Vol. 25, January, 2010

viagra pour femme trop efficace 1/25 ANALYSIS OF REPORTED DATA CONCERNING THE INTRAFAMILIAL TRANSMITION OF HCV; FROM 1991 THROUGH 2008.

Maha S. Abdel-Megied and Ahmed B. Barakat*

Egyptian Company for Blood Transfusion Services (Egyblood / VACSERA), Agouza, Giza, Egypt. *Department of Microbiology-Virology, Faculty of Science- Ain Shams University, Abbasia, Cairo, Egypt.

Many studies have raised the issue of intrafamilial transmition of Hepatitis C virus (HCV); contradictory results have been obtained, depending on the study population, epidemiological setting and the diagnostic procedures used in each study. The role of intrafamilial clustering of HCV infection is still controversial. The objective of this review is to assess the intrafamilial contact as a risk mode of HCV transmition between patients infected with HCV and their household members (parents, household contacts and siblings). A Pubmed database search had been completed for the collection of the latest articles published in English in the period from 1991 until 2008 reporting HCV transmition, household, siblings and intrafamilial transmission of HCV in order to shed light on the prevalence of anti-HCV in the family settings and the risk factors favoring intrafamilial transmition of HCV. The average prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies was 9.2% compared to 2.5% in control groups. The highest prevalence of anti-HCV was reported in spouses (average of 13.8%) compared to in non sexual household contacts (average of 4.2%). The highest percentage of positivity for anti-HCV among the non sexual contacts was found in parents and cohabitants (mean of 11%). The prevalence of anti-HCV was the lowest in children (mean of 3.4%). In conclusion, reported studies identified sexual and other intrafamilial contact as an important mode for HCV transmission. The possibility of acquiring infection increases with the severity of liver disease in the index patients and the number of infected subjects in the family. Duration of contact and age of the index case appear to favor HCV transmission. Further studies should be conducted to verify the relationship between the presence of virus HCV-RNA in body fluids (other than blood) and an increase in risk of intrafamilial transmition of HCV.

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effet cialis périmé 2/25 ENHANCEMENT OF SEED YIELD, OIL AND PROTEIN CONTENTS OF THREE VARIETIES OF CANOLA PLANTS BY PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA (PGPR) AS B10 FERTILIZERS

Eman A.I. Mohamed, Dalia M.M. Mostfa*, Elham I. El-Khatib**

and Hatem H. Abotaleb**

Seed Technol., Research Dept. Field Crop Res. Inst. Agric. Res. Center, ARC.

* Oil and Fat Research Dept. Food Res. Inst., ARC.

** Agricultural Microbiology Dept. Soils, Water and Environ. Res. Inst., ARC.

The current investigation was conducted to asses seed yield and oil and protein contents in Canola plants using plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) as biofertilizers. A field experiment was carried out in the experimental farm of the Agric. Res. Center (ARC), Giza, at two winter successive seasons (2006-07 and 2007-08). Three Canola varieties namely Sero-4, Pactol and AD 2004 were used. Diazotrophs bacteria, Endophytic bacteria, symbiotic bacteria and a mixture of them were used as PGPR biofertilizers. Nitrogen was applied as starter dose (15 kg N fed-1) and 50 kg N fed-1 without PGPR, in two equal split doses, applied at 21 and 35 days after sowing. Results of 140 days old plant indicated that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) as biofertilizers did support all tested yield parameters, and scored higher percentage increase as compared to the application of 15 and /or 50 kg N fed-1, where the increases were 27, 73, 33, 14 and 15% for yield (g plant-1), seed index (g 1000-seed), crude protein and crude oil, respectively. Variety Sero-4 gave the height seed yield of 910 kg fed-1 but variety AD204 gave highest crude protein (28.07%) and crude oil (50.97 %). Application of Endophytic bacteria (Ts) gave the lowest euric acid value (0.19). Application of PGPR increased protein band up to 11 among all tested treatments, while the mixed treatment (T6) gave the highest number. Generally, by using PGPR, it can save ≥ 70% from mineral N-fertilizer to reduce agricultural cost, environmental pollution and gain safe and healthy food.

