Vol. 3, September, 2002.


*M.S.M. Nassar; **F.T. El-Hissy and *M.S. Massoud

* Botany Dept., Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Aswan.

** Botany Dept., Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut.

Eighty-seven species and one variety belonging to 51 genera of freshwater fungi were recovered from 12 aquatic plants species, collected from the River Nile and two main irrigation canals (Balana and Kalabsha) in Aswan area. Twelve genera and 24 species of aquatic fungi were isolated in this study. Saprolegnia, Aqualinderella and Pythium were the most common genera of aquatic fungi recovered from aquatic plants in all of the tested area. Myriophyllum spicatum was recorded as the aquatic plant containing the highest number of genera and species in the River Nile, while Vallisenaria spiralis yielded the highest number of genera and species in the two irrigation canals. Sixty-three species belonging to 39 terrestrial fungal genera were isolated; Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Humicola and Mucor were the most frequent genera on glucose and cellulose Czapek’s agar media. Ceratophyllum demersum yielded the highest total counts of terrestrial fungi in the River Nile, while Polygonum sengalens was contributed the lowest total counts. In the two irrigation canals Azolla filiculoides exhibited the highest total counts of fungal genera and species, while Vallisenaria spiralis had the lowest total counts of fungal genera and species. Some fungal species were isolated on only one isolation medium (either glucose or cellulose - Czapek’s agar medium) and vice versa. Also, some fungal species were isolated only from either water samples or aquatic plants.

2/3 PROFILE of viral respiratory infection among neonates attending nursery intensive care unit at Al Hussein University Hospital

M. Abdel Hady, M.H.I. Abou El-Ezz*, Abou-Bakr M. Eldeeb**,

M. El-Bendary*** and M.M. Rashad***

Departments of Microbiology, Immunology*, Community Medicine** and Pediatrics***, Faculty of Medicine (Cairo and Assiut Branches**), Al-Azhar University and Medical Research Laboratories, M.M. Academy*, Egypt.

Over 200 viruses cause respiratory tract infection (RTI), but only seven [adenovirus, influenza A&B, parainfluenza 1,2 & 3 and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)] are responsible for most of the severe diseases in the very young and immunocompromised host. Through a cross sectional study, using pre-designed form for personal, hospitalization data and laboratory examination, paired nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) specimens obtained from each of 37 non-bacterial respiratory tract infected neonates were tested for adenovirus, influenza viruses A & B, parainfluenza viruses 1,2&3 and RSV infection by indirect immunofluorescent-antibody (IFA) technique. It was found that non-bacterial RTI were prominent among premature and very low birth weight neonates. The antigens of previously mentioned viruses were detected in 12 out of the 37 neonates (32.4%); 6 (50%) of them were RSV and the other 6 were equally divided among adenovirus, influenza A and parainfluenza-3 viruses. Bronchiolitis and pneumonia were the most prominent infections caused by these viruses. Also, leucopenia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were observed among the detected viral respiratory tract infected neonates. The study recommends the expansion of this model which has been applied in Al-Hussein Nursery Intensive Care Unit (NICU) to be applied in similar units elsewhere, which will help in controlling the problem of high neonatal mortality in Egypt.




S.A. Shoman, A.B. Barakat and M.S. Salama

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Ain Shams,

Cairo, Egypt.

Interferon is a host mammalian protein product induced in response to viral infection. It is a key component of the innate immune mechanism that protects the host against other invading viruses. Occurrence of active proteins that reduce viral infection in higher plants was highly investigated. Dianthus caryophyllus and Phaseolus vulgaris are two plant species having proteins, which are active in reducing virus infectivity. D. caryophyllus endogenous protein was separated by CM-sephadex column chromatography, while, P. vulgaris induced protein was extracted after inoculating the plant with TNV for 3 and 7 days. The structure and function of these proteins were compared with human β interferon (h β IFN) by using different techniques as Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE), Western blotting analysis and animal tissue culture. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was employed with the RNAs of the same plant species. On the basis of these different practical utilization, it was found that both plant proteins (endogenous and induced) resemble mammalian interferon in temperature instability, molecular weight (20-40KDa), structural property as antigenic determinants, some nucleotide sequences and biological activity against the human viruses poliovirus and rift valley fever virus. This could be valuable and can help in the establishment of an interferon-dependent universal antiviral system for the control of many viral diseases.




