Vol. 19, January, 2008

acheter viagra a cuba 1/19 IMPACT OF UV-B RADIATION ON ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES AND PROTEIN ELECTROPHORETIC PATTERN OF THE GREEN ALGA CHLOROCOCCUM SP.

Atef M. Abo-Shady, Amal H. Elnaggar, Mostafa M. Elsheekh, Abd El-Fatah Abomohra.

Phycology Research Unit, Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

The impact of two intensities (2.5 Wm-2 and 5 Wm-2) of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on lipid peroxidation, protein pattern and some antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase has been studied in Chlorococcum sp. isolated from El-Kased fresh water canal, Tanta, Egypt. Exposure of acheter du viagra en france en ligne Chlorococcum sp. for two hours of 2.5 and 5 Wm-2 increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content by 238 % and 274 %, respectively. The activity of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase were increased at all exposure times to both intensities. In contrast, the activity of catalase was inhibited with increasing the UV-B intensity as well as the exposure time compared to the control. The reduction in catalase activity reached 71.8 % and 95.9 % after two hours of exposure to 2.5 Wm-2 and 5 Wm-2, respectively. With regard to protein pattern, exposure of rigodon du viagra Chlorococcum sp. to UV-B stress induced marked changes in protein synthesis patterns. Three types of alterations were noticed, i) significant reduction in the biosynthesis of certain proteins, ii) induction of specific proteins biosynthesis and iii) changes in band intensities of some proteins.

viagra femme homme  

viagra montreal where buy  

forum pour le cialis 2/19 DISTRIBUTION OF MOULDS AND BACTERIA IN AL-BAHA WATER WELLS AND ITS RELATION TO HEAVY METALS POLLUTION

Mohammed A. Foaad, Sami A. Zabin* and Abdullaziz Y. Al-Ghamdi*

Departement of Biological and Geological Sciences, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University ,Helipolis,Roxy,Cairo,Egypt.

* Departement of Science, Al-Baha teachers’ College, Al-Baha University. Al-Baha, King of Sauadi Arabia.

Twenty water samples from private governmental water wells and home tanks of Al Baha region, Saudi Arabia were collected to investigate heavy metals and microbial contaminants. Analysis of heavy metal contents using Inductive Couple Plasma-mass Spectroscopy Technique showed the distribution of some metals and rarity of others according to the locality of collection. Microbiological analysis revealed that all samples were positive for pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria. In total the number of species isolated from groundwater as well as home tanks was similar for bacteria. Five hundred   fungal colonies were isolated from water samples and even chlorinated samples while bacteria were absent in cases of chlorinated samples. As many as twenty four species were isolated from groundwater-derived samples, and five species were isolated from home tanks samples. The mycobiota was dominated by species of potenzmittel kamagra jelly Absidia, Acremoniumand vigrx plus contains sildenafil Aspergillus. The genus contre indication de viagra Aspergilluswas found to be particularly widespread in all sample. cialis site de confiance Aspergillus ustus , Aspergillus sydowii and Aspergillus niger were   the highest maximum number of CFU per 100-ml sample. Aspergillus nigerwas recovered from most samples especially from the relatively high TDS. Seven species of a clinically important fungi were isolated from home samples. The relationship between the heavy metals pollution and the stimulation and enhancement of microbial contamination was correlated. The results showed no relation can be deduced for bacteria but large differences could be observed for fungi. The number of different species of molds which were recovered from different samples may indicate the role of heavy metals on the distribution of molds. The present investigation indicated that Al- Baha water's wells may be an important contributor to the transmission of a wide variety of bacteria as well as mold species to water consumers.

 

 

3/19 BIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF IRRADIATED CUMIN (CUMINUM CYMINUM L.) ESSENTIAL OIL

El-Sayed .A. Afify

Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Research Center, Abou-Zaabal, Egypt.

This investigation aims to study the possibility of using irradiated cumin essential oil as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. In addition, to investigate its biological effect. Therefore, samples of essential oils were irradiated at doses 0, 5, 8 and11kGy. Then 0.1% of irradiated cumin essential oil added to sunflower oil as natural antioxidant comparing to 0.02% BHT as artificial antioxidant, also the dilution (0.1%) and pure (100 %) of cumin essential oil were studied for its inhibition against four bacterial strains and two fungal strains. For studying the biological effect of samples under investigation an experimental animal was designed. The obtained results indicated that, addition of both BHT and irradiated cumin essential oil to incubated sunflower oil at 60oC increasing its stability where it caused markedly decreased in PV and TBA values (as indicators of oxidative rancidity). Also, the results showed that irradiation treatment increased the antioxidant activity of cumin essential oil. On the other hand, the results showed that the diluted essential oil had no inhibition effect on the growth of bacterial and fungal strains. While, the pure sample caused full inhibition on the growth of strains under investigation. The biological experiment indicated that addition of irradiated cumin essential oil to animal diets caused significant increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) while very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) decreased significantly, this results are very beneficial to protect the heart against coronary heart diseases risks (CHDR).

