Vol. 26, May, 2010

viagra homme sain 1/26 MICROBIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL STUDIES ON SOME MEAT PRODUCTS SOLD IN EGYPT

Mohamed I. Ali*; Magda A. El-Meleigy; Rawhia A. Arafa; Atef H. El-Sayed**; Nabih A. Ebrahim*** and Ebtehal E. El-Kholany***

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science (For Girls), Al-Azhar University; *Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University; **National Nutrition Institute (NNI) and ***Technology Institute Agr. Center, Giza, Egypt.

This study was conducted to evaluate the microbiological profile and chemical composition of some meat products sandwiches. Sixty samples of sandwich of liver hamburger, sausage and kofta were collected from different areas in Cairo and Giza. These were investigated for presence of coliform, commande viagra internet E. coli, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus spp., Bacillus spp. In addition to aerobic bacterial count. It was obvious that all samples "liver, kofta, sausage and hamburger" were positive for aerobic bacteria, the percentages of contamination were, liver, 66.67 %, hamburger 60%, sausage , 46.67% and kofta, 53.33% .Giza region was the highest contaminate region. Coliform "MPN" in kofta sandwiches were higher (53.33%). then liver (13.33%) and hamburger (20%), while sausage was (33.33%). cialis dose minima efficace Staphylococcus spp. were 13.33%, 13.33%, 25.67% and 33.33% of liver, hamburger, sausage and kofta sandwiches respectively. All of sausage samples were free from combien coute un cachet de viagra E. coli, while 6.7% of liver and hamburger samples were positive for cialis part d E. coli. In case of kofta samples 26.7% were positive for les femme peuvent prendre du viagra E. coli. Bacillus cialis nimes spp. was 26.7%, 20%, 20%, and 13.33 % in liver, hamburger, sausage and kofta respectively. All of liver samples were free from contre indications au viagra Salmonella spp., while it was detected in hamburger and sausage (6.7% for each) in case of kofta samples, commander du cialis generique Salmonella spp. was detected in 20% .Chemical studies of all samples included the determination of   protein, carbohydrate, lipids and ash content. Also moisture content was measured.

sites fiables pour cialis 2/26 AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF RIFT VALLEY FEVER IN PATIENTS ADMITTED TO FEVER AND EYE HOSPITALS IN THREE EGYPTIAN PROVINCES DURING THE ENZOOTIC/ENDEMIC PERIOD FROM 2002-2003. A)DIAGNOSIS OF RIFT VALLEY FEVER IN MAN AND THE PROBABLE FACTORS AFFECTING THE DISPARITIES OF CLINICAL SIGNS, SYNDROMES AND FATALITY RATES

Tarek R. Mohamed, H.M.S.E. Ashour*, H.A. M. Samaha, T.A. Sallam**, E.A. Koshak**, H.A.M. Samah***

Microbiology and Immunology Departments, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo University*, Egypt and Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia**, Professor of Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Animal Health and Zoonoses Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt***

A total of 300 blood samples were collected from inpatients admitted to fever and eye hospitals located in Alexandria, El-Beheira, and Kafr-El-Sheikh provinces from year 2002-2003. Using ELISA IgM capture method, the overall seroincidence was 4%, whereas the overall seroprevalence was 9.67% using both ELISA IgM capture and IgG sandwich ELISA methods, respectively. When seroincidence and seroprevalence rates were stratified according to specific clinical symptoms, it was found that both seroprevalence and seroincidence rates could be arranged in the following descending order: hemorrhagic fever > persistent fever ≈ febrile illness > encephalitis > retinitis. Statistical significant differences were observed between both seroprevalence rates and seroincidence rates of retinitis and each of febrile illness, hemorrhagic fever and persistent fever as clinical signs (p<0.05). When both seroprevalence and seroincidence rates of patients showed febrile illness, persistent fever, hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, and retinitis were compared by goodness of fit test, significant difference was detected between clinical signs seroprevalence rates (p<0.005). Finally, significant differences were found between seroincidence and seroprevalence rates of patients having specific clinical sign, as hemorrhagic fever, persistent fever, febrile illness, encephalitis and retinitis, confirmed serologically versus total number patients confirmed serologically using goodness of fit test (x2 p<0.05 for incidence rates, and x2 p<0.005 for prevalence rates). Significant differences were detected between febrile illness and persistent fever (signs of uncomplicated disease) vs. hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis and retinitis (probable signs for post viremia syndromes) (p<0.001). The probable causes for RVF disease disparities in clinical signs, complications, and fatality rates are discussed. By the end of this survey, in August (2003), WHO received report of 45 cases of RVF including 17 deaths, with fatality rate of 37.8%, in Seedy Saliem district, 150 km north of Cairo in Kafr El Sheikh governorate, Egypt. All cases were confirmed by lab testing at NAMRU, Cairo (WHO, 2003). The unprecedented increase in fatality rate is discussed in context with the above results.

