Vol. 17, May, 2007

1/17 FUNGAL CONTAMINATION OF MEAT AND ITS ENVIRONMENT WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE STRAINS PRODUCING AFLATOXINS, OCHRATOXINS, PROTEINASE AND LIPASE ENZYMES

W. Tawakkol and *N.I. Khafaga

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy , Cairo university, **Department of Food Quality Control , Animal Health Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center

A total of 337 isolates were recovered from 200 samples of meat. The rate was higher in meat obtained during slaughter (2.3) in comparison to that obtained from butcher shops (1.0). On the other hand,790 fungal isolates were recovered from 120 environmental samples. The highest rate of isolation was from floors (11.6 isolates per sample) and the lowest was from workers hands (1.6 isolates / sample).The most commonly isolated fungi belonged to the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Candida and Rhodotorula. Aspergillus niger was by far the most common, followed by Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus. The most common Penicillium species were Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium oxalicum and Penicillium citrinum.Of the 27 Aspergillus flavus isolates tested for the production of aflatoxins, 21 isolates (77.7%) were found toxigenic. They produced aflatoxins B1, B2 or G1, either singly or combined. On the other hand, 15 out of 26 isolates of Aspergillus ochraceus produced ochratoxins.The rate of proteolytic activity was slightly higher in buffalo meat isolates, than in cattle meat, where 80% of Aspergillus isolates and 100% of Penicillium isolates were proteolytic. Corresponding figures for cattle isolates were 74% and 86.6%.The least proteolytic activity was demonstrated by Candida albicans recovered from both types of meat. However, 70%-80% of Rhodotorula isolates produced proteases.   All tested mould and yeast isolates showed lipolytic activity.

2/17 DETECTION OF HUMAN HERPES VIRUS TYPE-8 DNA IN KAPOSI’S SARCOMA AND OTHER BULLOUS SKIN DISEASES

A.M. Hafez, *M.A. AbdAllah, *E.A. Elzaher and *N.A. Mostafa

Microbiology and Immunology Department, *Dermatology and Venerology Department. Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University

Background: Since the discovery of Human Herpes viru-8 [HHV-8], many workers try to search its presence in skin lesions of different diseases, and in the peripheral blood of healthy and diseased individuals. Objective: of this work is to study the role of HHV-8 in inducing Kaposi’s sarcoma “KS”, in HIV sero-negative patients, for better understanding its pathogenesis. Study the role of HHV-8 in two bullous skin diseases, especially, pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and bullous pemphegoid (BP). Subjects: Thirty patients and ten healthy controls were included in this study. Patients were divided into three groups, each of them includes 10 patients, Group I (KS), Group II (PV) and Group III (BP). Study design: A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to detect HHV-8 DNA in the skin biopsy specimens taken from lesional skin and non lesional skin and from the peripheral blood of all studied patients, the normal skin control samples and blood of healthy volunteers also enrolled in the study. The immune status of all subjects was assessed by tuberculin skin test. Results: The incidence of HHV-8 detection in Lesional skin, non lesional skin and the peripheral blood of all studied Groups was as follow: Group I “KS”, 100%, 20% & 20% respetively. In Group II “PV”, 30%, 20% and 0% respectively. In Group III, 20%, 10% and 0% respectively. In Control group (Group 4) HHV-8 could not be detected either in normal skin flaps or in the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. Tuberculin test was positive in 10 control subjects, and gave negative results in all patients included in the study. A higher significant statistical difference merged on comparing the incidence of HHV-8 in lesional skin of KS patients and other groups, PV and BP. No statistical significant difference could be detected on comparing the incidence of HHV-8 in non lesional skin and in the peripheral blood of the four studied groups. Conclusion: The results of this study strongly suggest a specific etiopathological role of HHV-8 in KS. The virus can be considered as an opportunistic infection of patients with bullous diseases PV and BP. Recommendation: further studies should be done for the development of curative therapy and protective vaccine.

 

3/17 ROLE OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS 1 & 2, INTERFERON-g AND TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-a IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF ERYTHEMA MULTIFORME.

A.M. Hafez, E.A. Mabrouk*, S.M. El Shiemy* and H.M.E. Diab*

Microbiology & Immunology Department. Dermatology & Venereology Department*, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University