4/19 MEDIUM OPTIMIZATION FOR PENICILLIN G ACYLASE PRODUCTION BY ESCHERICHIA COLI ATCC 13529

Abeer M. Ahmed, Ashraf F. El-Baz*, Hanafy A. Hamza and

Moustafa A. Abdel Kawy**

Microbial Biotechnology Dept., Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Inst., Minofiya University,

*Industrial Biotechnology Dept., Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Inst., Minofiya University,

**Pharmacognosy Dept., Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University.

The culture medium for E. coli ATCC 13529 was opti­mized on a shake-flask scale by using a statistical factorial design for enhanced production of penicillin G acylase. The factorial design indi­cated that the main factors that positively affect penicillin acylase, production by E. coli were the concentration of Corn Steep Liquar (CSL) and the presence of PAA in the fermentation medium, whereas the presence of glucose in the medium had no effect on enzyme production. An initial concentration of 2.5% (v/v) CSL and 0.15% (w/v) Phenylacetic acid (PAA) was found to be the favorite medium supplement for acylase production (3.49 U/ml) after 48h. However, both PAA and CSL are used to stimulate the production of E. coli biomass, which in turn increased penicillin acylase production. However, the best medium for optimizing acylase enzyme production by E. coli was the medium of 2.5% CSL (w/v) and 0.15% PAA, which was adequate to poroduce the enzyme at a short fermentation time of 48 h.

5/19 ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SOME MARINE BACTERIA PRODUCING EXTRACELLULAR HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES

Hanan A. Ghozlan

Microbiology Section, Botany Department, Faculty of Science,
University of Alexandria, Egypt

Aerobic bacteria producing extracellular enzymes were isolated and characterized from water and sediment samples collected from different locations along the seashore of Alexandria city. One hundred seventy isolates were screened on media containing different polymeric substances as substrates (starch, cellulose, mannan, xylan, chitin, pectin, casein, tween and DNA). Out of the 170 bacterial isolates, 85 were selected based on their enzymatic profile and salt tolerance. Isolates combining tolerance to 20% NaCl and production of multi- enzyme system were selected for identification. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that most of the tested marine isolates were related to the phyla Fermicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Phylum Fermicutes was represented by the two isolates belonging to genera Marinomonas and Marinococcus. The two isolates of high G+C Gram-positive associated with phylum Actinobacteria belonged to genera Nostocoida and Brevibacterium. Three strains were affiliated to Gamma-proteobacteria and formed members of 2 genera Halomonas and Chromohalobacter. The identified strains produced biotechnologically important enzymes in presence of 20% NaCl concentration.

6/19 PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATIONS OF THE EXTRACELLULAR CHOLESTEROL OXIDASE ENZYME OF ENTEROCOCCUS HIRAE MIL-31

Wesam A. Hassanein; Eman Y. Tohamy and Shimaa Mahmoud

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt.

The cholesterol decomposing bacterial load of the five tested food samples was not greatly differe. Out of 50 selected bacterial isolates tested for their decomposition of cholesterol using well agar diffusion method, 24 isolates were screened for their cholesterol decomposition in liquid medium .The most potent bacterial isolate was identified as Enterococcus hirae Mil-31. Its maximum growth as well as the highest percent of cholesterol decomposition were achieved at 37° C for 1 day incubation cultivated in cholesterol basal medium adjusted at pH 7 under static condition with 1 g/l of cholesterol as substrate, no additional carbon or nitrogen source and (0.5%) CaSO4. The cholesterol oxidase enzyme (COD) produced by E. hirae Mil-31 strain was extracted at (NH4)2SO4 saturation level (80 %). The highest specific enzyme activity (124.87 U/mg.protein) with 79 % yield and 2.3 purification fold were obtained after using Sephadex G-100 column chromatographic technique. The molecular weight of COD was 60 KDa using SDS-PAGE polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum conditions for maximum activity of purified COD enzyme produced by E. hirae Mil-31 strain were achieved when 1.45 mg protein/ml of enzyme was incubated for 30 min at 40°C; pH 7.8; 1 (g/l) of substrate concentration and 200 PPM of MgCl2. The enzyme maintained about 36% and 58.5% of its activity after 18 days of its storage and thermal treatment at 95°C for 2 hr, respectively. Furthermore, the COD enzyme was used in clinical purposes for reduction of serum cholesterol.

7/19 COMPARATIVE BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY OF FIVE FLUOROQUINOLONES USED IN OPHTHALMOLOGY AND THEIR COMBINATIONS WITH ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EYE DROPS AGAINST OCULAR BACTERIAL ISOLATES

Hoda M.G. Omar

Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

University of Alexandria.