M.M.M. Aboulwafa, H.A. Abdel-Salam* and A. Atia**

Dept. of Microbiology & Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain-Shams University

*Dept. of Microbiology & Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University

**Dept. of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University

Deficiency of anionic lipids (phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin) in E. coli decreased both adherence and specific adherence of cells to polystyrene plates. After 6 hours incubation in wells of polystyrene plate the adherence and specific adherence of the mutant strain was about 50 to 60% that of the wild type strain. In contrast, phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin deficiency did not affect the cell surface hydrophobicity. The normal occurrence of such lipids increased the survival percentage ratio of wild type to the mutant strain to about 3 and 1.4 fold due to exposure to lincomycin and polymyxin B respectively. On the contrary, this normal occurrence decreased survival percentage ratio of wild type to the mutant strain to about one fifth for ofloxacin and has no appreciable effect on the survival percentage ratio of wild type to the mutant strain due to exposure to azithromycin. The wild type strain accumulated ofloxacin to a relatively higher level than the mutant strain. Growth of anionic lipid deficient strain was sensitive to high strength of Muller Hinton where the growth ratio of wild type to the mutant was about 6 folds at 4 folds strength Muller Hinton and this ratio was only about 2 folds at 3 folds strength of such medium. Anionic lipids deficiency affected the expression of cytoplasmic membrane proteins of cells grown in either Lauria Bertani (LB) or Lauria Bertani containing 0.4% glucose. In the mutant strain, membranes prepared from cells grown in LB showed expression of more additional protein bands corresponding to molecular weights of about 60 and 45 KD and induction of bands corresponding to the molecular weights of about 97 and 37 KD while the bands corresponding to the molecular weights of about 84 and 43 KD were repressed. In both strains, growth in LB containing 0.4% glucose resulted nearly in the same protein bands pattern but they exhibited different expression levels of some bands. In the wild type strain, the presence of glucose induced expression of bands corresponding to the molecular weights of about 60, 51, 49, 45, 36 and 31 KD, while the bands corresponding to the molecular weights of about 84 and 43 were repressed. In contrast, in case of the mutant strain, the presence of glucose repressed the expression of bands corresponding to the molecular weights of about 97, 60 and 45 KD. The bands corresponding to the molecular weights of about 51, 49 and 36 KD were considerably induced and the expression of the band corresponding to the molecular weight of about 31 KD was unaffected.


M.M. Fathy, F.M. Ali and *E.M. Fouda

Microbiology & Immunology and *Internal Medicine Departments

Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University.

The cag A gene positivity and the ability to activate neutrophils are two characteristics of H.pylori that contribute to ulcerative potential. The aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between cag A gene positivity and development of duodenal ulcer in H.pylori infected patients. The association between cag A gene positivity and variation in nap A genotypes was also studied. The study included 22 H.pylori strains isolated from 22 dyspeptic patients attending Gastroenterology Unit of Internal Medicine Department, Ain Shams University Hospitals. H.pylori isolates were classified into isolates from patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) (n=11) and those isolated from patients with gastritis only (n=11) on basis of endoscopic findings. Both cag A and nap A genes were searched for using a specific PCR for each at Infectious Diseases Research and Infection Control Unit of Microbiology and Immunology Department, Ain Shams University, Faculty of Medicine. The nap A genotyping was done by restriction endonuclease cleavage of PCR products of nap A gene using Sau 3 AI enzyme. The results showed that cag A gene was present in 81.8% of H.pylori isolates from PUD patients and in 63.6% of isolates from patients with gastritis only. The difference between the 2 rates was statistically insignificant. As regards nap A gene, it was detected in all tested isolates. Genotyping of nap A gene specific PCR products revealed one genotype in isolates from patients with gastritis only. In PUD isolates, in addition to this genotype, 2 other distinct genotypes were also detected. In conclusion, cag A gene was found in a higher percentage in PUD patients. The nap A gene was detected in all tested isolates and there was no specific association between cag A gene positivity and any of the detected genotypes of nap A gene specific PCR products.



6/3 “Review Article”


Tarek Sayed Awwad

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University




M.S.E. Ashour; A.N. Zekri*, H.M. Alam El-Din*, M.A. Abu-Shady

Microbiology Department, Faculty of pharmacy, Azhar University, * Virology and Immunology unit, Cancer Biology Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University.