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tadalafil pas cher 3/25 EFFECT OF COLISTIN ON THE IN-VITRO POST-ANTIBIOTIC ACTIVITY AND BIOFILM FORMATION USING PANDRUG-RESISTANT CLINICAL GRAM-NEGATIVE ISOLATES

Moustafa A. El-Nakeeb, Hamida M. Abou-Shleib, Amal M. Khalil,

Nadia M. El-Guink and Yasmine FathyMohamed

Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Alexandria University, Egypt.

A total of twenty-one clinical pandrug-resistant (PDR) Gram-negative isolates comprising viagra generique livraison 24h Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and prix cialis québec Klebsiella pneumoniae were used in this study. The resistance pattern of these isolates was determined by the standard disc agar diffusion technique. The isolates show pandrug resistance being resistant to anti-pseudomonal penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, carbapenems, monobactams and quinolones but sensitive to colistin. Post-antibiotic effect (PAE) of colistin (1 MIC and 4 MIC) was studied as a pharmacodynamic parameter on 19 PDR isolates turbidimetrically by measuring the absorbance at 600 nm. Colistin was shown to have a significant PAE being more pronounced at 4 MIC than 1 MIC. However, there was apparent variability in the values of PAE among the tested isolates with a range of 0.15- >7 hr. The effect of colistin on biofilm formation was determined colorimetrically on 17 PDR isolates using colistin concentrations of ¼ MIC, MIC and 4 MIC and optical density of the stained biofilm was measured by ELISA plate reader at 630 nm. Mostly, colistin reduced variably the per cent of biofilm formation at higher concentrations revealing a tendency for its eradication. This effect was apparently strain dependent. However, in some cases, at the lower concentrations of colistin the formation of the biofilm was enhanced. In conclusion, this study supports the use of colistin for the treatment of patients with MDR and PDR infections due to its favorable post-antibiotic activity and its effect on biofilm eradication, two important pharmacodynamic properties.

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4/25 GRAM NEGATIVE BACILLARY MENINGITIS IN TOW EGYPTIAN FEVER HOSPITALS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

Osama Mohamed Hammad1, Mohamed Shees Ahmed2, Tamer Hifnawy3, Samy Zaky4, Amin Mohamed Abdel Baki5 and Nabil Iskander Girgis6

1Tropical Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Beni Suef University and Consultant of the Abbassia Fever Hospital; 2Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al Azhar University; 3Public Health Department, Faculty of Medicine, Benisuef University; 4Tropical Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al Azhar University, Damietta and Consultant of Imbaba Fever Hospital; 5National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine, Research Institutand 6Former NAMRU3, Cairo, Egypt

Gram negative bacillary meningitis (GNBM) is a rare disease with a high rate of mortality and morbidity. The aim of this project was to study the clinical presentation and outcome of GNBM and to evaluate the prevalence of the causative organisms and the efficacy of ceftriaxone (a third generation cephalosporin) in the treatment of this disease. Ninety five patients with GNBM were admitted to the abbassia and Imbaba fever hospitals, meningitis wards in Egypt during the period from 1993to2008. Forty nine patients had primary GNBM (no predisposing cause of meningitis was detected) and 46 patients had secondary GNBM (with a predisposing cause of meningitis).Their CSF samples were subjected to conventional bacteriological methods for isolation of the causative Gram negative bacilli at microbiology department, faculty of medicine, Al Azhar University. Primary GNBM was characterized by abrupt onset and significantly associated with typical signs of meningeal irritation. The most common infecting organisms were Salmonella typhi in 16 (33%) patients and Escherichia coli in 15 (31%) patients. Of the patients with primary GNBM, 26 (53%) were cured, 11 (23%) developed neurological sequalae and 12 (24%) died. Secondary GNBM was characterized by an insidious onset and significantly associated with unarousable coma. The most common infecting organisms were Proteus mirabilis in 17 (37%) patients and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 16 (35%) patients. The most common predisposing factor of meningitis was otitis media and occurred in 26 (57%) patients. Of the patients with secondary GNBM 15 (33%) were cured, 15 (33%) developed neurological sequalae and 16 (35%) died. The duration of symptoms prior to hospital admission ranged from 2-6 days (mean 3.5±1.1) in patients with primary GNBM and from 7-16 days (mean 9±3.2) in those with secondary GNBM. Ceftriaxone was the initial drug for treatment of these patients until the drug sensitivity tests were reported. The overall resistance rate to the drug was 4%.