In the present study the bactericidal activity of five fluoroquinolone eye drops was determined against ocular isolates. These were: 6 Staphylococcus aureus, 6 Staphylococcus epidermidis and 12 Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Also, the influence of two anti-inflammatory agents on this bactericidal activity was assessed. The susceptibility of the organisms to different antibiotics was determined by the modified disc agar diffusion method. The obtained antibiotic resistance patterns revealed that all the tested isolates were multiresistant. Ten of the isolates were selected for the current investigation to represent the different antibiotic resistance patterns observed. The dynamics of bactericidal activity of Ciprofloxacin eye drops against the ten selected isolates was determined using the viable count technique throughout a 30 min incubation period. For the majority of isolates, the qualitative pattern of activity of Ciprofloxacin eye drops was almost the same, starting by a marked reduction in the viable count after 10 min. Comparative bactericidal activities of five fluoroquinolones was determined against the ten isolates using also the viable count technique over a short period of time (15 min). The results obtained showed that, the five fluoroquinolones exhibited variable bactericidal activity against both the Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates. The effect of the two anti-inflammatory agents diclofenac and dexamethasone on the bactericidal activity of the five fluoroquinolone eye drops against the ten isolates under test was evaluated using the viable count technique. Variable results were obtained depending on the combination involved. A comparison was made between the net change of bactericidal activity of fluoroquinolone eye drops due to the presence of diclofenac or dexamethasone eye drops. This change varied between increased (+) and decreased (-) combined activity. From the data obtained throughout this study, the following conclusions can be made:- * The fluoroquinolone eye drops are active even against the multiresistant ocular isolates, in half of the concentration, of the commercially available eye drops (0.3 %). * Anti-inflammatory agents have a considerable effect on the bactericidal activity of fluoroquinolones against Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. The microbiological interaction of the anti-inflammatory drugs with the fluoroquinolones should be therefore considered seriously pending in vivo studies.

 

 

8/19 GENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF METALLO- β-LACTAMASES IN CLINICAL ISOLATES OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA IN RESPIRATORY ICU

Faten M. Ali and *Samar H. Sharkawy

Microbiology and Immunology, *Chest Departments, Faculty of Medicine,

Ain Shams University.

Background: Metallo--Lactamases (MBLs) mediated resistance to carbapenem is an emerging threat in hospital isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Objectives: The aim of study was to determine the IMP-1 and VIM-2 type MBLs occurrence among MBLs-producing the clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. Patients and Methods: Bronchoalveolar lavage / sputum samples were taken from 50 patients with clinically suspected nosocomial lower respiratory tract infections. Different isolates were identified and susceptibility to different antimicrobials was determined. Resistance to imipenem and ceftazidime was confirmed by determining its minimum inhibitory concentration. A total of 20 isolates of P. aeruginosa and 3 isolates of Acinetobacter spp with reduced susceptibility to imipenem and ceftazidime were subjected to PCR analyses. Results: The most prevalent isolated organisms were P. aeruginosa(40 %), followed by MRSA and K. pneumoniae (16% each), E. coli (12%) and S. pyogenes (10%). Acinetobacter species were the least isolated organisms (6%). Fifty five percent and 45%of P. aeruginosa showed resistance to imipenem (IPM) and ceftazidime (CAZ) respectively. MIC of IPM resistant isolates ranged from ≥4µg/l to ≥64µg/l. MIC of CAZ resistant isolates ranged from ≥ 8µg/l to 128 µg/l. The MIC of 3 Acinetobacter isolates to IPM was ≥16µg/l while it was ≥128 µg/l to CAZ. Three out of the 6 P. aeruginosa isolates resisting both drugs was VIM-2 producers, 2 were IMP-1 producers and one unidentified isolate. The five isolates resistant to IPM and sensitive to CAZ were IMP-2 producers. None of the three isolates sensitive to IPM and resistant to CAZ were IMP-2 or VIM-2 producers. The 3 Acinetobacter isolates resistant to IPM&CAZ were 2 VIM-2 (2 isolates) producers and one isolate was IMP-1 producer. Conclusion: MBLs-producing P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacterspp. are present among the patients with suspected NLRTI in respiratory ICU. This provokes a serious problembeing the spread of MBL producers may lead to therapeutic dead ends. Recommendations: Because organisms producing MBLs producer tend to demonstrate   a wide   range   of resistance to various broad- spectrum - lactams, the early recognition of MBLs producers is critical for vigorous infection control.

 

9/19 SCREENING OF RED SEA MARINE FUNGI FOR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES

Marwa M. Azab, Sherief I. Khalifa* and Salah El-Din M. Abdalla

Microbiology and Immunology Department and *Pharmacognossy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

A total of 120 ethyl acetate extract, derived from Red Sea sponges, soft corals, sea grasses, and gorgonian derived fungi cultivated in liquid media, were screened against Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 813106), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) as tested microorganisms for antibacterial test and against Candida albicans ATCC and Aspergillus niger (ATCC 16404) for antifungal test. Extracts from several fungal isolates selectively inhibited the growth of some tested microorganisms. Bioassay-guided fractionation of one isolate M35 extract led to the isolation of the potential antifungal and antibacterial compound, which inhibit strongly the growth of all tested M.os. The isolated active compound was identified by H1 andC13 NMR analysis and mass spectroscopic data.

