. Vol. 40, January, 2015.

acheter du viagra sur internet forum 1/40 CORRELATION BETWEEN REDUCED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO BIOCIDES AND MULTI ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE AMONG BACTERIAL ISOLATES IN AN EGYPTIAN HOSPITAL

Moustafa A. El-Nakeeb, Hamida M. Abou-Shleib, Hoda M.G. Omar and

Sylvia A. Daniel

Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Alexandria, Egypt.

In the recent years, there has been a great concern about the development of resistance to biocides among hospital pathogens as a result of theintensive exposure to these agents. Furthermore, this may cause the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains. The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility profiles to biocides and antimicrobial agents among different clinical and environmental isolates in an Egyptian hospital. To achieve this, 41 different microbial isolates were collected from various clinical specimens obtained from inpatients who acquired nosocomial infections; and 25 others were collected from different environmental samples obtained from a hospital. These isolates were screened for their susceptibility to selected antibiotics; as well as to six biocides commonly used in our health care settings. The results showed that 62% of the isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR); and 11% were extremely drug resistant (XDR). On the other hand, 34% of the tested isolates were multi-disinfectant reduced susceptibility (MDRS) isolates. The statistical analysis of the obtained data revealed a moderate positive correlation between antibiotic resistance and biocide tolerance within the screened isolates where Spearman's correlation coefficient ranged between 0.376- 0.278 (p<0.05).

medecins online acheter cialis 2/40 BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF SOME FRESH PRODUCE IN EGYPT

Marwa R. Abd El-Salam, Hoda H. El-Hendawyand Mohammad S. Flefel*

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Cairo, Egypt

*Plant Pathology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt

Samples of 5 different vegetables, soil and irrigation water were collected from Almaryotya region, Giza Governorate and screened for bacteriological quality including, total aerobic plate count (APC), total coliform (TC), total fecal coliform (TFC) and total meccanismo d'azione sildenafil E. coli. The presence of utilisation levitra forum Salmonella and pathogenic les dangers de viagra E. coli O157:H7 was also investigated. The obtained results revealed that, 88% of all samples contained APC count range > 4 log CFU g-1 fresh tissue. Total coliform count ranged from <1 to > 4 log MPN g-1 whereas, TC of > 3 log MPN g-1 fresh tissues was observed in 70% of all samples with high incidence of coliform contamination observed in both green dill and parsley, 86.6% (13/15) followed by arugula, lettuce and cucumber at the following ratios 73.3% (11/15), 60% (9/15) and 46.6% (7/15), respectively. In addition, 60% (45/75) of tested samples harbored > 2 log MPN g-1 fecal coliform while 46.6% (35/75) of the samples contained > 3 log MPN g-1. Also, samples with count range > 2 log MPN g-1 total E. coli were observed in 48% (36/75) of all samples at the following ratios: 53.33% (8/15) of arugula, 40% (6/15) of green dill, 33.33% (5/15) of cucumber, 66.66% (10/15) of lettuce and 46.66% (7/15) of parsley. Furthermore 40% (4/10) of water samples contained > 3 log MPN ml-1 total coliform. In contrast, E. coli was detected in all samples. Soil samples were found to contain fecal coliform within the range of 2 to 5 log MPN g-1. le viagra est il rembourse par la secu Salmonella was detected in 6.6% (1/15) of lettuce samples and in 10% (1/10) of either soil and water samples. No legislation sur le viagra E. coli O157: H7 was detected in any of the screened samples.

3/40 ENVIRO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CYANOBACTERIA, BACTERIA, VINASSE AND PRETREATED RICE STRAW TO SECURE YIELD PRODUCTIVITY OF RICE CROP IN SALINE SOILS

Soha Sayed M. Mostafa, Ali Ibrahiem Mohamed*, Heba SH .Shehata and Adel Abd El Aziz Awad

Soils, Water and Environ Research Institute (SWERI), Agric. Res. Center (ARC), Giz

*Agricultural Economics Research Institute (AERI) Agric. Res. Center (ARC).

This study focused on formulating bio-organic fertilizers using solid agricultural wastes i.e., rice straw and Agro-industrial effluents i.e. vinasse to prepare liquid extracts and non-chemical additives for growing bacteria and cyanobacteria successfuly to produce biofertilizer for rice crop in saline soils, reduce harmful nitrogenous fertilizers and evaluate the enviro-economic output of this study.This study comprises of two parts The first part: A laboratory experiment for preparing rice straw broth medium(RSBM) using pretreated rice straw and vinasse as low cost organic medium for PGPR bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens), salt tolerant cyanobacteria (Spirulina platensis) and N2-fixing cyanobacteria (Nostoc muscorum and Anabaena oryzae) propagation to be used as bio-organic fertilizers for rice cultivation in saline soils in order to replace about 50% of the recommended dose of chemical N-fertilizers.The second part: The application of the formulated biofertilizer in field experiments during two successive seasons in 2012 and 2013 at Sahl El-hossinia Research Farm Station, El-Sharkia Governorate, (ARC), Egypt. The field expermients were to investigate the potentiality of the formulated biofertilizers (Cyanobacteria, bacteria and RSBM) to components about 50% of the recommended dose of urea on growth, yield and yield components of rice crop under saline soil conditions as well as studying their effects on some biological activities in soil. Results revealed that cyanobacterial counts, total bacterial counts, CO2 evolution as well as dehydrogenase (DHA) and nitrogenase (N2-ase) activities were conspicuously affected by cyanobacteria, bacteria and/or RSBM tretments best results were achieved by the combined treatment.Total phenolic content of rice shoot, rice yeild and its components and NPK uptake were studied. Results indicated that application of Cyanobacteria, bacteria and RSBM significantly increased nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents of rice grains and straw Moreover, the composite biofertilizer encompassing Cyanobacteria, bacteria and RSBM showed several benefits over chemical fertilizers and improved fertility of saline soils in. Additionally, using biologically fixed nitrogen as a partial alternative to chemical N-fertilizer could have great potential for limiting CO2 emissions and consequently for mitigating environmental pollution.

does viagra cure jet lag 4/40 THE IMPROVEMENT OF THERMOTOLERANT INDUSTRIAL BAKER’S YEAST

Mohamed Fadel, Mohamed S. Abd El Salam* and El-Sayed El-Anwary**

Microbial Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Cairo.