Background: It was hypothesized that herpes simplex virus (HSV) might play an important role in erythema multiforme (EM) pathogenesis (as high incidence of EM is preceeded by HSV infection); and this role might involve the proinflammatory cytokines: interferon-g (IFN-g) and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a). Objective: Of this work was to study the role of HSV in inducing EM in attempt to differentiate herpes simplex associated EM (HAEM) from other EM syndromes for more specific treatment, better understanding the pathogenesis of EM; and to study the role of IFN-g and TNF-a as important proinflammatory cytokines in the EM immune reactions. Subjects: Forty five patients presented with EM selected from the outpatient Dermatology Clinic at Ain Shams University Hospital, and thirty (age & sex matched) control subjects were included in this work. Patients were divided into 3 groups “HAEM” group, drug induced EM “DIEM”; and idiopathic group. Controls were selected and grouped into 2 groups: diseased control group which includes 15 patients with dermatological diseases other than EM and this group included 6 psoriatic patients, 5 patients with lichen planus, and 4 with chronic eczema. The other 15 were healthy volunteers. All groups were subjected to HSV DNA detection by PCR technique in lesional, non-lesional and blood samples using primers with a common nucleotide sequence for both HSV types 1 & 2. In addition, IFNg mRNA was detected by the use of RT-PCR with primers for IFNg mRNA and TNFa was detected by using the ELISA technique. Results of this work show that 73% of HAEM patients had positive results for detection of HSV DNA in their lesional samples and 67% in the non-lesional tissues. Also, in the idiopathic group, the frequency of detection was 73% in the lesional and 60% in the non-lesional tissues. On the other hand, the frequency of detection in the DIEM and in the diseased control group was 13% in the lesional-skin and no detection in the non-lesional tissues. These results showed a highly significant statistical difference between each of the HEAM and the idiopathic group on one hand and each of the DIEM and both the control groups on the other hand, as regards HSV detection in tissues. Where as HSV DNA detection in blood samples showed no significant difference suggesting that HSV DNA detection in tissues by the PCR technique has a higher significance than detection in blood that require a quantitative assay for diagnosis of active HSV infection. As for INF-g detection, there was a positive correlation between its detection in tissues and the HSV DNA detected in both the HAEM and the idiopathic groups but not in the DIEM or the control groups. On the other hand. TNFa was detected in 100% of samples in the DIEM group. Conclusion: HSV plays a definite role in inducing HAEM, which should be considered as a different entity than DIEM. INF-g and TNF-a are important cytokines in the pathogenesis of HAEM and DIEM. Recommendation: antiviral therapy must be given as a prophylaxis after HSV in known EM patients to decrease the number of EM attacks.

 

4/17 APPLICATION OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY ALGAE IN IRRIGATION OF SOME ECONOMIC PLANTS IN THE FIELD. B- EFFECT OF WASTE AND PROCESSED WASTEWAER ON ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES AND HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN PLANT.

M.A.K. Shaddad, H.R.M. Galal* and A.A. Hussein**

Plant Physiology Department, Faculty of Scince (Assuit) Assuit University.

* Botany Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt.

This paper aimed to showing the effects of sewage water and processed water on antioxidant enzymes of broad bean, wheat, and radish plants. The results showed that, sewage and processed water induced significant increasing in catalase activity (CAT) in root (vegetative) and in most cases of the fruiting stage in broad bean and wheat but, in radish both sewage and processed water increased the CAT activity. Sewage and processed water induced slight increase in SOD activity in most cases of bean but the reverse in wheat, where the increasing was in vegetative stage but SOD reduced in fruiting in radish highly increase in vegetative root but in vegetative shoot and fruiting root the increase in SOD activity was lowered, SOD activity in fruiting shoot was reduced. Glutathione reductase was reduced in most cases of broad bean but increased significantly in wheat plant under irrigation with both sewage and processed water. In radish G.R. nearly not affected except in vegetative shoot it increased significantly and reduced but reduced significantly in fruiting shoot with both of sewage and processed water. POD and APX activity was increased markedly in all tested plants in most cases with irrigation by sewage and processed water except in vegetative shoot and fruiting root in radish were reduced. As a result MDA content in both broad bean and wheat plants was reduced in most cases when plants treated with both sewage and processed water but in radish they were around control (increase/ or decrease) in most cases . Also we determined the heavy metals content of the tested plants where, Fe content increased by sewage and processed water irrigation in broad bean and wheat but in radish sewage water reduced Fe content but processed water increased Fe content in fruiting stage. Mn content increased in most organs of broad bean and radish irrigated with sewage water but reduced when they was irrigated with processed water, the reverse was found in wheat. Ni content in broad bean reduced in fruiting stage after irrigation with both sewage and processed water, but increased in wheat nearly the same in radish. Cd content in fruiting stage (especially in seeds) was disappeared when tested plants irrigated by processed water.

 

5/17 PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND APPLICATION OF CONVENTIONAL AND MOLECULAR DIAGNOSIS OF SUPERFICIAL FUNGAL INFECTIONS

A.A. El-Sharif and E.M. El-Taher*

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy (girls) and *Regional Center for Mycology and Biotechnology, Al-Azhar University