10/19 A STUDY OF CD95 EXPRESSION STATUS ON PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR CELLS IN NON HODGKIN'S LYMPHOMA PATIENTS AT THE TIME OF DIAGNOSIS

Laila Kholeif1, Nehal Draz2, Nevine Gado3 and Zeinab Abdel Hafiz4

Microbiology and Immunology1,2 and Radiotherapy Departments3,4, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is a malignant neoplasm whose normal counterparts are the cells of the immune system. Fas (CD95/Apo-1) is a protein that is mainly related to apoptosis of lymphoid cells. Escape from such apoptosis is considered to lead to malignant transformation of cells and unrestricted growth of lymphoma. Fas expression might be altered in solid tumor cells as well as in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in lymphoma patients. The aim of this study was to investigate CD95 expression status on peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a possible patho-mechanism in non Hodgkin's lymphoma patients. This study included 37 subjects divided into 2 groups; 22 patients with non Hodgkin's lymphoma stage III and IV and 15 apparently healthy blood donors. CD95 expression status on peripheral blood mononuclear cells was carried for patients at the time of diagnosis and for normal controls by flowcytometer system. Non significant difference was found in the percent of peripheral blood mononuclear cells expressing Fas between patients at the time of diagnosis (13.17 + 10.17) and controls (13.26 + 5.8). In conclusion, Fas expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells does not play a significant part in pathomechanisms of non Hodgkin's lymphoma in the study group. Further studies are needed for more accurate evaluation of the involvement of the Fas/Fas ligand system and of putative apoptosis impairment in lymphomas by investigating the expression of Fas and Fas ligand on malignant cells from lymph nodes, correlating this expression with the corresponding data on peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

11/19 MANAGEMENT OF TOMATO EARLY BLIGHT THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF RESISTANT VARIETY, MYCORRHIZAL ASSOCIATION AND NP AMENDMENT.

Mohsen E. Ibrahim

Department of Biological and Geological Sciences, Faculty of Education,

Suez Canal University, Al-Arish, Egypt

Most tomato cultivars (Lycopersicon esculentum) are very susceptible to foliar infection with early blight (EB) caused by Alternaria solani. Resistance to early blight in the tomato was assessed by evaluating different control measures vaz: (i) use of resistance varieties, (ii) tomato mycorrhizal development and (iii) amendment with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Results revealed that while some cultivars are highly susceptible to (EB) others are weak to moderately susceptible. Data of mycorrhizal association demonstrated that mycorrhizal tomato plants had significantly less A. solani symptoms than non-mycorrhizal plants. The number of healthy plants was 70, 65, 83 and 85 in respect to the cultivars GS12, Supper Marmande, GS Shefa and Supper Strian B. Results of NP amendment in the present investigation showed that there is no improvement in the number of healthy plants.

 

12/19 FLORISTIC AND ECOLOGICAL STUDIES

ON WADI HASHEM, EGYPT

Fathy M. El-Shayeb

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Egypt.

The present study deals with floristic composition and ecology of Wadi Hashem of the Western Mediterranean coastal land in Egypt. The floristic composition of Wadi Hashem comprises 187 species belonging to 35 angiosperm families and one family of Gymnospermae. Chamaephytes are the prevailing life-form of woody plants in the natural habitats, while the nanophanerophytes are less abundant. The Mediterranean, Irano-Turanian, Sudano-Zambezian, Palaeotropical and Pantropical floristic elements are represented by 76%, 44.9%, 2.13%, 2.13% and 1.06% of the total number of species, respectively. Ceratonia siliquaL. is recorded as one of the most important maquis trees thatcharacterize the other Mediterranean countries. Four main types of habitat were recognized in Wadi Hashem: desert plateau, slopes, cliff and wadi bed with terraces. Climate in the study area is characterized by short rainy season from October to March and long dry summer from April to September.

13/19 EFFECT OF EPIGALLOCATECHIN GALLATE ON THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF Β-LACTAMS AGAINST DIFFERENT TYPES OF Β-LACTAM RESISTANT BACTERIA

Ramadan A. Al domany

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Helwan University

A total of 30 bacterial isolates including 10 Staphylococcus aureus, 10 Escherichia coli and 10 Pseudomonas aeruginosa were examined for their susceptibility to β-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin, amoxicillin, cephalexin, cefotaxime and imipenem) and epigallocatechin gallate to determine their MICs. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were also examined for their susceptibility to methicillin. Results indicated that the MICs of β-lactams (ampicillin, amoxicillin, cephalexin and cefotaxime) against the tested S. aureus isolates ranged from 64 to 1024µg/ml while for imipenem ranged from 0.25 to 16 µg/ml. All the tested S. aureus isolates methicillin resistant and the MICs ranged from 64 to 256 µg/ml. The MICs of EGCgagainst all the tested S. aureus isolateswere 100 µg/ml. The MICs of the tested β-lactams against the tested E. coli isolates were ranged from 32 to 512 µg/ml while for imipenem ranged from 0.5 to 32µg/ml. The MICs of the tested β-lactams against the testedP.aeruginosaisolates were ranged from 64 to 1024 µg/ml while for imipenem ranged from 0.5 to 32µg/ml. On the other hand, the MICs of EGCgagainst the tested E. coli and P.aeruginosa isolateswere ≥800 µg/ml. All the tested bacterial isolates were examined for thier β-lactamase production using nitrocefin and the results indicated all the isolates were β-lactamase producer. Interstingly, combination of one fourth the MIC of EGCg with β-lactams resulted in 3-7 times reduction in the MICs against the tested S. aureus isolates. On the other hand, only   1-3 times reduction in the MICs of β-lactams were observed among the tested E. coli and P.aeruginosa isolates. Furthermore, combination of half the MIC of EGCg with β-lactams resulted in further reduction in the MICs with increasing in the antimicrobial activity against S. aureus isolates while the MICs of β-lactams were more or less affected for both E. coli and P.aeruginosa tested isolates. In conclusion, the combination of β-lactams with EGCg showed potent synergy with restoring the antimicrobial activities against β-lactamase producing S. aureus isolates in-vitro. The combinations of β-lactams and EGCg against β-lactamase-producing Gram-negative rods do indicate a limitation owing to the cellular location of β-lactamases. Therefore,the combinations may be worthy of further evaluation in vivoagainst MRSA infection.

