Vol. 27, September, 2010

1/27 TREATMENT OF BEET MOLASSES FOR CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION BY A POTENT STRAIN OF

ASPEREGILLUS NIGER NRRL599

Ameena Abraheem Moran Al-Surhani

Faculty of Girls Education, Al Jouf University, Al Jouf - KSA

This work was designed to investigate the necessary treatments of crude beet molasses (CBM) to improve its suitability as a substrate for citric acid (CA) production by a potent strain of Aspergillus niger van Tieghem. The results obtained showed that supplementing CBM with 0.05% N as (NH4)2SO4 improved CA yield and conversion coefficient. The amount of inorganic-P contained in CBM (0.072%) was found to be sufficient to support fermentation. Removal of suspended matter (mud) by centrifugation increased CA yield, but treatment of the mud-free molasses with ion exchange resins decreased the yield and conversion coefficient. Addition of low molecular weight alcohols to treated beet molasses (TBM) did not improve the yield of CA. Addition of potassium Ferrocyanide (0.04%) to the medium immediately after autoclaving gave a better yield of CA than when it was added before autoclaving.

 

2/27 EFFECT OF SOME SPICES AND TYPE OF FRYING OIL ON QUALITY ATTRIBUTES OF SEMI-FRIED CHICKEN FINGERS PROCESSED FROM SPENT LAYING HEN MEAT

Rasha, A. Taha, Atef.S. Osheba, Ahmed. T. Akel* and Mohamed.M. El-Nikeety*

Meat and Fish Tech. Res. Dep.,Food Tech. Res. Institute, Agricultural Research

Center, Giza.

*Food Science and Technology Dep., Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University,

This study was carried out to evaluate chemical, microbiological and sensory properties of semi-fried chicken fingers which manufactured from spent laying hen meat, besides, selection of the best spices mixture which can be used in processing. Preliminary experiments results cleared the best spices mixture which can be used in preparation of chicken fingers (25% thyme + 25% sage + 50% white pepper). Therefore, chicken fingers were prepared by using this mixture and then semi-fried by using two different types of frying oil (palm olein oil and sunflower seed oil), beside preparation of control sample containing just white papper for comparison. Results indicated no significant differences (p>0.05) in chemical composition, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), peroxide value (PV) and total volatile nitrogen (TVN) between control sample and that containing spices mixture immediately after processing without semi-frying process. Moreover, semi-frying process with both type of oil led to increment of TBA and PV meanwhile; TVN had slight decrement.The chicken fingers which semi-fried with palm olein oil had significantly lower in above-mentioned parameters when compared with that semi-fried with sunflower seed oil during frozen storage. Microbiological results indicated that, chicken fingers which prepared with spices mixture were lower in total bacterial count, coliform group and psychrophilic bacteria when compared with control sample. Also, semi-frying with both frying oils led to total bacterial count decrement and complete elimination of coliform and psychrophilic bacteria. Sensory properties stated that, chicken fingers which prepared with spices mixture and fried with palm olein oil were the highest overall acceptability scores meanwhile, control sample which fried with sunflower seed oil had the lowest overall acceptability.

3/27 IMRPOVING POTENT UV MUTANTS OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER NRRL20 FOR CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION FROM BEET MOLASSES

Ameena Abraheem Moran Al-Surhani

Faculty of Girls Education, Al Jouf University, Al Jouf - KSA

This investigation aimed at raising high citric acid (CA)-producing mutants of Aspergillus niger 20 by using different doses of UV-irradiation. The results showed that the UV treatment resulted in the development of 31 isolates, some of which differed in their morphology and sporulation ability. Irradiation for 12 in did not improve CA yield by the developed mutants. Nine mutants gave significantly higher yields of CA than the parent culture when exposed to UV treatment for 18 min (6 mutants) and 24 min (3 mutants). The highest yield of CA obtained after exposure for 18 min (16.08% higher than the parent culture) was that produced by isolate 5-UV-18. Irradiation for 24 min appeared to be the best treatment for inducting mutation with isolate 19-UV-24 which produced a 32.13% higher CA yield than the parent control. When these nine active mutants were tested for their CA productivity in the presence of potassium Ferro cyanide, only the isolates 5-UV-18 and 21-UV-24 each yielded 3% more CA than the original culture on a sugar basis.