Although not life-threatening, superficial fungal infection (usually caused by a dermatophyte) constitutes an important public health problem because of its high prevalence and associated morbidity. The disease can have certain negative consequences for patients, such as pain, and can potentially undermine work and social lives. In the present study, thirty six subjects attending a dermatology clinic in Cairo, Egypt were clinically examined, and samples of nails, hair and skin scales were taken. The prevalence of tinea unguium was the highest, 38.9% (25% for men and 13.9% for women), and the prevalence of tinea pedis was 30.5% (25% for men and 5.5% for women). Less frequency was recorded for tinea capitis and tinea corporis. Age distribution was significantly varied with highest number of cases in the age group of 25-40 years. Identification of isolated dermatophytes was assessed by comparing results of direct microscopic examination of KOH mounts to those of conventional cultural tests (colony morphology, microscopic examination of slide cultures. Further more, molecular diagnosis to detect the dermatophyte actin gene (ACT) fragment directly in skin, nail and hair specimens was carried out. The presence of dermatophyte ACT was investigated as an indicator of the presence of viable dermatophyte cells. Dermatophyte fungi were the predominant pathogens, but yeasts especially Candida albicans was also implicated. The etiological agents were identified as Trichopyton rubrum (39.1%), followed by Microsporum canis (17.4%). PCR sensitivity compared with direct microscopical examination of KOH mount and conventional culture methods was 95.3% and 95.8% respectively. Characterization of fungal element directly from clinical specimen by using new technique to detect molecular targets may aid in the eradication of infection as it shorten identification and treatment times and is likely to enhance compliance and reduce the costs of therapy.

 

6/17 THE INTERACTIVE EFFECT OF SALINITY AND UREA ON GROWTH, SOME RELATED METABOLITES AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES OF CHLORELLA SP. AND SCENEDESMUS SP.

S.M.M. Shanab and H.R.M. Galal*

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt.

*Botany Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt.

The interactive effects of Nacl and urea was investigated on growth, relative metabolites as well as antioxidant enzymes of Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. Lower salt concentration (100 mM NaCl) have no effect on dry weight and pigment content of chlorella sp. while, they decreased by increasing salt concentrations (200 and 400 mM NaCl). On the other hand carbohydrates, proteins, free amino acids and proline contents increased with elevated salt stress. Antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) were progressively increased in chlorella sp. when exposed to various NaCl concentrations leading to an accumulation of Malondialdehyde (MDA), used as indicator of Lipid peroxidation. In case of scenedesmus (it was shown to be salt sensitive) reduction in all parameters was recorded even at lower salt concentration. Concerning the activity of antioxidant enzymes only an increase in the activity of peroxidase and Glutathione reducatase were observed, while other antioxidant enzymes decreased with salt concentration causing a remarkable increase in MDA [100% at 100 mM NaCl and 200% at higher salt concentrations (200 and 400 mM NaCl)]. With application of urea, a progressive increase in dry weight, pigment synthesis, protein, free amino acids and proline were recorded. Moreover, the addition of this nitrogen compound enhanced the activity of most antioxidant enzymes and consequently decreased the accumulation of malondialdehyde. The supplementation of urea as nitrogenous compound to the salt stressed Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. alleviate the adverse effects of salinity on both microalgae.

 

7/17 HEAVY METAL TOLERANCE, BIOSORPTION AND BIOACCUMULATION BY SOME MICROALGAE (EGYPTIAN ISOLATES)

S.M. M. Shanab and A.M. Essa*

Botany department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University

*Botany department, Faculty of Science, El-Fayum University

Three fresh water microalgal isolates [Phormidium ambiguum (Cyanobacterium), Pseudochlorococcum typicum and Scenedesmus quadricauda var. quadrispina (Chlorophyta)] were tested for tolerance and removal of mercury (Hg2+), lead (Pb2+) and cadmium (Cd2+) in aqueous solutions as a single metal species at conc. 5-100 mg / L under controlled laboratory conditions. The obtained results showed that Hg2+ was the most toxic of the three metal ions to the test algae even at low concentration (<20 mg/L).While lower concentration of Pb2+ and Cd2+ (5–20 mg / L) induced insignificant changes in the algal growth (chlorophyll a and protein), elevated concentrations (40-100 mg / L) were inhibitory to the growth.. The results also revealed that Ph. ambiguum was the most sensitive alga to the three metal ions even at lower concentrations (5 and 10 mg / L).   P. typicum and S. quadricauda were more tolerant to high metal concentrations up to 100 mg / L. The bioremoval of heavy metal ions (Hg2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+) by P. typicum from aqueous solution showed that the highest percentage of metal bioremoval occurred in the first 30 minutes of contact recording 97% (Hg2+), 86% (Cd2+) and 70% (Pb2+). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the interaction between heavy metal ions and P. typicum cells. At ultrastructural level, an electron dense layers were detected on the algal cell surfaces when exposed to Cd , Hg, and Pb. At the same time, dark spherical electron dense bodies were accumulated in the vacuoles of the algal cells exposed to Pb. Excessive accumulation of starch around the pyrenoids as well as deteriorations of the algal cell organells exposed to the three metal ions were also observed .

8/17 CADMIUM, LEAD AND ZINC CONTENTS OF SPOROCARPS OF SOME BASIDIOMYCETOUS FUNGI WITHIN GHARBIA GOVERNORATE, EGYPT.

Y.A.-G. Mahmoud*, S.M. Amerand S.M. abu El-souod

Mycology Research Lab., *Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta. Egypt.