 

14/19 Α-AMYLASE PRODUCTION BY PENICILLIUM BREVICOMPACTUM ON SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION USING AGRO-INDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS.

Ebaa E. El-Sharouny

Botany Department - Faculty of Science - Alexandria University.

Alpha amylases are one of the important and widely used enzymes whose spectrum of applications has widened in many sectors where they are found to be widely produced by SSF. Banana skin waste was used as the main substrate for producing alpha amylase in SSF by the fungus P. brevicompactum as it was proven to be the most promising among six different agro-industrial wastes tested, giving an enzyme productivity of 762U/gds. Testing different nitrogen sources for the SSF fermentation medium, NaNO3 was found to give the maximum productivity (1370U/gds) followed by yeast extract (820U/gds). Hence, a combination between NaNO3 and yeast extract was applied to predict whether NaNO3 is a gene promotor for the enzyme or needed in high amounts as a nitrogen source where results were found to ascertain the second suggestion. Plackett-Burman statistical design was also applied to approach a near optimal response region of medium composition. According to data obtained, a near optimum culture was formulated as follows: (g/l) NaNO3, 2; KH2PO4, 4; MgSO4.7H2O, 0.5; NaCl, 2; Banana waste 8g/flask; and incubation period of 4 days, with an inoculum size of 0.5 ml (6x107spores/ml). Verification results showed an enzyme activity of 5585 U/gds which represented about 4 fold increase in α -amylase production compared with the control basal culture.

15/19 SCREENING OF DIFFERENT FUNGAL STRAINS FOR CELLULASE FORMATION USING DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL WASTES

Mohamed M. Hassan; Ali M. Elshafei; Bakry M. Haroun*; Housam M. Atta*;

Osama M. Abdel-Fatahand Abdelmageed M. Othman

Department of Microbial Chemistry, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

*Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Sci., Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

The production of cellulolytic enzymes (CMCase, FPase, cellobiase) by six fungi using media containing corn cobs, corn stalks, rice straw, or sugar cane bagasse as carbon sources was performed. The experimental results showed that the six tested filamentous fungi produce the three components of cellulase system (namely, CMCase, FPase, and cellobiase) with different proportions depending upon the lignocellulosic residue, the filamentous fungus under study and the aeration state condition. Aspergillus terreus DSM 826 produced remarkable high amounts of CMCase in both static and shaking cultures on rice straw or sugar cane bagasse expressed as specific enzyme activities. Therefore, A. terreus DSM 826 was further studied by observing the effects of physical, mechanical, and alkali pretreatments on CMCase formation using rice straw and sugar cane bagasse as carbon sources. These experiments showed that the best soaking time and particle size were 6 hr, 0.8 mm and 1hr, 1.25 mm for rice straw and sugarcane bagasse respectively. On the other hand, CMCase formation was greatly affected by incubation of both wastes with 1% sodium hydroxide for 1 hr.

 

16/19 ROLE OF LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA IN VENTILATOR ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA IN AIN SHAMS UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL RESPIRATORY INTENSIVE CARE UNIT

Shereen El-Sayed, Maha M. Fathy, Sanaa M.I. Zaki, Amany M.K. Abd El-Aziz,

May El-Attar* and Manal Hosny*

Departments of Microbiology& Immunology and Chest*,

Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University

Prognosis of patients with ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) depends on rapid identification of the causative agentfor selection of the most appropriate antibiotic therapy. The present study aimed at clarifying the role of L. pneumophila, as a causative agent of VAP in respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) of Ain Shams University Hospital to achieve optimal patient outcome. Forty seven VAP patients were studied. Forty healthy subjects, sex and age matched with the patients, served as controls. Urine samples were collected from patients and controls for detection of soluble Legionella antigen in urine using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Respiratory specimens from the patients were examined for L. pneumophila DNA using a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results showed that 9 urine specimens (19.15%) were positive for presence of Legionella spp. soluble antigen by EIA while all urine specimens of control subjects were negative. Six (12.77%) of the 47 examined VAP patients were positive for L. pneumophila DNA in their respiratory specimens. The relation between L. pneumophila and potential risk factors, clinical characteristics, radiographic and laboratory findings and severity of pneumonia were studied. The results indicated a statistically significant association with smoking, confusion and diarrhea. Also the mean respiratory rate was significantly higher in patients with L. pneumophila. No significant association was found between L. pneumophila and any of the studied laboratory or radiographic findings. Also no significant association was found between L. pneumophila and severity of pneumonia. In conclusion Legionella spp. particularly L. pneumophila played a role in sporadic cases of VAP in RICU of Ain Shams University hospital. A surveillance study for detection of prevalence and incidence rates of Legionella infection in hospitalized patients is recommended. Also the hospital water quality needs to be assessed.