 

4/27 OPTIMIZATION OF LIPASE PRODUCTION BY NEWLY ISOLATED STRAIN OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA

Mohamed S. Ashour1, 4, Abd El-Gwaad M. Hashim2, Ola A. Abd El-Rahman3, 4, Yaser E. Ragab2 and Heba Ezzat4

1 Microbiology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (Boys), Azhar University.

2 Microbiology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University.

3Microbiology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (Girls), Azhar University.

4Microbiology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, October University for Modern Sciences and Arts (MSA) University, Egypt.

Bacterial isolates were obtained from soil samples and water samples which were collected from different localities in Egypt. The isolated bacteria were qualitatively screened for lipase production in tween-80 agar plates. The lipase producer isolates were quantitatively examined for their ability for lipase producion. Pseudomonas aeruginosa WA1 was the most active one. The strain was identified by morphological characters and by using Microscan Auto Identification System. Production of extracellular lipase was optimized by studying the effects of some nutritional (as carbon and nitrogen sources) and environmental factors (as pHs, temperatures and agitation). During cultivation in the most suitable medium for lipase production, Pseudomonas aeruginosa WA1 secreted most of its lipase content after 48 hrs of incubation period. Glucose and sunflower oil with concentration 0.03% w/v and 2% v/v, respectively, were the most effective carbon sources for lipase production. When different nitrogen sources were supplemented in the selected culture medium, combination of sodium nitrate and tryptone 0.5 and 1% w/v, respectively, were found to be the best. Optimum temperature, pH and agitation for lipase production were 300C, 7 and 150 rpm, respectively.

 


5/27 COMPATIBILITY OF LOCAL B. JAPONICUM ISOLATES WITH SOYBEANVARIETIES GROWN IN EGYPT AS COMPARED TO REFERENCE STRAINS OF RHIZOBIA

Saleh A. Saleh, Diaa M.Swelim*; Elham I.El-Khatib*; Farid Sh.F.Badawi*;

Abdel-Naser H.Desoky* and Sameh H.Youseif

National Gene Bank, Agric. Res. Center (ARC), Giza, Egypt.

*Agric . Microbiol.Dept., Soils, Water and Environ.Res.Inst., ARC, Giza, Egypt.

The current investigation was conducted to study the compatibility of differentBradyrhizobiumjaponicumisolates)ARC-2,ARC-6,ARC-13,ARC-500, ARC-502, ARC-510 and ARC-517(,and reference strains(USDA-110,TAL 377,UK 3407 and USDA-HH 303)with three soybean varieties namely Giza 22,Giza 35 and Giza 111.A pot experiment was carried out in the greenhouse of Biological Nitrogen Fixation Unit;Soils,Water and Environment Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center,Giza.The results showed that the maximum number of nodules) 61.0 and 59.3nodules/plant)was recorded for variety Giza 22 inoculated with ARC-510 and ARC-502,respectively. The interaction of USDA-HH303 strain with Giza 111 was the superior in nodules dry weight(132.1 mg/plant).While, the same variety poorly interacted with ARC-517 (18.7 mg/plant) .Among the tested inocula, the highest N2-ase activity was(16.5and 13.8µmole C2H4/plant/hr)with varieties Giza 35 and Giza 111 combined with strains TAL-377 and USDA-110, respectively. The highest shoot dry weight )5.79g/plant)and shoot nitrogen content )276.1mg/plant)was recorded with soybeanvariety Giza 22 inoculated with strain USDA-HH303, while the same varietyrecorded the lowest shoot dry weight andshoot N-content with ARC- 502 (2.47g/plant and 62.2 mg/plant),respectively.Analysis of relationship among soybean nodulating rhizobia by using the RAPD-PCR technique showed a high level of genetic polymorphism, grouping our isolates and reference strains into two different major clusters and three sub-clusters with a similarity level ranged from 22to 75%.