Zinc, cadmium and lead concentrations were determined in sporocarps of Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.ex Wallr.), Ganoderma lucidum (Leys.) Fr., Heteroporus biennis (Bull.exFr.), Lycoperdon molle (Pers.: Pers), Lycoperdon pyriforme (Schaeff.ex Pers.), Peniophora incarnata (Fr.) Karst.syn, Pisolithus tinctorius (Mich.ex Prs) Coker & Couch, Pleurotus foliicola (Pat. & Lagarde), Polyporus hispidus (Bull.: Fr.) Fr.) and Scleroderma citrinum (Pers) collected from Gharbia governorate, Egypt during (2003-2004). The highest concentration of zinc and cadmium was recorded from Polyporus hispidus basidiocarp, which gave 98±8.0 and 0.54±0.04 mg/kg dry wt, respectively. However, Peniophora sp.incarnata fruiting bodies contained 48±4.04 mg/kg dry wt of lead. Determination of zinc, cadmium and lead is very important from the economic value of these fungi when used for human or animal feed and/or plants as biofertilizers.

 

9/17 SEROLOGICAL INVESTIGATION AND INTERPRETING SERUM CHEMISTRY PROFILE OF NATURAL INFECTED CATTLE BY FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE

K.M. El-Saied, N.O. Aly* and H. Samaha**

Biochemistry Department, *Virology Department, Animal Health Institute

**Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

During last outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) january 2006 in Egypt. A total of 320 serum samples from infected cattle in breed farms belongs to Fayoum, EL Behera, Monofia, GHarbea and Giza governorares were examined for detection of antibodies against FMDV serotypes by liquid phase Blocking Immunoassy. From the above number of samples 20 serum samples only are used as infected group and 20 serum samples from clinically healthy animals considered as control group. Serum samples were used to establish the concentration of total protein, albumin, glucose, total cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus. Serum nitrate evaluated as indicator to nitric oxide. The results pointing that FMD was highly incidence of a new exotic strain of FMD strain A. Biochemical results showed significant decrease in total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus in the infected group than control group, on the other hand there was a highly significant increase in serum glucose concentration of infected group. The concentration of serum nitrate was significantly increase in FMD group, suggesting that Apthovirus induce the production of nitric oxide in vivo.  

 

10/17 ISOLATION, PURIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION, AND PHYSIOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF DRINKING WATER-BORNE PATHOGENIC BACTERIA.

S.S. Louboudy, R.A. Bayoumi, M.H. El-Sehrawey and M.A. Abd-El-Baseer

Botany & Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University,                 Cairo, Egypt. P.N. 11884.

The present work was devoted for isolation, characterization, and studying physiological behavior of drinking water borne pathogenic bacteria isolated from tap and cooling water. Total of 171 bacterial isolates were isolated from twenty nine different localities on eight common and specific agar media (Nutrient, Salmonella & Shigella, Desoxycholate citrate, Eosin–methylene blue, Thioglycollate, Mannitol salt, MacConkey and Clostridium) agar media. All bacterial isolates were purified and characterized on the basis of morphological, physiological, and biochemical tests. These lead to the following suggested names: Bacillus cereus (8); B. badius (1); B. macerans (1); B. brevis (6); B. circulans (4); B. coagulans (3); B. firmus (4); B. globisporus (2); B. megaterium (10); B. mycoides (3); B. pantotheniticus (9); B .pasteurii (1); B. pumilus (1); Staphylococcus gallinarum (1); Staph. epidermidis (6); Staph. haemolyticus (1); Staph. sciuri (2); Enterobacter aerogenes (1); Micrococcus halobius (2); M. sedentarius (1); M. varians (1); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6); Klebsiella oxytoca (2); K. pneumonia (3); Enterobacter agglomerans (3); Edwardsiella ictalluri (4); Citrobacter freundii (1); Salmonella typhi (3); S. pullorum (1); Shigella dysenteriae (2); Sh. flexneri (2); Proteus mirabilis (13); Providencia stuartii (1); Pro. Rettgeri (2); Proteus rettgeri (1) and Escherichia coli (2).Thirty six characterized bacterial strains were selected and studying some physiological characteristics and evaluating of their five extracellular enzymes potencies including α-amylase, cellulase, lipase, pectinase, and protease with percentage of 41.66, 41.66, 33.33, 11.11, & 94.44 % respectively among all selected bacterial strains. The selected water borne pathogenic bacterial strains were growing at different pH values covering a relatively wide range of pH (4-12). Minimum, maximum, and optimum pH values for their growth were determined as 4, 12, and 7 respectively. Selected isolates showed abundant growth within the temperature range of 10-55ºC. Bacterial strains succeeded to grow in sodium chloride free medium and also containing sodium chloride up to 12.5 % (w/v). Recorded data emphasized that tested drinking water samples were polluted with different waterborne pathogenic bacteria and by investigating its physiological behavior, the virulence of the 36 bacterial strains was controllable.