17/19 BORON IMPACT UPON PATHOGENESIS AND SOME RELATED PROTEINOME COMPONENTS OF PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE PV. SYRINGAE DURING BACTERIOSIS OF SOME TRITICUM VARIETIES

Mohamed E.A. Dawoud and Youssef A. Mawgoud

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt.

During bacteriosis of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae on some Triticum vulgare variety (Sakha 8 and Giza 157), impact of boron application was deduced in the metabolized proteinome of the pathovar and the host response was detected. The results showed that, Pseudomonas syringae, only, survived 250 mM boron concentration while the host plants tolerated up to 1000 mM borate concentrations. It was concluded that boron treatments impaired RNA, DNA, and the amount of metabolized proteinome component (amino acids, peptides, and protein) but increased the amount of free ammonia and keto acids of the pathogen. Conversely, glutamic oxalic transaminases (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminases (GPT), glutamine synthetase (Gns) have not been significantly affected, while glutamic synthase decrease in activity. the electrophoretogram of SDS-PAGE for the proteinome of control and treated isolates show that, boron treatments (250, 500 & 1000mM) resulted in disappearance of protein band between 40 & 66 kD (250 mM), further increase in boron concentrations up to 500 mM caused disappearance of more bands 36–70 kD, while the higher boron concentration; 1000 mM resulted in the disappearance of protein bands 30-96 kD, in addition to novel expression of new bands (23-36 kD), while the region of effectors proteins were conserved with no change. the response of the host plant to boron indicated that, Triticum vulgare variety Sakha 8 was more tolerant than Giza 157. Boron application (250 mM) caused a relative increase in the mean and % control of dry weights of both plant and spikes (especially under infection), conversely the percentage diseased leaf area (% DLA) increased with progress of age only in control plants (-B3+). Furthermore, the technique of boron application affected the disease control where, foliar spray (local treatments) decreased the disease severity than soil application (systemic treatments); combination of both treatments had intermediate effects pointing some impairment of soil –plant processes.  

18/19 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PLANT SPECIES BELONGING TO DIFFERENT FAMILIES COLLECTED FROM QENA GOVERNORATE

Ahmed E.M. Noor El-Deen, Ahmed K. Osman and Thanaa A. Maghraby

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University

This study deals with the effect of the alcoholic extract, ethyl acetate extract and methanolic extract of 22 different plant species on a number of tested microorganisms (Bacteria and Fungi). These tested microorganisms were pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains. From this study it was concluded that the alcoholic extract of most plant species were highly active against most of tested bacteria while has moderate effect on the fungal tested strains, the ethyl acetate extract has a slight activity against bacterial tested strains and failed to show activity on the most tested fungal strains. The methanolic extract has moderate activity against bacterial strains and failed to show activity of most tested fungal strains.

19/19 LIPIDS IN BEAN PLANTS INOCULATED WITH FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM P.V. PHASEOLLI

Hegazy S. Hegazy, Safia M. Ghazi* and Hanan A. Mohamed

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Egypt

The changes in lipid contents in leaves and stems of bean plants (Phaseollus vulgaris) inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum p.v. phaseolli were investigated at l, 2 and 3 days after inoculation. The total lipid contents in leaves and stems of infected plants were decreased. Neutral lipid fractions such as TG, S of both leaves and stems of diseased plants were decreased. However DG, SE and FFA were increased. Total phospholipids contents in both leaves and stems in diseased plants were generally lower than that in healthy plants. Other phospholipids fractions such as PC, PG, Pi and PE were decreased in diseased plants, however PA was sharply increased. In bean calli tissues, total lipids, total phospholipids and neutral lipid fractions such as S and TG, and phospholipid fraction such as PC, PG and JPE were decreased when cultured on B5 medium mixed with 6% filter-sterilized metabolite of Fusarium. DG, SE were increased in bean calli tissues grown on inoculated media.