 

6/27 OCCULT HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION AMONG VOLUNTEER BLOOD DONORS IN THE REGIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION CENTER IN EL-MINIA GOVERNORATE, EGYPT

Mohammed A. Ahmed, Sahar M. Abo El-Eyon, Mona A. Esmail, Faten M. Moftah* and Maha M. Zaki**

Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, El-Minia University, Egypt.

*General Director of National Blood Transfusion Services.

**El Minia General Hospital.

Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is defined as the detection of HBV DNA in the serum and/or liver tissue of patients who test negative for hepatitisB surface antigen (HBsAg) with or without the presence of HBV antibodies outside the acute phase. Occult HBV infection can be transmitted by blood transfusionand during organ transplantation, in addition to vertical transmission of HBV from a mother with occult HBV infection to offspring.This study was conducted on five hundreds volunteer blood donors who were tested seronegative HBsAg with or without HCV antibodies in El-Minia Regional Blood Transfusion Center in the period from January to June 2007, 324 were males (64.8%) and 176 were females (35.2%), their ages ranged between 18 and 55 years with mean age 23.5 ± 6.16 years, 245 were urban (49%) and 255 were rural (51%). Routine Laboratory investigations for blood donors: HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), HCV antibodies and HIV were done by ELISA technique. The Alanine transaminase (ALT) was done, detection of HBV DNA was done for the studied five hundreds blood serum samples by PCR and hepatitis B seromarkers HBcAb total, HBsAb, HBe Ag and HBeAb) for those samples that proven positive HBV DNA.Three (0.6%) serum samples were positive HBV DNA and 497 (99.4%) serum samples were negative HBV DNA with 0.6% prevalence of occult HBV. Thirty two (6.4%) serum samples were reactive HCV antibodies. Hepatitis B seromarkers HBcAb total, HBsAb, HBeAg and HBeAb) were done for the three blood donors' serum samples that were proven positive HBV DNA. They were negative HBcAb total, HBsAb, HBeAg and HBeAb. The thirty two (6.4%) serum samples that were reactive HCV antibodies were negative HBV DNA (0.0%). Determination of alanine transaminase (ALT) level was done for the studied five hundred blood donors' serum samples. Serum ALT level was normal in all studied serum samples; there was no statistically significant relation between serum alanine transaminase and occult HBV.

 

7/27 EVALUATION OF POTENTIALITIES OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA AND SOIL RESIDUAL NITROGEN CONTENT ON PRODUCTIVITY OF MAIZE PLANTS

Sanaa S.H. Sarabana, Mohamed N. Omarand Magdy A. Abd El Moula*

Soils, Water and Environment Res. Inst., ARC, Giza, Egypt

*Field Crops Inst., ARC, Giza, Egypt

Two field experiments were conducted in two successive summer seasons of 2008 and 2009 at Nubaria and Mallawi Agric. Res. Station (ARC) to evaluate the role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (Bacillus polymyxa) and soil residual N content for reducing the recommended dose of mineral nitrogen as well as to increase maize productivity. Results confirmed that there was a pronounced effect of Bacillus polymyxa as PGPR, residual soil nitrogen content and the complementary rate to the recommended dose on maize yield parameters, maize N, P and K uptake as well as on soil biological activity in terms of nitrogenase and dehydrogenase activities, the amount of CO2 evolution and the bacterial count of the soil rhizosphere area. However, data revealed that the mean yield of maize at Nubaria and Mallawi was 20.61; 19.41 and 22.7; 30.11 ard. /fed., respectively, for both tested seasons. As well as the enzyme activities of nitrogenase and dehydrogenase, CO2 evolution, N, P and K uptake, as well as total counts of bacteria in rhizosphere area was also determined.

 

8/27 ECOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON ZYGOPHYLLUM COCCINEUM FROM TWO DIFFERENT HABITAT CONDITIONS IN EGYPTIAN DESERT

Zeinab Ahmed El-Swaify

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girl Branch), Cairo, Egypt.

The ecological and phytochemical investigation for two samples of Zygophyllum coccineum showed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, charbohydrats/glycosids, alkaloids, steroids, chlorids and sulphats, while they were free from phenolic acids. Also, the combined sugars, amino acids, fatty acids, hydrocarbons, sterols and minerals were analysed quantitatively and revealed some differences between the two plant samples as same as the analysis of the two soil samples collected.The assay of new compound reveled the presence of aflatoxicol –H1 as the main compound.