 

11/17 A FIELD TRAIL TO ESTIMATE THE EFFECT OF LACTOBACILLUS AND YEAST AS ANTIMYCOTOXIN IN BROILER'S RATION

M. M. Arafa, N.A. Badrawy and H. Samaha*

Biochemical Department, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki,

*Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

An evaluation of the efficacy of different treatment trails using two probiotics (active dry yeast and lactobacilli) in controlling aflatoxicosis in broiler chicks was done. Seven days old chicks were randomly divided into four groups each 50 birds Group(1) was given basal diet only and kept as control negative, group II was given basal diet contaminated with 5 mg/kg ration (AFB1) and kept as control positive, group III was given basal diet contaminated with AFB1 5 mg/kg ration and given 0.5 gm/liter water yeast extract, group IV was given basal diet contaminated with AFB1 5 mg/kg ration and given 0.5 gm/liter Lactobacilli. At the one and 2 month of the experiment period biochemical analysis (Liver, Kidney function and some mineral) were applied. The result revealed the use of probiotics were effective in reducing the mortality rates, severity of intoxication, enhance liver and kidney function to nearly approach normal values improve the biochemical parameters of all groups as Liver, Kidney function and protein probiotics were proved to have synergistic effect in controlling Aflatoxicosis in broiler chicks.

 

12/17 ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTIFUNGAL COMPOUNDS ISOLATED FROM RHIZOSPHERE MICROORGANISMS ANTAGONIZING THE FUNGAL PATHOGEN: RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI.

S.M. Hassanin, A.A. El-Mehalawy, N.M. Hassanin and S.A. Zaki.

Microbiology Deapartment, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University.

Cairo, Egypt.

Four species of actinomycetes, 4 species of bacteria, 3 species of yeasts and 3 species of fungi were selected for their highest inhibitory and antagonistic activity and it was found that Streptomyces aurantiacus and Hansenula arabitolgenes were the most inhibitory followed by S. purpureus. It was also found that actinomycetes represent the most inhibitory group of the tested groups of microorganisms. One of the tested species produces 6 active components, 8 species, each produce 5 active components and the remaining other, each produce 4 active components. One of these active components was separated from the culture filtrates of 7 species. Two active components were separated from the culture filtrates of 6 species. One active component was separated from the culture filtrate of 5 species. The active components were purified and chemically analyzed to determine their chemical names, chemical formulae and molecular weight.

 

13/17 INDUCTION OF RESISTANCE AND BIOCONTROL OF RHIZOCTONIA IN COTTON AGAINST DAMPING-OFF DISEASE BY RHIZOSPHERE MICROORGANISMS.

A.A. El-Mehalawy*, S.M. Hassanin, N.M. Hassanin and S.A. Zaki.

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University,

Cairo, Egypt.

Addition of fishmeal to the soil infested with the pathogen led to a remarkable reduction in the percentage of disease compared to the soil non-amended with fishmeal. 28 fungal isolates, 22 yeast isolates, 43 isolates of actinomycetes and 8 isolates of bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere associated soil of cotton plant. Three fungal isolates, 3 yeast isolates, 4 isolates of actinomycetes and 4 isolates of bacteria were characterized by their potent and remarkable antagonistic activities, and were identified as: Eupenicillium senticosum, Penicillium herquer, Trichoderma viride, Hansenula arabitolgenes, Candida incommunis and Candida steatolytica, Streptomyces erumpens, S. purpureus, S. aurantiacus, S. microflavus , Arthrobacter ramosus, Aureobacterium terregens, Curtobacterium pusillum and Pseudomonas putida respectively. The use of a mixture of fungal, yeast, actinomycete and bacterial species led to an increase in inhibition of the pathogen, an increase in induction of resistance of cotton plant and an increase in growth measurements of cotton plant than each of them alone. Candida incommunis, S. purpueus and A. ramosus have the ability of solubilizing phosphate and have the ability for production of indolacetic acid (IAA) and siderophores.

 


14/17 PRODUCTION OF CELLULASE BY PENICILLIUM HORDEI AND PECTINASE BY ASPERGILLUS USTUS UNDER SOLID STATE FERMENTATION CONDITIONS

E.M. Desouky

Botany and Microbiology Dept., Faculty of Sci., (Girls), Al-Azhar Univ.,

Present work aimed to investigate the celluloytic and pectinolytic fungi from some Egyptian soil. For this purpose five fungal isolates were isolated, purified and screened for their enzymatic productivities qualitatively and quantitatively. Two fungal isolates showed the highest enzymes productivities were identified as Pencillium hordei "cellulase producer", while the other as Asprgillus ustus "pectinase producer". These two fungi were submitted for further work involving the evaluation of the nutritional & environmental factors affecting cellulase and pectinase production under solid-state fermentation (SSF) conditions, revealed that maximum cellulase production (317.54 mg/ml) by Penicillium hordei was attained by using 6 gm (w/flask) dry wheat straw as solid nature substrate, after 10 days incubation period at 30°C with 6 ml inoculum suspension (2.5 x 10–6­ s.f.u) at pH 5 using conical flasks of 500 ml capacity. However Aspergillus ustus gave maximum pectinase yield (2250 mg/ml) in presence of 6 gm (w/flask) dry citrus hull as solid nature substrate, after 15 days incubation period at 35°C, by 6ml inoculum suspension (2.5 x 10–6 s.f.u) at pH 5.5 using conical flasks 500 ml capacity.