 

20/19 FECAL COLONIZATION BY EXTENDED-SPECTRUM BETA-LACTAMASE PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI FROM HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS

Mohamed H.M. Al-Agamy, Mohamed S. Ali, Mounier M. Salem

and Tarek R. Mohamed

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy Al-Azhar University, Cairo Egypt

Fecal Colonization by multi-resistant bacteria can be a source of nosocomial infections. In order to investigate in-patient fecal colonization by extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESβLs) E coli, both phenotypic characterization of E coli stool isolates using E-test strips and genotypic characterization using plasmid fingerprinting accompanied with multiple PCR detecting different ESΒLs genes were performed. 8/31 (25.8%) of E coli isolates were resistant to cefotaxime i.e. ESΒLs and/or Amp C enzyme production. Plasmid profile analysis of cefotaxime resistant isolates (n=8) excluded the possibility of the spread of one single resistant plasmid, denoting the absence of epidemic isolates within the studied population. 7/8 (87.5%) of cefotaxime resistant E coli were ESΒLs, whereas 1/8 (12.5%) was Amp C β-lactamase resistant which could be chromosomal or plasmid mediated. SDS-PAGE revealed that ESΒL-producing isolates had one band of β-lactamase at 29 KD, whereas Amp C-producing isolate had two bands of β-lactamases at 29 KD and 39 KD approximately. PCR of different β-lactamase genes showed 7/7 (100%), 5/7 (71.42%), 4/7 (57.14%), 0/7 (0%) of blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaOXA and blaSHV genes, respectively. These results underscore the importance of the intestinal tract as a reservoir for ESΒL-producing E coli which may lead to nosocomial infection.

21/19 CHANGES IN POLYAMINES IN SUNFLOWER CROWN-GALL TUMOUR AND CULTURED TRANSFORMED TISSUES

Hegazy S. Hegazy, Safia M. Ghazi* and Gehan   H. Ali

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University

*Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Egypt

Polyamines in sunflower crown-gall tumour have increased sharply such as putrescine, sperimine, spermidine and cadaverine As the size of the tumour increased the level of polyamine in the tuworized tissues increased. Cultured normal and transformed sunflower tissues, showed a highly significant level of polyamine fractions compared with the control untransformed tissues. Key words: Polyamines-crown- gall tumour-plants.  

 

22/19 PRODUCTION AND PURIFICATION OF PECTINASE, AVICELASE AND CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULASE BY FERMENTATION OF AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTESUSING B. FIRMUS AND B. LATEROSPORUS

Sherif M. Husseiny, *Reda A. Bayoumi, *Mamdouh S. El-Gamal,

**Ali I. Ahmad and **Hamed M. Khashaba

Botany Department, Women’s College for Art, Science & Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

*Botany & Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

** Special Food Dept., Food Technology Research Inst., Agricul. Res. Cent. Cairo

The present investigation is concerned with bacterial enzymes production using industrial wastes of some fruits. Thirty-eight pure bacterial isolates were picked up from fermented agro-industrial wastes. Isolates were subjected to screening studies with respect to their ability to produce extra-cellular enzymes. The most potent pectinase and avicelase producers were found to be isolates (No. 33 and 18) and suggested to be Bacillus firmus, whereas the most potent carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) producer was found to be isolate (No. 20) and suggested to be Bacillus laterosporus. The optimal cultivation and nutritional conditions which fulfill the highest pectinase and cellulases productivities were also investigated. Purification of pectinase and cellulases (avicelase & CMCase) resulted in having specific activities of 197642.312, 62596.09 and 16511.238, respectively. Optimum conditions for purified enzymes activities of the present investigation can be summarized as follows: pH 6.9, 5.7 and 6 for pectinase, avicelase and CMCase, respectively. Mostly, continuous increase in enzyme activity is increase proportionally to enzyme concentration. While, in case of pectinase 0.02 ml was the best enzyme concentration; thermal stability was 40°C for purified enzymes; incubation time were 48 & 72 hours for pectinase and cellulases, respectively; substrate concentration was 1.0 % of pectin for pectinase enzyme and in case of cellulases were 2 % of each avicel and CMC for avicelase and CMCase enzymes respectively. Application of residual fermented wastes obtained from the processes of each enzyme fermentation (pectinase, avicelase & CMCase) was performed by drying and the addition of different concentrations to sandy soil and cultivation with soybean for 30 days age. This result proved that the addition of residual fermented wastes may have an effect to induces the growth of tested plants and may act as organic fertilizer.  

"ReVIEW ARTICLE"

23/19 Therapy of acute EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS (EBV) INFECTIONS-PERSPECTIVES, NOVEL ANTIVIRAL COMPOUNDS AND RESISTANCE

Petia Genova-Kalou, Daniela Dundarova, Stefan Dundarov, Andon Toshev*, Krasimira Idakieva** and Kamelia Yotovska***

National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Department of Virology, Laboratory of Cell cultures.

*Department of Biology, Medical Faculty, Medical University, Sofia, Bulgaria

**Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Organic Chemistry, Sofia, Bulgaria;

***Department of Methodology of Biology Education, “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Faculty of Biology, Sofia University Sofia, Bulgaria.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes infectious mononucleosis and oral hairy leukoplakia, and is associated with a number of malignancies. There are, however, no regulatory agency-approved treatments for EBV-related diseases. Several antiviral drugs inhibit replication of EBV in cell culture including acyclic nucleoside and nucleotide analogues, all of which inhibit the EBV DNA polymerase. Despite their potency in vitro, these drugs have limited use in vivo for treatment of acute primary EBV infection, as well as EBV-associated malignancies for several reasons. Here we discuss novel anti-EBV compounds, including maribavir, which are potentially useful for the treatment of acute EBV infections. It is hoped that a better understanding of EBV persistence and the part played by EBV in the oncogenic process will permit the development of new approaches aimed at the prevention and treatment of EBV-associated tumors. Therefore, it would be ultimately useful to have anti-EBV compounds that do not have serious side effects.