9/27 POTENTIAL ROLE OF CIRCULATING TNF-α IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF VASCULAR COMPLICATIONS OF TYPE 2 DIABETES

Soheir Maklad, Amany M. Abdel-Wahab and Tayseer A. Abd-Alaal*

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine For Girls, Al-Azhar University and *Internal Medicine and Rheumatology Department, Military Medical Academy.

It has been suggested that hyperglycemia may lead to the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM). This study was designed to explore the possible association between type-2 (DM) and proinflammatory cytokine; TNF-α and to investigate its relation to vascular complications, disease duration, body mass indix (BMI), blood glucose levels, blood cholesterols and different anti-diabeteic agents. Eighty patients with type 2 DM were categorized into: group I; 55 diabetic patients with vascular complications, group II; 25 patients without vascular complications. Twenty apparently healthy sex, age and body mass index (BMI) matched persons were included as controls; group III.. TNF-α concentration (pg/ml) was measured in sera by ELISA. A significantly higher (P<0.0001) frequency of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and neuropathy was observed among patients with macrovascular and microvascular complications respectively. The mean level of TNF-α in sera of all diabetic patients 15.68±8.71 was significantly higher (P<0.01), than that of controls 5.36±2.41 and in pateints with vascular complications 19.39±7.59 than in patients without vascular complications 7.50±4.37. The highest level of TNF-α was detected in diabetic patients with micro + macrovascular complications (20.55± 7.82) (P<0.01). TNF-α is positively correlated only with fasting blood glucose levels in both patients with complications (r =0.429, p <0.05) and without complications (r =0.523, p <0.05) but not correlated with age, duration of the disease, BMI and cholesterol level. In addition, no significant relationship was detected between TNF-α concentrations and different anti-diabetic drug therapy (P>0.05). Conclusion. An inflammatory process manifested by the elevated serum levels of TNF-α, induced by a poor glycaemic control, may be a mechanism responsible for vascular complications in type-2 (DM).

 

10/27 EFFECT OF GAMMA RADIATION ON ENDOCHITINASE PRODUCED BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND TALAROMYCES THERMOPHILUS

Khaira A. Yousef*, Loutfy A. A. Moussa**, Usama F. Ali, Zeinib M. Ibrahim and Omyma M. Mahdi

Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University.

*Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University.

**Department of Microbiolgy, National Center of Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT).

Five wild local fungal isolates were screened on chitin for endochitinase production. These are: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Talaromyces thermophilus, Thermoascus aurantiacus and Chaetomium thermophillum.   Aspergillus niger and Talaromyces thermophilus were chosen as a potent producers. The best concentration of chitin was found to be 1.5% for the two experimental fungi. The best pH was 6.2 for A. niger and pH 7.0 for T. thermophilus The optimum temperature for endochitinase production was 40ºC for A. niger and 50ºC for T. thermophilus. Seven days of incubation was the best for endochitinase production for both the experimental fungi. The best inoculum size was 3.1×105 and 1.8×105 CFU/ml for A. niger and T. thermophilus, respectively. Maximum endochitinase production was obtained at Gamma ray dose 0.5 KGy giving 0.625 and 0.540 mU/ml for A. niger and T. thermophilus, respectively.

11/27 GAMMA IRRADIATION ENHANCEMENT FOR CELLULASE-FREE XYLANASE PRODUCED BY DIFFERENT STRAINS OF THERMOMYCES LANUGINOSUS ISOLATED FROM EGYPT AND YEMEN SOILS

K.A.Yousef*, L.A.A. Moussa**, U.F. Ali, Z.M. Ibrahim and G.S. Isaac

Department of Biological sciences, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University.

*Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University.