 

15/17 EFFECT OF CRUDE HONEY ON STABILITY OF AFLATOXINS AND GROWTH OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS.

T.M. Mekky

Food and Dairy Tech. Dept., Efficient productivity Institute, Zagazig Univ., Egypt

Because aflatoxin contamination is unavoidable, numerous strategies for their detoxification have been proposed. sample of natural honey was studied for their detoxification on aflatoxin (B1, B2) and their antimicrobial activities on Aspergillus flavus compared with H2O2 .Dilutions of honey ranging from 12,14,16,18 and 20% were tested in vitro against Aspergillus flavus by paper disc technique and its effects on aflatoxin B1, B2 residues at various periods by the AOAC for extraction, TLC chromatography and HPLC chromatography. Results showed the following indication:- (1) The dilutions of honey showed various antimicrobial effects (highly and moderative sensitive) on Aspergillus flavus. (2) The initial concentration of aflatoxin B1 in all treatments (sample treated with 18%honey and sample treated with 18% H2O2 ) were 125 ppm. These amounts gradually decreased until 18.83 and 11.62 ppm after 6 days of treatment, indicating 84.94 and 90.70 % from the initial concentration, respectively. (3) The initial concentration of aflatoxin B2 in all treatments (sample treated with 18%honey and sample treated with 18% H2O2) were 125 ppm. These amounts gradually decreased until 25.08 and 19.66 ppm after 6 days of treatment, indicating 79.94 and 84.27 % from the initial concentration, respectively. (4) The residues of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in sample treated with 18% honey were greatly decreased compared to that in control sample. Also, the amount of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in sample treated with 18% H2O2 were highly decreased than those of control sample. (5) Honey apparently could inhibit growth of Aspergillus flavus and reduction of aflatoxin B1 and B2content levels less than the maximum residue limits (20ppm).

16/17 EFFECT OF γ-IRRADIATION ON THE MICROBIAL QUALITY AND THE BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF MIXED SPICES POWDER

W. A. Bazaraa, S. B. El-Magoli, A. A. I. Hammad* and H. H. Abdel-KhaleK*

Food Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza.

*Radiation Microbiology Department, National Center for Irradiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt.

The effect of γ- irradiation on both the microbial and chemical quality of the mixed spices powder (MSP) as well as the antimicrobial and the antioxidant activities of the MSP essential oil were evaluated. Irradiation at a dose of 10.0 kGy eliminated yeast and molds, pathogenic bacteria and reduced the total mesophillic and thermophillic bacteria to the permissible limits of WHO. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the MSP essential oil as well as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were recorded. The MSP essential oil wasgenerally more effective against bacteria than molds and the gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalies and Bacillus cereus were more sensitive than the gram-negative Escherichia coli and Proteus.sp. Aspergillus paraseticus was the most resistant mold to MSP essential oil, while A. niger 1 was the least. The inhibitory effect of the MSP essential oil against bacteria was dependent on the type of microorganisms and it mainly acted upon decreasing the final cell concentration, while it acted upon increasing the lag phase, the generation time and decreasing the final cell mass in the case of molds. Gamma irradiation (10 kGy) did not significantly affect the antimicrobial activity of the MSP essential oil. Application of BHA, BHT, essential oil of non-irradiated and irradiated MSP significantly delayed the oxidation rate in sunflower oil and the shelf life of the oil was enhanced by 4, 5, 9.5 and 9.5 days, respectively. γ-irradiation (10 kGy) showed no significant effect on the antioxidant activity of the essential oil of MSP. Also, storage of one year decreased the percentage of the MSP essential oil in both nonirradiated and irradiated samples

 

17/17 EFFICACY OF SOLARIZATION AND SEAWEEDS AMENDMENT IN THE CONTROL OF FABA BEAN FUSARIALROOT ROT

M.E. Ibrahim, A.M. Abdel-Azeem*, M.M. Hegazi**

Department of Geological and Biological Sciences, Faculty of Education, Al-Arish, University of Suez Canal.

*Department of Botany, Faculty of Science and **Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Science, University of Suez Canal, Ismailia.

The role of soil solarization with or without seaweeds (Caulerpa prolifera and Ulva lactuca) amendment on the faba bean root rot caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. fabae was evaluated under field conditions. Soil temperature in solarized plots reached a maximum of 55, 53ºC at the two depths 5 and 10 cm respectively. These temperatures were 10 to 13ºC higher than in corresponding unsolarized plots. Solarization alone or in combination with Caulerpa and Ulva amendment reduces disease severity from 35 % (control) to 85 %, 88 % and 80 % respectively. While combination of Caulerpa with solarization exerts a sort of synergistic effect, by increasing number of healthy plants from 80 % in unsolarized amended soil to 88 % in solarized amended soil, combination of Ulva with solarization showed antagonistic effect by decreasing number of healthy plants from 85% in solarized soil to 80 % in Ulva amended soil.

