, followed by streptomycin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, rifamycin, and nitrofurantoin. Multiple antibiotics resistance (MAR) was highest for bacterial isolates obtained from food samples. The MIC data obtained in vitro with vancomycin antibiotic substances and the enterococci isolates revealed that all of the isolates were intermediate and resistance to vancomycin. Presence of plasmids was also investigated in thirty isolates of the intermediate and resistant enterococci. Only twelve resistant enterococci isolates were found to contain one plasmid. Plasmid curing in combination with MIC determination revealed that of the isolated plasmids resistance to vancomycin is plasmid-linked. Results indicate that enterococci commonly contaminate food and that dissimilarities in antimicrobial resistance patterns among enterococci recovered from different food types. This observation leads us to claim that the bad use of antimicrobial agents in food was very dangerous upon consumers.

 

 

19/16 OPTIMIZATION OF EXTRACELLULAR PHYTASE PRODUCTION BY MALBRANCHEA SULPHUREA AND ASPERGILLUS NIVEUS

U.F. Ali, Z.M. Ibrahim and O.M. El-Mahdi

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Education, University of Ain Shams, 11341 Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt

Among six local fungal isolates, only two (Malbranchea sulphurea and Aspergillus niveus) were tested for phytase production as to be influenced by different culture medium and conditions. It was found that corn bran & wheat bran (0.5 %) were best natural phytate containing substrates for phytase production by Malbranchea sulphurea & Aspergillus niveus. The most suitable pH and temperature were 5.8 pH & 45ºC for both of them. Maximum phytase production was formed after 5 days with Malbranchea sulphurea and after 6 days with Aspergillus niveus. Sucrose (3%) was the best carbon source for phytase production by Malbranchea sulphurea, while glucose (3%) was the best carbon source for phytase production by Aspergillus niveus. the best nitrogen source for phytase production was sodium nitrate (0.4%) for Malbranchea sulphurea and peptone (0.3%) for Aspergillus niveus.

 

20/16 OCCURRENCE AND DETECTION OF LISTERIA SPECIES IN READY TO EAT DAIRY PRODUCTS AND DELI MEAT RETAILED IN THE EGYPTIAN SUPERMARKETS

S.M.R.E. Radwan

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University

Listeria monocytogenes contamination of ready-to-eat food has caused several outbreaks. In this work, traditional methods were used for the isolation and detection of L. Monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. In ready-to-eat food products and the isolated colonies were confirmed by PCR method. The results show that 26 of 170 samples tested confirm the existence of L. Monocytogenes (5.3%). The highest percentage was detected in meat luncheon (60%), followed by Romy cheese (50%), and chicken luncheon (40%). The isolated Listeria colonies were confirmed by PCR. In conclusion application of PCR method for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes provides a much faster method.


21/16 EFFECT OF THERMAL EFFLUENT STRESS OF EL-ARISH ELECTRIC POWER PLANT ON THE MARINE ALGAL FLORA

G.A. El Shoubaky and A.S. Amin*

Biological and Geological Sciences Department, Faculty of Education, Suez Canal University, Port Said, Egypt

* Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

A study conducted seasonally to determine the impact of the thermal effluent from El-Arish eclectic power plant and their effects on the algal communities during the period from spring 2002 to winter 2003. El-Arish eclectic power plant lies in the western area of El-Arish city. The discharge of heated water from the cooling system may raised the sea water temperature in the impacted area to 35ºC in spring and 40ºC in summer, recording 11-13ºC raising than the ambient temperature. It caused a drastic change on the algal flora. Seventy-eightcollected species were identified at the outlet, and inlet as follows: 9 species (Chlorophyta), 1 species (Rhodophyta), 17 species (Cyanophyta), 48 species (Bacillariophyceae) and 3 species (Pyrrhophyta). The heated water effluent recorded a significant seasonal variation at the outlet and highly significant variation between the inlet and the outlet through the different seasons. The seasonal variations between the outlet and inlet gave a significant variation with species richness, diversity and abundance.The heated water effluent at the outlet decreased species richness and diversity in summer and autumn in comparison with the inlet.At the outlet, a highly significant variation in species abundance was increased in the order autumn < winter < summer < spring. The study registered complete disappearance of seaweed communities at the elevated water temperature in spring and summer at the outlet but one red alga and five green algae of seaweeds survived in warm water temperature in winter and autumn.In spring, when the water temperatures reached up to 35ºC, the tolerant species of Bacillariophyceae flourished with Cyanophyta and the species composition of these communities not affected adversely. When the water temperature reached to 40ºC in summer, the more thermotolerant species only appeared and characterized the water at the outlet than the ambient temperature and therefore species composition and diversity may changed.

Scroll to top