**Department of Microbiology, National Center of Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT).

Thermomyces lanuginosus A72, T. lanuginosus H72, T. lanuginosus U72 and T. lanuginosus YMN72 were screened on four different natural lignocellulosic substrates for cellulase-free xylanase production. Highest xylanase activity showed on cane bagasse (1.0%) and corn cobs (1.5%) for T. lanuginosus A72 and T. lanuginosus YMN72; respectively. Maximum xylanase activity reached at pH (6.6) for both experimental fungal strains. Sodium nitrate (0.3%) and ammonium nitrate (0.1%) were the best nitrogen source for T. lanuginosus A72 and T. lanuginosus YMN72; respectively. The maximum xylanase production reached at gamma radiation dose 1.0 and 0.9KGy giving 1082 and 1173 U/ml with increasing 179 and 121% as compared with control value of T. lanuginosus A72 and T. lanuginosusYMN72; respectively.

 

12/27 EFFECTIVENESS OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ON SURVIVABILITY AND MORPHOLOGY OF SOME AIRBORNE FUNGI

Mohamad Abdel Razik, Abdel Hameed A. Awad*, Ahmed M.A. Ayesh**, Hanan F.H. Abdel Mawla*

Botany Department, Faculty of science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia *Air Pollution Department, and **Food Toxicology and Contaminants Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Egypt.

The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the survivability and morphological features of some common fungal species isolated from the air at agricultural industrial workplaces. Indoor air fungal spores were sampled using liquid impinger sampler. The experiment was performed on 6 fungal species namely: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus ochraceous, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium rubrum. These fungal species undesirably affect human health, cause allergic and immunotoxic diseases. The fungal species were exposed to 254 nm UVC irradiation under a prewarmed UV lamp (intensity = 0.1 mW/cm2) .The time of exposures ranged from 30 min to 6 hours. The survival percent of the fungal spores were inversely proportional to the time of exposures. All exposed fungal species proved to be susceptible to UV radiation. Approximately 90 % of the conidia were killed within 6 hour of exposure. Lethality (LD50) at which 50% of fungi were killed varied between species, where hyaline fungi were killed more rapid than black ones. Inactivation of fungi was higher in the first exposure times compared to 2-4 hour exposures where fungal species showed relatively recovery after being stressed. The recovery (repair) of fungi varied between species, A.niger showed the greatest repair mechanism. The electron microscopy pictures showed that mutant fungal species had wide range of morphological alternations including: damage of cell walls and conidia surfaces.

13/27 ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND OPTIMAL PRODUCTION OF ANTIFUNGAL COMPOUND(S) PRODUCED BY LOCAL EGYPTIAN ISOLATE NOCARDIOIDES LUTEUS

Heba Y. AbdElRahman; Heba A. El-Refai; Abd ElGawad M. Hashem*; Hesham Abdulla** and Essam M. Ahmed

Department of Chemistry of Natural and Microbiological Products, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

*Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

**Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University.

Efforts have been devoted to explore the antifungal activity of local egyptian actinomycetes isolates. 127 pure actinomycetes isolates were recovered from the stones at the location of the tomb of Tell Basta (the site of the ruins of the old temple of Bast) which is south-east of the Nile Delta at the township of Zagazig in Egypt. The most competent isolate showed promising activity against some pathogenic yeasts and fungi. It was identified asNocardioides luteus. Using 2 ml of 2 days old inoculum of Nocardioides luteus in fermentation medium consisting of (g/l): starch, 10; yeast extract, 4; NaCl, 10; K2HPO4, 2; MgSO4.7H2O, 0.05; CaCO3, 0.02 and FeSO4.7H2O, 0.01, adjusted before autoclaving at pH 7 and incubated for 7 days with shaking rate 200 rpm resulted in maximum antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the culture was determined to be 0.4 mg/ml. Trials have been conducted to separate the active compound(s) responsible for the anticandidal activity. To our knowledge, this is the first time to study systematically the bioactivities of Nocardioides luteus.