 

24/19 EFFECT OF CULTURAL CONDITIONS ON PRODUCTION OF CELLULASE BY ASPERGILLUS ORYZAE

S.A. El-Zayat and A.S. Deyab

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Aswan, South Valley University

48 Fungal isolates from soil were tested for their production of both exo-1,4 B-glucanase (C1) and endo-1,4 B-glucanase (Cx ).The most active producers of both C1and Cx were Aspergillus oryzae followed by Penicillium jensenii. The effect of the carbon and nitrogen sources, incubation time and temperatures on cellulase production by Aspergillus oryzae were evaluated. The optimal temperature for higher activity was 30c through five days. Beef extract and peptone were the most suitable carbon and nitrogen for cellulase production.

 

25/19 METHICILLIN RESISTANCE IN STAPHYLOCOCCI ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL SPECIMENS: MOLECULAR AND PHENOTYPIC DETECTION

Ola A. Kader, Abeer Ghazal, Ebtissam El Ghazzawi, Ahmed Hassan

Microbiology Department, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University.

In this study methicillin resistance among staphylococci isolated from clinical specimens was detected both phenotypically and genotypically using conventional laboratory methods and PCR. β-lactamase production was also done. A total of 64 staphylococci were isolated and susceptibility was determined by disc diffusion method including methicillin, oxacillin and cefoxitin discs, MIC testing for oxacillin, Oxacillin agar screening method and β- Lactamase production. Plasmid profile of the staphylococcal strains was done using QIAGEN® plasmid Mini kit. Conventional PCR was carried using different set of primers for the amplification of mecA, mecR1, mecI, and promoter for the detection of mecA and its accessory genes. Penicillin Binding Protein (PBP2a) Latex Agglutination Test was used to detect the presence of PBP2a responsible for methicillin resistance. Forty two (65.6%) out of the 64 tested staphylococci were coagulase positive and therefore were identified as S. aureus, (95.2%) of the 42 S. aureus fermented mannitol while none of the 22 CoNS fermented mannitol. 33(78.6%) out of the 42 S. aureus were DNase and nuc gene positive, nuc gene was detected in 12 (54.5%) of the 22 CoNS. Thirty three (78.6%) of the 42 S. aureus strains and, 14 (63.6%) of the 22 CoNS were β-lactamase producers. Nineteen out of the 42 (45.2%) S. aureus and, 15 (68.2%) out of the 22 CoNS were positive for mecA by real time PCR. All the 19 mecA positive S. aureus isolates were resistant to methicillin, oxacillin and cefoxitin disc , had an MIC more than 4 μg/ml and grew on oxacillin screen agar (6mg/l) (sensitivity 100%). On the other hand, all the 23 mecA negative were sensitive to cefoxitin disc (specificity 100%).Eleven out of the 15 mecA positive CoNS isolates were resistant to methicillin, oxacillin and cefoxitin by disc diffusion method and grew on oxacillin screen agar (6mg/l) (sensitivity 73.3%), however, only Cefoxitin had 100%specificity. 18 (94.7%) out of 19 MRSA and 11(73.3%) out of the 15 MRCoNS were PBP2a producers with a sensitivity of 94.7% and 73.3%.respectively. Different plasmid profiles (1-9 plasmids) with different sizes were found in the 19 MRSA isolates, while 7 of them had no plasmid.

 

26/19 PRODUCTION, PURIFICATION AND CHRACTERIZATION OF PROTEASES FROM WHEY BY CERTAIN FUNGI

Hamed M. El-Shora and *Metwally Abdel-Azeem Metwally

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

* Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

The results revealed that Different nitrogen complements induced different growth and enzyme productivity depending on the individual organism, nature of cosupplement and / or concentration. The two steps fermentations process increased the yield of fungal biomass and proteases. Proteases were isolated and purified from A. niger and A. terreus with specific activity of 179.0 and 294.7 Umg-1 protein, respectively. The purification fold values were 28.9 and 81.9 from the two organisms in the same order. The Vmax values were 56 and 166 Uml-1 for acid and alkaline proteases from A. niger. However, Vmax for alkaline protease from A. terreus was 29 Uml-1. The three proteases expressed the same value of Hill Coefficient.Abscisic acid (ABA) inhibited activities of the three proteases particularly those produced by A. terreus, a phenomenon that completely reversed with gibberellic acid (GA3), more permanently with acid protease from A. niger. The purified protease was hardly affected with chelating agents and SH- reagents whereas inhibition was dependent on the nature of agent concentration and/ or the source of enzyme. Proteases from the tested Aspergilli exhibited promising hydrolytic activities towards fibrinogen, fibrin and blood clot. Thermobolytic activity varied among organisms and/ or substrates.

Scroll to top