 

 

5/25 MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MYCOTIC INFECTIONS
AMONG SOME EGYPTIAN PATIENTS

Mohammad S.E. Ashour, *Ibrahim M. Shaheen, **Salwa S.I. Afifi, **Amany A. El Sharif and **Wafaa S. Sediek

Microbiology & Immunology and *Dermatology & Venerilogy Departments,

Faculty of Pharmacy (Boys-**Girls) and *Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

         Fungal infection is an important cause of morbidity in Egypt. The objective of this research is to study the prevalence of fungal infections among some Egyptian patients. The goal is also to examine some factors that influence the acquisition of infection. In this study a total number of 690 samples (sputum, skin scrapes, blood, urine, wound, pus and stools) were collected from Al-Hussein hospital, Cairo, Egypt. All samples were subjected to isolation, identification on different media, biochemical tests for identification of yeast & mould and antifungal susceptibility testing using both disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Microbiological identification revealed that 78.7% of isolates were yeast and 21.3% were mould. The most frequently isolated Candida identified was C. albicans which represent 38.8%. Dermatophyte were the main identified etiological agents causing superficial fungal infections 12 out of 14 fungi isolated from skin (85.7%) followed by C. albicans (7%) and Scopulariopsis brumptis (7%). C albicans continues to be the most common species causing candidemia, candiduria and vaginal infection were (42.8%, 44.8% 44.4% respectively) and (57.1%) by non-albicans Candida. Ten percent C. albicans, 26% C. tropicalis and C. krusei isolates (50%) were resistant to fluconazole while C. lusitaniae and C. dubliniensis were sensitive to fluconazole. Resistance to itraconazole was found to be higher than fluconazole, which was 42% for C. albicans, and 51.6% for other species. Our data showed that amphotericin B was active against almost all isolates (95%) and the most potent drug among tested antifungal agents, followed by fluconazole. The results of this study demonstrate high incidences of fungal infection. Early detection and management of predisposing factors to these infections help in their prevention or at least their reduction. In addition, rapid diagnosis and treatment is an important step in reduction of these infections.

 

 

6/25 INCIDENCE OF SURGICAL SITE INFECTION IN CANCER PATIENTS AT ALFATH HOSPITAL

Essam Abou-El-yazed and Medhat Khafagy*

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine,

Al- Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

*National Cancer Insistitut Faculty of Medicine Cairo University. Egypt.

This study was conducted on 100 patients presented by different types of intra-abdominal cancers undergoing elective surgery during the periods from January 2006-to January 2008 admitted to Alfath Hospital of Alsharyah Society, there age ranged from35-78years mean age (53.2±5.1), 60 Patients are males, diabetes were found in 10 patients and obesity were found in 15 patients, any patients developed surgical site infection( SSI) swabs were taken on transport media and inoculated and incubated on nutrient agar, blood agar, Mac Conkey’s agar, and Sabouraud’s agar culture media under aerobic conditions. Swabs were also inoculated on blood agar plates under anaerobic conditions using anaerobic gas pack jar containing H2O2 and CO2. After incubation for 24-48 hours at 370 C, any detected growths were examined by colonial morphology and the effect of organisms on different culture media, Gram stained film, coagulase and catalase tests, carbohydrate fermentation of different sugars and culture and sensitivity tests were performed.15patients out of 100 patients developed SSI.

 

7/25 DETECTION OF TEM AND CTX BETA-LACTAMASE GENES FROM CEPHALOSPORIN RESISTANCE PROTEUS MIRABILIS

Magda A. El Meleigy, F. H. Ahmed*, Hayam M. Hamouda* and

Ekbal H. Abdelhafez*

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University.

*Microbiology Department, National Organization For Drug Control And Research (NODCAR).