 

3/26 PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF NILE AND GROUND WATER FROM DIFFERENT WATER TREATMENT PLANTS.

Mona M. Abd El Mageid, Ahmed M. Ihab and Mohamed A. Ibraheem

Department of Food Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Study of the Nile River and ground water quality in Egypt is quite essential for the population health. Thus, the measurements of water quality parameter that included physical, chemical and microbiological analyses (TDS, EC., Turbidity, pH., Alkalinity, Total hardness, Chlorides, NO3, NO2, NH3, DO, COD, BOD, THMs, HPC, TC, FC, FS and Staphylococcus aurous) were carried out for the River Nile and ground water samples obtained from different localities in Egypt. The value of each parameter was determined by applying the standard methods. The analyses indicated the variation of the quality of water. The ground water was characterized by its high concentration of TDS, EC, pH, Alkalinity, Total hardness, Chlorides, Nitrate, COD, BOD. The distribution network water had a high value of THMs , but it was still within permissible levels set by ES . It was also found that, the Nile water is highly contaminated with HPC, TC, FC, FS and Staphylococcus aurous compared with ground water. The result of fecal indicators count revealed that their count increased in the distribution net work. The levels of the physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics investigated of the Nile River and ground water in the water treatment plants and distribution network were generally below the ES and WHO guidelines for drinking water. Thus the study proved that both Nile and ground water were not suitable for drinking purposes and required further purification to ensure theire suitability for human consumption.

4/26 AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF RIFT VALLEY FEVER IN PATIENTS ADMITTED TO FEVER AND EYE HOSPITALS IN THREE EGYPTIAN PROVINCES DURING THE ENZOOTIC/ENDEMIC PERIOD FROM 2002-2003.

B) EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FACTORS CONTROLLING DISSEMINATION OF RIFT VALLEY FEVER.

T. R. Mohammad, H.M.S.E. Ashour*, H.A. M. Samaha, T.A. Sallam**, E.A. Koshak**, H.A.M. Samah***

Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Egypt, Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Egypt*, Microbiology and Immunology Department Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia**, Professor of Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Animal Health and Zoonoses Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt***

A total of 300 blood samples were collected from inpatients admitted to fever and eye hospitals located in Alexandria, El-Beheira, and Kafr-El-Sheikh provinces from year 2002-2003, using ELISA IgM capture, and IgG sandwich ELISA methods. When seroincidence and seroprevalence rates were stratified according to age, gender, sampling area, season, as well as occupations of infected persons , it was found that: 1) no significant differences was found between seroincidence and seroprevalence rates with respect to age and gender; 2) significant difference was reported between prevalence rates in urban and rural areas; 3) significant difference was only found between seroprevalence rates of patients with different occupation using goodness of fit test (x2 p<0.005), 4) significant differences were detected between seroprevalence and seroincidence rates of abattoir workers vs. farmer and housewives (p<0.05) referring to a complex modes of viral transmission including aerosol and direct contact routes of infection with a probable role for domestic animals as biomagnifiers reservoirs for Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFv); 5) significant differences were found between seroincidence and seroprevalence rates of patients infected at different seasons using goodness of fit test (x2 p<0.005), where incidence rate of infection during autumn is significantly higher than spring season (p<0.05). In addition, the prevalence rate at autumn season was significantly higher than those at spring and winter (p<0.05). Finally the prevalence rate at summer season was significantly higher than prevalence rate during spring season (p<0.05). These results allude to vector role in virus transmission during endemic period. This is the first Egyptian investigation of epidemiological factors controlling RVFv endemic transmission in urban and rural areas in Alexandria, El-Beheira, and Kafr-El-Sheikh governorates, which were reported free from any RVF cases during 1977, 1978, 1993 epidemics.By the end of this survey, in August (2003), WHO reported an epidemic in Seedy Saliem district in Kafr El Sheikh governorate with fatality rate of 37.8%. The implication of this investigation on pragmatic planning for controlling future endemics or epidemics is discussed in the text.