18/17 PRODUCTION OF Α-GALACTOSIDASE FROM LOCAL ISOLATED STRAIN OF BACILLUS CIRCULANS

Part 1 optimization of the different physiological conditions

*K. El-Shebawy*, S. Saleh*, A. Afify**, O.H. El-sayed

* Microbial biotechnology Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

** Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Giza, University, Egypt

α- Galactosidase was detected in the culture media of Bacillus circulans isolated from soil of (plants Island in Aswan). The optimum condition for growth and enzyme production were determined where the optimum pH was 6.5 to 7and incubation temperatures was 35 to 40ºC. Maximum activity of α-galactosidase in the production media was found after 48 hours (2.21 U/ml) followed by decreasing in activity at the 3rd day (0.860 U/ml). No activity was detected at the 4th day of incubation. Galactose was the most effective carbon source for α-galactosidase production followed by other sugars containing α-galactoside bounds, such as melibiose, stachyose and raffinose. Yeast extract in addition, was the best nitrogen source for enzyme production from local isolated Bacillus circulans.      

 

19/17 SOLARIZATION AND AMENDMENT WITH CABBAGE RESIDUES INDUCED SUPPERSSIVENESS IN SOIL INFESTED BY FUSARIUM FABA BEAN ROOT ROT

M.E. Ibrahim

Department of Biological and Geological Sciences, Faculty of Education, Suez Canal University, Al-Arish, Egypt

Soil showing supperssiveness, due to solarization and/or amendment, to Fusarium root rot of faba bean was studied under field conditions. While solarization alone reduced the disease severity from 75 % diseased plant (conducive soil) to 15 %, amendment alone also decreased the disease severity from 75 % to40 %. The level and reproducibility of disease suppressive properties of solarization might be increased by the amendment of soil by cabbage residues. The results of this study revealed that the combination of solarization with cabbage residues could be reducing the disease severity to only 7 % diseased plants. The results also showed that both solarization and amendment had been changing and enhancement soil microbial population and improvement certain physical and chemical properties of the experimental soil.

 

20/17 BIOCONTROL OF VIRAL NECROTIC DISEASE OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS BY RHIZOSPHERE MICROORGANISMS

N.A. Abdallah, Kh. Yussef, A. Barakat and S. El Sayed

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University

This study revealed that the preinoculation of soil with rhizosphere microorganisms significantly reduced number of local lesions produced by TNV, in P. vulgaris plants either grown in amended or unamended soil. Phaseolus plants grown in fish meal amended soil supplied with RMs singly or in mixtures, and then their leaves sprayed with RMs metabolites for different intervals (1, 3, 7, 10) days, such treatment induced de novo proteins in treated and distant untreated leaves. Electrophoretic analysis on 15% PAGE confirmed the induction of novel proteins with all treatments. However some variations were recorded in the number and molecular weight of separated bands. The number of new protein bands was ranged between 1-6 bands. The apparent molecular weights of new bands were ranging between 15 to 180 KDa.

21/17 INTERFERENCE BETWEEN LACTOBACILLI AND GROUP A STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES: AN EXPANSION TO THE CONCEPT OF PROBIOTICS

M.M. Hafez

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

The use of probiotic bacteria, such as lactobacilli was found to be effective therapeutic alternative in some intestinal and urogenital infections. However, little is known about their health benefits in respiratory and skin infections. Accordingly, this work aimed to investigate the ability of 32 Lactobacillus isolates to inhibit some pathogenic activities of group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS). Four of these isolates (LR6, LR13, L. oris2 and L. rhamnosus1) significantly blocked the adherence of GAS to both Detroit and FaDu cells using competition, displacement and exclusion test techniques. Moreover, these isolates dramatically inhibited the in vitro growth of GAS. They also induced the IL-6 production by FaDu cells to levels comparable to that brought about by GAS infection and counteracted the IL-8 decreasing property of GAS which was reported as an important immune evasion mechanism by the pathogen. With exception of L. rhamnosus1,the isolates markedly protected the mammalian cells from the cytotoxic effect of GAS. Collectively, these data indicate that L. reuteri6, L. reuteri13, L. oris2 are promising candidates as probiotics with therapeutic potential against GAS infections, since they have antagonistic activity against the adherence of the pathogen, its in vitro growth, its cytotoxic potential and some of its immune evasion mechanisms. These findings may also expand the concept of probiotics to new types of infections as skin and respiratory tract infections.

22/17 Spatial and temporal distribution of epiphytic diatoms on Macroalgae inhabiting Port Said Coast, Mediterranean sea, Egypt

F.F. Madkourand G.A. El-Shoubaky*

Marine Science Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University,

Ismailia, Egypt.

*Biological and Geological Sciences Department, Faculty of Education, Suez Canal University, Port Said, Egypt.