102 clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis were obtained from Ain Shams Hospital in Cairo, Egypt. Identity of isolates by standard clinical laboratory methods were carried out in NODCAR and confirmed by API 20 test. All strains were screened for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents with the disk diffusion method. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing to 15 different antimicrobials was evaluated by agar diffusion method. The MIC of isolates Pr. mirabilis were established and capacity of resistant isolates to produce Extended Spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs) was performed by double-disk test.PCR reaction using TEM and CTX primers revealed that two isolates out of seven has TEM beta lactamase gene (29%) and three of them have CTX gene (43%). Comparison of these genotype and susceptibility phenotypes of these strains showed 33% agreement between the presence of TEM and resistance to ceftazidime and cefotaxime. Two strains carrying TEM gene, one strain had an MIC > 256 µg/ml to cefotaxime (CTX), and had an MIC 64 µg/ml ceftazidime (CAZ)). The other resistant showed decreased in MIC 128 µg/ml to cefotaxime (CTX), and had an MIC > 256 µg/ml ceftazidime (CAZ)). Plasmid DNA showed that six out of seven had plasmid with percentage 85 % of total isolates and the size of the plasmids ranged from 29 to 31 kbp. The results of this study indicate that ESBLs TEM are widely spread among Proteus mirabilis isolates and their presence was confirmed genetically and phenotypically. However, further studies are required to determine the prevalence of these ESBLs and their effect in treatment outcomes on the Egyptian hospitals.

 

 

8/25 A SET OF MULTIPLE PHENOTYPIC TESTS FOR THE DETECTION OF METALLO-BETA-LACTAMASES IN MULTI- RESISTANT GRAM-NEGATIVE CLINICAL ISOLATES

Nelly M. Mohamed and Moustafa A. El-Nakeeb

Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Alexandria University, Egypt

The wide use of carbapenems for empirical therapy has resulted in emergence of an additional type of resistance; the metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). MBL-producing Gram-negative organisms have an ability to rapidly disseminate within medical institutions and to lead to poor therapeutic outcomes, necessitating their early detection. The dependence on a single phenotypic detection method for this purpose is not reliable. An alternative approach reported in this study is to usea set of multiple phenotypic assays. As a first step, MICs of imipenem (IPM), meropenem (MEM) and ertapenem (ERT) were determined against 24 multi-resistant clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. Based on the MIC result, the carbapenem-resistant isolates were selected and further tested for MBL production by 3 tests: the combined disc synergy test (CDT), the double disc synergy test (DDST) and the modified three-dimensional test using the cell extracts (3DT). The CDT and the 3DT, displaying a better performance than the DDST, identified eleven isolates as MBL-producers. Then, as a confirmatory test, the affinity of the crude enzyme extracts towards 1mM substrate of IPM, MEM and ERT were determined spectrophotometrically. Finally, the synergistic effect of 0.5M EDTA on the bactericidal activity of IPM, MEM and ERT was determined by the viable count technique and taken as a concluding guiding parameter to confirm MBL production. This combined phenotypic assay provides an applicable approachfor the detection of MBL-producing isolates to be implemented in clinical settings.

9/25 CHOLERA TOXIN DIFFERENTIALLY BINDS TO MURINE LYMPHOCYTES

Sayed F. Abdelwahab, Mahmoud S. Mahmoud and George K. Lewis*

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Minia 61511, Egypt.

*Division of Vaccine Research, Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA.

Cholera toxin (CT) is an AB5 toxin that consists of a single A subunit (CTA) and a homopentameric B subunit (CTB). It is produced by Vibrio cholerae as the major virulence factor responsible for the massive secretory diarrhea seen in Asiatic cholera. It is also a powerful immunomodulator with a strong adjuvant activity. Although most of the adjuvant effect of CT has been recently attributed to the enzymatic actions of CTA1 on dendritic cells (DC), little is known about the extent of CT binding to different lymphocytes and the consequences of this binding. CT is known to bind exclusively; through CTB; to GM1 gangliosides that are very frequent on murine and human cells. It was hypothesized that CT differentially binds to different cells of immunological importance. Anti-CTB antibodies were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) for flow cytometric analysis of the binding of CT to Balb-C mouse splenocytes. Splenocytes were incubated with/without CT at different concentrations for 2 hours and binding was detected by FITC anti-CTB. Differential binding of CT to murine lymphocytes could be detected in a specific manner as no staining was detected in the absence of CT or the presence enteropathogenic Escherichia coli heat labile toxin (LT). In this regard, the binding at 10mg/ml of CT increased in the following order: B cells < T cells < natural killer < macrophages with mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of 305±7, 527±102, 646±118 and 908±177, respectively. Binding was heterogeneous even within the same population. For example, in the T cell subset, CD4 T cells binds less CT compared to CD8 T cells with a MFI of 343±19 versus 677±75 at 10mg/ml, respectively. Although labeling of CT itself with FITC enhanced its binding to different lymphocytes, it had a dramatic impact on the differential binding ability of CT. In conclusion, CT differentially binds to different murine lymphocytes and this could provide new insights to further our understanding of the adjuvant effect of CT.