 

 

14/27 NUTRITIONAL UPGRADING OF WHEAT STRAW AS ANIMAL FEED

Galila A.H.A. Darwish and Adel A. Bakr

Regional Center for Food and Feed, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium succeeded to up grade nutritional value of wheat straw in combined mixture with artichoke petals at different ratios (1:1, 1:3 and 3:1), using solid state fermentation technique. Pleurotus ostreatus succeeded to increase protein content of wheat straw from 3.30% to 10.85 with biomass recovery of 70.42% when it was mixed with artichoke petals at ratio of 1:1 and fermented for 30 days; while Phanerochaete chrysosporium increased crude protein content of wheat straw to 11.10% with biomass recovery of 71.21%. Pronounced degradation of hemicellulose and lignin was determined, when wheat straw was mixed with artichoke petals with different ratios (1:1, 1:3 and 3:1). In addition, treatment of wheat straw white rot fungi improved in vitro digestibility when adding artichoke petals. The results of this study indicate that fungal treatment of wheat straw when adding artichoke petals have the potential to be used as a feed supplement for ruminants.

 

 


15/27 EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL OF BIOSYNTHETIC GENE CLUSTERS IN SPONGE DERIVED FUNGI FROM RED SEA, EGYPT

Amro Hanora and Sidney Crow*

Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia Egypt.

*Biology Department, College of Arts and Science, Georgia State University,

Atlanta, USA

Red Sea sponges are potential sources of novel drugs and bioactive compounds. The diversity of Egyptian, sponge-derived fungi has not yet been explored, in respect to their secondary metabolic biosynthetic potentials. We have PCR-amplified twelve PKS gene fragments from Aspergillus sp. isolated from Sharm El Sheik, Red Sea, Egypt using degenerative primer pairs. Sequence analysis reveals that the amplified PCR gene fragments show similarity to highly reduced (HR-PKS), six fragments, partially reduced (PR-PKSs) (also called methylsalicylic acid synthase (MSAS)-type, two fragments, and non-reducing (NR) PKSs (also called WA-type) PKS gene fragments in the database. Also, we report the characterization of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene in Aspergillus sp. isolated from Sharm El Sheik, Egypt. Two NRPS ORFs show a high similarity to NRPS gene from the genome sequence of Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 with 99% and 98% identities based on BlastX analysis, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study of both PKS and NRPS genes in Red Sea associated fungi.

 

16/27 HOSPITALIZED CHILDREN WITH ACUTE LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION IN AL-AZHAR UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL, NEW DAMIETTA

Mohammad Saleh and Lotfi Abd-Elfatah*

Departments of Medical Microbiology & Immunology and Pediatrics*, Damietta Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University

Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is an emerging cause of acute lower respiratory tract imfections (ALRTIs) requiring hospitalization in young children. The use of cell culture for the diagnosis of hMPV   infection is uncommon at present and molecular method such as reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been widely and most commonly used as the preferred test.This study was conductedto detect hMPV in the nasopharyngeal secretions of children hospitalized with ALRTI and also determine the epidemiologic & clinical characteristics of hMPV   infectionsamong children. Nasopharyngeal secretions from 183 hospitalized children with symptoms and signs of ALRTI were examined for hMPV. Detection of the virus was done by RT- PCR for amplification of M gene of the virus. It was found that19 (10.4%) children were infected with hMPV. Bronchiolitis was the major diagnosis among infected children. Most of hMPV   infection occurred during the first 2 years of life. There was a distinct difference in the numbers of positive specimens in winter months compared with the numbers in other months. It is concluded that hMPV   may be an important pathogen associated with a substantial number ofALRTI requiring hospitalization in children especially those younger than 2 years of age and may have a significant clinical impact. hMPV   infections peaked in winter seasons.

17/27 EXOPOLYSACCHARIDE AND INDOLE ACETIC ACID PRODUCING ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA HAVE AN ESSENTIAL ROLE IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA) RESISTANCE IN SALT AFFECTED SOILS

Eman A. Tantawy and Khaled A. Shaban

Soils, Water and Environment Res. Inst., Agricultural Research Center (ARC)

In the way of proceeding endophytic bacterial isolation, two of endophytic bacteria were obtained from wheat plant cultivated in soil with EC equal (16 dSm-1). The isolates identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Azospirillum brasilense. These isolates with Enterobacter gergoviae, that previously isolated from Rice plant grown in highly saline soil, inoculated Rice crop to enhance productivity in saline soil. The three endophytic bacteria examined for Exopolysaccharide (EPS) and Indole acetic acid (IAA) production because of their role in elevation plant resistance in saline soil. The results showed that the three isolates producing EPS and IAA as PGPB, besides their role in nitrogen fixing as they are diazotrophic endophytes and because of its attaching relationship into plant tissue, their products inter directly into plant physiological circles that enabled them to increase productivity and enzymes activity, so increased the content of NPKin plant and soil after harvest of Rice grown in saline soil in open field during two successive seasons. The results assured that endophytic bacteria are important for increasing plant productivity in saline adverse soil.