An imbalance between T helper cell Th1 and Th2 like cytokines has been observed in several chronic hepatitis diseases and may be related to their susceptibility to develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. In an attempt to characterize this mechanism, we measured the cytokine levels of Th1 (IL-2 and IL-2R), and Th2 (IL-10), and the proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-6R & TNF and TNF-RI & II ) by the ELISA technique in sera of 33 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma patients (HCC) , and 20 chronic liver disease (CLD). Twenty asymptomatic HCV carriers as well as 20 healthy subjects were taken as controls. Anti-HCV antibodies were positive in 94% of HCC cases, and in 75% of cases of CLD. On the other hand, HCV viremia was detected using RT-PCR in 67% of HCC cases and in 65% of CLD cases. HBsAg was positive in 9% of HCC cases and in 30% of CLD cases. Also bilharzial-Ab was positive in 55% of HCC patients, in 65% of CLD patients and in 70% of asymptomatic carriers. HCC patients had significantly less serum levels of IL-2 (P=0.009), IL-6 (P= 0.032) and TNFα (P= 0.001) but higher significantly IL-2R (P=0.001), TNF-RII (P=0.001), and higher (though not significantly) IL-6R, TNF-RI than in asymptomatic carriers. On the other hand, HCC patients had less IL-2 (P=0.021), TNFα (P=0.001) but significantly higher (P=0.001) IL-2R, IL-6R and TNF-RI & II than in normal controls. However, CLD patients had significantly less IL-2 (P=0.005) but higher IL-2R (P=0.001), IL-6R (P=0.001), TNF RI (P=0.006), TNF RII (P=0.001) than in asymptomatic carriers, On the other hand, CLD patients had significantly higher (P=0.001) IL-2R, TNFα and TNF-RI & II but significantly less IL-2 (P=0.013) than in normal controls. IL-10 serum level was higher (though not significantly) in HCC and CLD patients than in asymptomatic carriers and normal controls. Disease progression due to HCV infection was associated with decrease circulating Th1 cytokine (IL-2) and increase in Th2 cytokine (IL-10).    




W.N. El-Tayeb and R.M. El-Karamany*

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (Girls), Al-Azhar University.

* Final Vision Co. 204 El-Sudan Street, El-Mohandseen, Cairo.

In the present study Colorzyme EA was used for detection of HSV, CMV and EBV viruses specific antibodies. The detection was qualitative for IgM and IgG antibodies in recent active infections. Also, a comparative study was performed between complement fixation test (CFT), immunofluorescence (IF) assay, Enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA )and colorzyme EA tests. A total of 115 sera specimens were tested for IgM antibody in recent active infections. On the other hand, 94 sera specimens were tested for Ig G antibody. 73.5 %, 67.3% and 7.7% positive sera for IgM antibodies for HSV, CMV and EBV respectively were reported by the compared methods. Sera positive for IgG antibodies to HSV, CMV and EBV were 76.3 % 90% and 38.5% respectively. No differences were observed in results obtained by the methods used.   These results indicated that Colorzyme EA immunoconcepts was a simple and rapid test for serological diagnosis of previously mentioned viruses.




M.S. Ashour*; M.T. Mansour**; A.N. Zekri**; M.N. El-Rouby**, S.M.R. Radwan*

*Microbiology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al Azhar University.

**Immunology and Virology Department, National Cancer Institiute,

Cairo University.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic viral hepatitis. Development of anti-viral strategies has been hampered by the lack of efficient cell systems to propagate HCV in vitro. To establish a tissue culture system, a human hepatoma (HePG2), and a human T-cell line (MOLT-4) were tested, as well as several culture and infection conditions. As a marker for virus infections, HCV-RNA in infected cells and culture media were detected by nested RT-PCR. Also morphological changes of the infected cells were observed during the culture period by phase contrast microscopy. MOLT-4 cells showed cytopathic like effect. HCV-RNA was detected in the infected HePG2 sporadically during the 21 days of culture and it seems that efficiency of HCV infection was slightly increased by the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and/or Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) to the culture media during inoculation of HePG2 cells. A stabilizing effect on HCV propagation was observed for 66 days in serum free medium. In case of MOLT-4 cells HCV-RNA was detected continuously from day 14 to 24 p.i. in cells and culture media, while HCV-RNA was not detected in culture media of HePG2 cells. The present data suggest that HCV is able to replicate in MOLT-4, while HePG2 retain their susceptibility to HCV infection and their permissivity for HCV-RNA replication, but do not support the production of progeny virions.




M.A.M. El Gawish and M.A.F. Moawad*

Radiation and Biology Department (Biochemistry)

* Research and Healthy Department (Parasitology).

National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt.

Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is a potent immunoregulatory molecule that is critically involved in a wide range of diseases. In several murine models of intracellular infection, endogenous IL-12 has been shown to be crucial for the generation of a protective Th1 response in a primary infection for a variety of intracellular pathogens.In the present study primary and secondary immune response were examined in rats infected with Toxoplasma gondii RH virulent strain. The study was assessed by the measurements of levels of IL-12 in the sera of these infected rats. The results demonstrated that the primary immune response induce a fluctuation in the levels of IL-12 in the sera of infected rats, which reached maximum value up to 122.6 ± 1.4pg/ml after 15 weeks of primary infection. While, in the secondary immune response, the levels of IL-12 were generally lower than that of the primary immune response. In conclusion, the results suggest that IL-12 might have a role in the defense mechanism against intracellular infection with T.gondii especially in primary immune response than in the secondary immune response.

Scroll to top