 


5/26 ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTIVIRAL AND ANTITUMOR ACTIVITIES OF THYME AND CINNAMON ESSENTIAL OILS

Ebtsam Naiem Hosseny

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of   Science (Girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

In the present study, the essential oils of thyme and cinnamon have been evaluated for theirantibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and antitumor properties. GC/MS analysis of thyme oil resulted in the identification of seventeen phytochemical compounds as constituents, thymol was the major compound (42.691%), while in the case of cinnamon oil GC/MS analysis resulted in the identification of fifteen phytochemical compounds as constituents; of these cinnamaldehydewas the major compound (72.87%). The essential oil of thyme and cinnamon oil exhibited strong antimicrobial activity with a significant inhibitory effect against all testedmicroorganisms but their effectiveness varied. Thyme oil and cinnamon oil have antitumor activity against Human hepatoma cells (HEP2), Colon adeno carcinoma cells (HCT) and Human cervical carcinoma cells (HELA) with most of IC50 values being below10 μl /ml. Concerning antiviral activity, only cinnamon oil inhibited the reproduction of Hepatitis A virus (HAV-H10) in vero cells (African’s monkey kidney cells).

 

6/26 EFFECT OF OZONE ON ULTRASTRUCTURE AND AMINO ACID PROFILE OF SOME YEASTS

Hussen H. El-Sheikh, Mohamed H. Mourad* and Ahmed M. Baiomy*

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University.

*The Regional Center for Mycology and Biotechnology, Al-Azhar University.

To investigate the impact of ozone on some yeasts, four yeasts namely, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Rhodotorula glutinis and Candida lactis-condensi were exposed to sublethal dose of ozone. Ozone caused the death to all tested yeasts after only after few minutes. Elevated levels of aspartic acid and tyrosine were altered after ozone exposure. Contrarily, taurine, hydroxyproline, glycine and methionine concentrations were decreased than those of control in all exposed yeast cells. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used foroffering morphological variations of the studied yeasts exposed to sublethal dose of ozone (12.5 g/m3). The SEM micrographs of ozone treated cells showed various deformations in cell shape and ornamentations compared with the untreated cells. Further study by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the cell wall was the most affected organelle, the other yeast ultrastructure that have been mostly affected by exposure were cell membrane and mitochondria, the appearance of periplasmic space were also observed in the exposed cells.

 

 


7/26 BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE BY SOME MICROORGANISMS ON TOMATO PLANTS

Ebtsam, M. Morsy; Neveen M. Galal* and Hager I. Tolba

Soils, Water and Environment Res. Inst., Agricultural Research Center (ARC)

*Plant Pathol. Res. Inst., Agricultural Research Center (ARC)

A pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions (Nematodes Res. Dept., Plant Pathology Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt) to evaluate potentialities of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Azotobacter chroococcum, Candida sp. and AM fungi individually or in combination for controlling root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne javanica infected tomato seedlings. The obtained results showed that combined mixture of the tested microorganisms resulted in a pronounced reduction of galls, egg mass and larvae numbers comparing with control treatment. The combined mixture of the tested microorganisms stimulated shoot dry weight, nitrogenase, dehydrogenase and chitinase activities. It was also recorded the highest mycorrhizal infection percentage. Total microbial and yeast counts, as well as macroelements content (NPK %) were determined. These results support the effective role of microorganisms for controlling nematodes blight that infect many vegetable crops.