 

18/27 CLINICAL UTILITY OF THE QUANTIFERON TB-GOLD (IN-TUBE METHOD) TEST IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF TUBERCULOSIS IN CHILDREN

Eman A. Labah, Mohammed Attia*, Mona Mohsen** and Hossam H. Masoud***

Microbiology & Immunology, Clinical Pathology*, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University and Pediatric Department**, Chest*** Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) have been recently developed for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) infection. The performance of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based IGRA for detecting TB in children was evaluated. A prospective study includes 30 children clinically diagnosed as active TB infection in comparison with 15 clinically healthy children was carried out. All children were tested with tuberculin skin test (TST) and a commercial ELISA-based IGRA [QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (Cellestis)]. TST were positive in 24 out of 30(80%) and IGRA in 18 out of 30 (60%) children. The overall agreement between the 2 tests was good (80%, kappa= 0.70). IGRA was positive in all TB culture positive (100%) children with active pulmonary TB. In comparison with clinical diagnosis, QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube was more specific 68.9/52.6 and slightly less sensitive 83.3/86.95 than TST, with higher NPV 76.9/62.5 and lower PPV 76.9/81.6. In conclusion, Tuberculosis-specific QFT-IT testing is a promising tool that should be excessively evaluated as a potential diagnostic test for childhood tuberculosis especially in extra-pulmonary infection when the clinical manifestations are not conclusive. It is highly specific, is easy to perform, and requiresonly one visit. Discrepancies between IGRA and TST can be a result of higher specificity of IGRA that is not influenced by previous BCG vaccination.

 

 

19/27 GENETIC BASIS OF EXTENDED-SPECTRUM b-LACTAMASES IN KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE ISOLATES FROM NIJRAN, SAUDI ARABIA

Mohamed S. Ali

Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Objectives: The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in K. pneumoniae remains unclear in Saudi Arabia. The present study was aimed to characterize ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae in Nijran.Methods: A total of 215 isolates of K. pneumoniae isolated from clinical samples were collected over six months (August 2008 to Jan 2009). These isolates were screened for the presence of ESBLs by double disc synergy test (DDST). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 14 antibiotics against ESBL producer strains were determined by E-test strips. The b-lactamases involved were characterized by PCR assays and DNA sequencing. Conjugation experiments were done and ISEcp1 elements were tested among CTX-M positive isolates.Results: The prevalence of ESBL was25.6% (55/215) of K. pneumoniae. All ESBL positive isolates were sensitive to imipenem and tigecycline. The resistance rate to gentamicin, amikacin and ciprofloxacin was 87.3%, 10% and 9.1% respectively. Of these, 89.1% produced SHV, 70.9% produced TEM and 36.4% were CTX-M-producing strains. ESBL SHV including SHV-12 and SHV-5 with prevalence of 60% and 18.2% respectively and various non-ESBL SHV including SHV-1 (5.5%), -11 (3.6%), and -85 (1.8%) was detected. Two types of CTX-M-type β-lactamases were detected; CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-14 with prevalence of 34.5% and 1.8% respectively. Sixty percent of blaCTX-M-15 genes were preceded by ISEcp1 elements. All blaCTX-M genes were transferable; however most of blaSHV-12 and blaSHV-5 were not transferable.TEM-type ESBLs were not detected in any of the isolates. This is the first description of SHV-5 and CTX-M-14 and non ESBL SHV-11 and SHV-85 in Saudi Arabia. Resistance to ciprofloxacin associated with presence of CTX-M-15; however ESBL SHV positive isolates sensitive to ciprofloxacin. We have documented the dominance of K. pneumoniae SHV-12 and highlighted the emergence of CTX-M-15 in Saudi Arabia.

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