 

 

10/25 MICROBIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC PROPERTIES OF SYMBIOTIC TARHANA (TURKISH FOOD)

Abd El-Rahman M. Khalaf-Allah, Nagwa M. El-Shimi, Gamal N. Gabrial* and Rasha S. Mohamed*

Food Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

*Food Sciences and Nutrition Department, National Research Centre,

Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

In the present study formulated symbiotic tarhana (Turkish fermented cereal food) was produced as a functional food from the fermentation of wheat flour, some spices [salt, pepper, dill and sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana)], some vegetables [Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum), Pepper (Capsicum annum) and Onion (Allium cepa)], and symbiotic yoghurt which prepared with prebiotic (inulin and lactulose each 3%) and different concentrations of the probiotic culture (0.5, 1.5, 3, 4.5%DVS-ABT2 containing Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum). After fermentation (3days), tarhana dough was dried in the sun. The effect of the fermentation (0, 1, 2 and 3 days) and the probiotic culture concentration on the chemical composition and the probiotic population of wet tarhana were evaluated. The effect of probiotic culture concentration on the chemical composition, the probiotic population and sensory attribute of dried tarhana were evaluated. Also the effect of dried tarhana (prepared from yoghurt which fermented by 4.5% probiotic culture) on the plasma lipid profile of human subjects was studied. The results showed that the pH value decreased while the acidity, acetaldehyde and diacetyl values increased during the fermentation period and by increasing the probiotic culture concentration of the wet and the dried tarhana. Neither the fermentation nor the concentration of the probiotic culture of wet and dried tarhana affected the crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, and ash values. The numbers of probiotic bacteria increased until the second day of fermentation. However, in the following day, with an increase of the acid content their numbers decreased. Generally the increasing of the probiotic culture concentration increased the numbers of probiotic bacteria of wet and dried tarhana. Also the concentration of the probiotic culture didn’t affect the sensory attributes of dried tarhana. Volunteers supplemented with dried tarhana showed significant reduction in total plasma cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL-Ch) and triglycerides, while high density lipoprotein (HDL-Ch) increased.

 

11/25 ENVIRONEMENT AND HEALTH CARE WORKERS AS POTENTIAL SOURCES FOR NOSOCOMIAL PATHOGENS OF AN INTENSIVE CARE UNIT IN AN EGYPTIAN HOSPITAL AFFILIATED TO AL-AZHUR UNIVERSITY.

  1. A)MULTIDISCIPLINARY INTENSIVE CARE UNITS IN SAYED GALAL UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL.

Mahmoud M.T. Abd Raboh, Tarek R. Mohamed and Al-Said A-H.M. Helal

Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhur University, Cairo, Egypt

Nosocomial infection is a major infectious disease problem in most hospitals, leading to adverse effects on national economics and high mortality rates between patients. Taking into consideration that health care workers (HCWs) and environment are potential sources for nosocomial pathogens, this study was devoted to investigate these sources in multidisciplinary intensive care unit (MICU) in Sayed Galal University Hospital. One hundred and five isolates were identified and tested for antimicrobial sensitivity. Ninety five isolates (90.48%) were Gram positive, whereas ten isolates (9.53%) were Gram negative. In a descending order the frequencies of Gram +ve were coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) 53.3%> Bacillus spp 31.43%> S.aureus 5.71%. Bacillus spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) were the most frequent isolates of the environment referring to their environmental origin, whereas E.coli and Klebsiella spp., were most frequently detected in the bed area, referring to patients as a probable source. S.aureus was detected only on hands of health care workers (HCWs) and at bed area. Finally, CNS distribution pattern was of complex nature with significant difference between antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of CNS isolates of HCWs and those of environment. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of CNS, Bacillus, and Gram –ve isolates were of hospital origin, whereas S.aureus isolates were of community origin. Statistical analyses showed distinctive microbial fingerprinting at different MICU locations. The implications of these results are discussed in the text.

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