 

8/26 MICROBIAL RISK ASSESSMENT AND REUSE OF TREATED WASTE WATER STRATEGY

Avrelija Cencic1,2, Mohamed M.Elkholy3, Jose M. Z. Vivas1 and Mateja Mursec1,

1 University of Maribor, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Pivolska 10, 2311 HOče,, Slovenia

2 University of Maribor, Medical Faculty, Slomškov trg 15, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia

3 Soils, Water and Environ. Res. Institute, Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

Non-conventional sources are existing to meet part of water requirements. Agriculture sector is the largest user all over the world with its share exceeding 80% of the total demand for water. The sustainable agriculture strongly depends on its ability to conserve and manage its water resources. The physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of Central purification plant Maribor (A) and Domzale(B) were investigated during two periods every period lasted three months. Data revealed uniformity in the range of pH values (ranged from 6.7 to 7.7) which were within the acceptable ranges for using such water for irrigation. The BOD values for plant (A) were ranged from 10 to 18 mgl-1while those of plant (B) were ranged from 9 to 14 mgl-1. COD values showed a range from 31 to 36and from 46 to 59 mg l-1 for both plants, respectively. Pathogenic indicators bacteria of the obtained effluents (WWTPS) included Total coliforms, Campylobacter, Streptococcus, and Salmonella as well as HEV and Rota virus. The obtained results of pathogenic indicators bacteria were complying with WHO guidelines for restricted irrigation but not with those for unrestricted irrigation of suitability. As for, observations revealed that almost all the investigated samples (waster &sludge) contained one or more highly infections enteroviruses as CPE occurred very quickly (within 24 to 48 h) after infection of cell monolayers.Sludge of the sedimentation tank from both (WWTPS) showed large numbers of such investigated parameters, indicating intensive treatment of sludge is required to meet (U.S. EPA) regulations for land application.

9/26 THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF BACTERIA GROWN AT DIFFERENT GROWTH RATES TO SOME ANTIBIOTICS AND BEE HONEY: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

N. Sufya

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Al-Fatah University, Tripoli, Libya

Most of the insusceptibility or tolerance mechanisms in bacteria to a variety of antimicrobials have been currently reported. One of a few studied mechanisms is when bacteria are in slow growing state. In present study, the susceptibility of Escherichia coli K12 (C600) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 strains, grown at different growth rates, to some antibiotics was investigated and was also compared to their susceptibility to different concentrations(5% -30%) of bee honey. The selected antibiotics were ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, tetracycline, polymexin and vancomycin.The different growth phases of the tested strains were determined by generating the growth curves. The time spans offast and slow growth rates were defined. The growing strains in each of these states were used as the test populations. Disk diffusion method was used to evaluate antibiotics activities whilst plate count method was used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of honey. Deployed antibiotics showed activity against fast growing bacteria (mid- log) whilst no activity on the tested strains grown at relatively slowest growth rates (in late – log phases and stationary phases). On the other hand, the effects of the selected antibiotics on tested bacteria in early growth phase were variable and depended on the type of the antibiotic used. Interestingly, honey at different concentrations (5% -30%), displayed similar inhibitory effects on the tested bacteria   grown both in late log phase - at slowest growth rate (expressed as dilution rate of 0.1hr-1 in the chemostat) and grown in mid-log phase - at fast growth rate (expressed as dilution rate of 0.5hr-1 in the chemostat). Consequently, honey proved to defeat bacteria at different growth rates and could resolve some recalcitrant bacterial infections because honey was significantly able to eradicate the slow growing bacterial populations as well fast growing ones. The antimicrobials are generally effective in killing rapidly-growing cells. The slow growing populations displayed a growth rate less than the threshold needed for deployed antibiotic.

 

10/26 EVALUATION OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF OREGANO (ORIGANUM VULGARE) AGAINST GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA

N. Sufya,

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Al-Fatah University, Tripoli, Libya.