The epiphytic diatoms growing on seaweeds inhabiting Port Said coast were investigated seasonally during the period from summer 2004 to spring 2005. A total of 62 species of the epiphytic diatoms were recorded. They comprised fifty nine pennate and three centric forms. The important components in the flora of the epiphytic diatoms were belonging to the genera: Achnanthes, Achnanthidium, Fragilaria, Gyrosigma, Licmophora, Navicula, Pleurosigma, Synedra and Tabellaria. The rest recorded epiphytic diatoms were considered rare and of no significance in defining the epiphytic flora on seaweeds. Summer showed the highest relative abundance of total epiphytes reached to 53%, while the lowest value (5%) was recorded in spring. Site I displayed a maximum relative abundance (64%) of the epiphytes occurrence, whilesite IV showed a minimum percentage (6%). Of the macroalgal species inhabiting Port Said coast, 14 species were mostly utilized by the epiphytic diatoms. The results revealed that there was a relationship between the architecture of seaweeds and the associated epiphytes. Most of the foliose and flattened macroalgal thallus was nearly not preferred as a substrate. By contrast, the fine and sometimes branched thallus hosted many epiphytic diatoms. Considering the macroalgal species which used as a substrate, the attached epiphytic diatoms observed different patterns of preference. Some epiphytic diatoms showed host specificity giving unialgal epiphytic flora on few hosts. Other epiphytic diatoms did not reflect the previous preference pattern and existed on the majority of the macroalgae indicating the absence of selectivity.

23/17 USING OF PHYTOPLANKTON AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AS INDICATOR OF POLLUTION IN EL-TIMSAH LAKE, ISMAILIA, EGYPT.

A.S. Amin

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

Samples were collected from six sites covering the lake Timsah during the period summer 2005-spring 2006, representing the four seasons, including water and phytoplankton samples, in order to evaluating phytoplankton algal community and physicochemical parameters. A total of One-hundard and two taxa have been identified.Most of them belong to Chlorophyceae (8); Bacillariophyceae (56); Dinophyceae (18); Cyanophyceae (20) were recrded. The maximum occurrence of the total phytoplankton density (1788 & 1718 cells.l-1)was recorded in winter at sites I and II.The percentage of cell numbers was high for Bacillariophyta(60.2 & 59.5 %)and cyanophyceae(19.3 & 19.7 %) which may be attributed to concentrations of NH4 - N, PO4 -P and NO3-N, NO2-N and relatively higher values of salinity (33.8-32.2 ppt). Where the species richness (Alpha Diversity) was ranged between 6.586 during summer and 14.287 in winter while relative evenness (H') was fluctuated between 1.684 in summer and 1.902 in winter Chlorophyll a varied between 0.3 at site I and 26 µg.l-1 at site II.It exhibited high values during winter, while the lowest one during summer. Abundance of phytoplankton species may be attributed to High PO4, NH4–N and NO3–N were relatively high. The N:P ratio in Lake-Timsah, ranged between 1.07 and 9.45. The lowest value occurred at sites I, II and IV This could be attributed to eutrophication caused by wastewater and domestic input into the lake. This result indicate that The Lake Timsah classified as eutrophic. Most of the phytoplankton species recorded in this study was registered as pollution indicator species, others as toxigenic species for human beings and producing odor compound that impart water quality.

 

24/17 ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIAL ISOLATES FROM HUMAN BLOOD SAMPLES

K.N. Khatan

Biology-Chemistry Department, Faculty of Radfan Education,

Aden University, Yemen.

Many hospital-acquired infections occur because of the invasive treatments that are often needed in hospitalized patients. For example, intravenous catheters used for fluid administration, catheters placed in the bladder for urine drainage and breathing tubes for people on a breathing machine can all increase the susceptibility to infectious agents, especially bacteria. Blood samples from the subjects of this study were analyzed for presence of bacterial pathogens such as E. coli, K. pneumonia, and Staphyloccocus species. More than hundred clinical bacterial isolates were accurately identified using classical methods for discrimination and speciation of bacteria. These methods are routinely used to provide discriminating information. Additionally, molecular biology techniques such as plasmid fingerprints, RAPD-PCR and total protein-banding pattern analysis are now commonplace in bacterial identification, not only in the clinical laboratory but also in academic setup.Using these techniques the clinical isolates were grouped into three major genera of E. coli, K. pneumonia, and two Staphyloccocus species. The antibiotic sensitivity patterns of the four bacteria genera can be classified as follow: S. aureus was only sensitive to amoxicillin+clavulanic acid (AMC), S. epidermides was resistant to five antibiotics ( AMC, Amoxicillin (AML),piperacillin (PRL),cefotaxime (CTX) and ceftazidime (CAZ)), E. coli showed the same antibiotic resistance pattern as S. epidermides except it was sensitive toceftazidime (CAZ), whereas, K. pneumoniae was resistant to all antibiotics used in this assay. The antibiotic sensitivity data and the molecular identification are highly important, not only for prescription of right medication, but also for accuracy of naming the clinical isolates.

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