It has been widely accepted that plant extracts are used in the treatment of various underlying causes of diseases. These are to include several bacteria and some of fungi, if not extended to include viruses. In this study, the dried leaves of Origanium vulgare was ground and extracted by methanol then evaporated using the rotary evaporator .The total dried extract as well its aqueous and oily fractions were evaluated for its antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 HSL-wild type and E. coli K12 (C600) strains by the cub-cut agar and by the remaining survival number of bacteria after contact with different concentrations (1%, 5%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, v/v) methods. The zone of inhibition was determined for each extract. All antimicrobial activity of the tested extract and its fractions were compared with the efficacy of 5% phenol. Oregano had greater antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa than against E. coli. Moreover, the activity was found to be concentration dependant. The data obtained from the remaining survival number of bacteria after contact with different concentrations study showed that all population was eradicated when used this extract after 4hrs exposure whilst the reference phenol 5% displayed about 100% kill upon onset of exposure. Thin layer chromatography method has displayed to detect the major extract ingredients, thymol and carvacol. This was highly concentrated in the oily fraction. Therefore, Organium vulgare   showed the ability to inactivate the tested E. coli and P. aeruginosa strains. The antimicrobial activity would be attributed to thymol and other components including carvacol. These components have been proposed to have the ability to damage bacterial cell membrane and thus cell lysis. The highly killing effect conform the use of oregano to treat many topical and systemic infections.

11/26 EFFECT OF SOME FERMENTATION PARAMETERS ON ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM BEET MOLASSES BY SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE CAIM 13

Awatif A. Al-Judibi

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Abd-El Aziz University, KSA

This investigation was designed to evaluate the role of some fermentation parameters in affecting ethanol productivity from beet molasses (BM) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae CAIM 13. Increase in cell concentration (inoculum's size) of the yeast above 3.6 x 105 cells/100 ml decreased the ethanol yield. The yeast could tolerate ethanol concentration up to 10% but failed to grow at concentrations of 12 and 15%. Employment of a bench-scale tank fermenter enhanced the fermentation efficiency; 77% of BM sugars were assimilated after 48 h giving a concentration of 5.4% ethanol. Utilization of a cell-recycling technique showed that the test organism was capable of performing 4 fermentation cycles. The mud-free, H2SO4-treated beet molasses (TBM) was superior to sucrose in the repeated batch fermentation technique. A continuous-flow fermentation technique employing immobilized yeast cells yielded maximum ethanol productivity after 6 days.

 


12/26 BACTERIAL FLORA IN VAGINA AND ITS IMPACT ON LIVE BIRTH RATE DURING INTRACYTOPLASMIC SPERM INJECTION (ICSI)

Samy A. Selim, Sahar M. EL-Alfy, Mohamed H. Abdel Aziz, Hussen Moustafa* and Amin Abdo

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

*IVF unit, Ismailia General Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt

The aim of this study was investigate the impact of bacterial vaginal flora on life birth rate during intracytoplasimc sperm injection (ICSI) and influence of amrizole-N (metronidazol 500mg and Nystatin 100,000Un suppository) as antibiotic treatment course before ICSI. We enrolled 72 women who were undergoing ICSI in Ismailia General Hospital, Egypt. Our base line studies of vaginal bacterial flora include total viable bacterial counts, Lactobacillus spp, Streptococcus spp, fecal coliform, Staphylococcus spp, E. coli, Pseudomonas spp and Enterococcus spp. In this study the pregnancy was recorded in 26 (36.1 %) cases from enrolled 72 cases The counts of different bacterial groups were very low in uterus after taken amrizole-N and its effective rate 40%. Comparing the positive and negative culture groups for each isolated microorganism in terms of clinical pregnancy rates, we found that pregnancy rates in patients testing for bacterial vaginosis (19 versus 73%) and intermediate flora (20 versus 61%) were significantly higher than those of the negative culture group. The predominant species isolated from the tip of the embryo transfer catheter in negative pregnancy was Staphylococcus epidermidis (7 versus 15.2%), and Streptococcus viridians (11 versus 24%). This study support that the presence of some pathogenic microorganisms detected during ICSI have a negative effect on pregnancy rate.

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