*Microbial Genetics Department acheter viagra sans ordonnance au quebec , National Research Center, Cairo.

** Chemical Factories, Egyptian Sugar and Integrated Industry

Company EL-Hawamedia, Egypt.

Yeast viagra et priapisme Saccharomyces cerevisiae adapts their cellular internal composition to meet the challenges of in their external surroundings environment through its genotype. Three baker’s yeast strains namely S. cerevisiae F-707, S. cerevisiae F-918 and S. cerevisiae F-1008 were investigated for the production of baker’s yeast. They were cultured in yeast exacter peptone (YPD) broth medium at 28 oC in shaker incubator 150 rpm to exponential (108 cell / ml), then exposed to heat shock at 37oC for one hour, then exposure to lethal heat 50oC for 2 ,4,6,8,10, 12 and14 minutes then cooled at 34oC. The cellular internal composition of the tested S. cerevisiae strains have to be altered to cope with the heat effects described above by inducing a set of genes regulated by the Heat Shock transcription Factor (HSF). HSF binds to Heat Shock Elements (HSE) of target genes, amongst which are the Heat Shock Protein (HSP) genes. These proteins function as molecular chaperones and thus play a critical role in protein presentationand to prevent protein aggregation. Yeast cells also under heat shock yeast respond to accumulating other stress-protective compounds such as trehalose by responding genes of the enzymes of the trehalose synthesis pathway which lead to an increase in the trehalose content. The presence of high trehalose content and heat shock proteins considered to be necessary parameters for its acquisition thermotolerant of tested strains.

5/40 QUORUM SENSING AND VIRULENCE FACTORS AMONG PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA ISOLATES FROM VARIOUS CLINICAL SOURCES

Soha El- Shaer, Mona I. Shaaban,Rasha Barwa and Ramadan Hassan

Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes serious human infections. The study of quorum sensing (QS) and its relation to various virulence factors among Pseudomonas clinical isolates could play an important role in eliminating its pathogenicity. C12-HSL and C4-HSL are the key regulatory QS signals in P. aeruginosa. In the following study, QS signals and virulence factors; elastase, protease, pyocyanin, rhamnolipids, biofilm and ToxA were assessed among P. aeruginosa isolates obtained from different clinical sources (wounds, urine and sputum). Reporter strain assay of C12-HSL and C4-HSL revealed that 95% of the isolates produced C12-HSL and 89% possessed C4-HSL. PCR analysis of C12-HSL and C4-HSL deficient isolates indicated the absence of synthase genes lasI and rhlI respectively. Deficiency of C12-HSL was prominent among sputum isolates however; C4-HSL deficient isolates were mainly from wound and urine samples. Furthermore, all isolates released elastase and 92% of the isolates produced protease in a significant correlation to signaling molecules C12-HSL and C4-HSL. Furthermore, 85%of the isolates releasedrhamnolipids in correlation to C4-HSL. All isolates formed biofilm and 94% produced pyocyaninbut without significant correlation to either C12-HSL or C4-HSL. The relative expression of ToxA was performed among 10 tested isolates using RT-PCR. Some isolates showed very high level of ToxA reaching 20 fold of PAO1 with significant correlation to C12-HSL. In conclusion, P. aeruginosa from various sources possesses numerous virulence factors under the control of QS. Hence, QS is an important target for management of Pseudomonas infection.

6/40 DISINFECTION OF DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS AND TANKS BY CREATED DISINFECTANT SOLUTION

Rawheya A. Salah El Din, Mohammed M. Kamel*, Gamila H. Ali*

and Mona M. Eltabakh**

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls Branch), Cairo, Egypt.

*Water Pollution Research Department, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt.

** Preventive Medicine Administration, Egypt Air for Medical Services, Cairo, Egypt.

The goal of this research is to evaluate the ability of created disinfectant solution (Citric acid and Sorbic acid) to remove biofilm from drinking water samples distribution systems and storage tanks by detection the total bacterial count (TBC) of biofilm swab samples and drinking water samples at 22OC and 37OC before and after washing process with different dilutions of created disinfectant solution (CDS) 5, 10 and 15% at different contact times 5, 10 and 15min. A total 60 biofilm swab samples were examined, 6 biofilm swab samples before and 54 biofilm swab samples after washing processes by different dilutions of CDS. A total of 12 drinking water samples were examined, 6 water samples before and 6 water samples after disinfection processes. The result of this study indicated that CDS had the ability to remove biofilm from the inner surfaces of the distribution pipes and storage tanks. TBC at 37OC before washing processes by CDS was 197cfu/ml but after washing processes was 2cfu/ml as average where the best dilution was 15% and the best contact time of disinfection process was 15 min. TBC at 22OC before washing process was 265cfu/ml but after washing processes was 3 cfu/ml as average with the best dilution concentration 15% and the best contact time of disinfection process was 15 min. The removable percentages of biofilm bacteria at 22OC and 37OC were 98.8% and 99% respectively as average of all samples.

7/40 INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT CARBON SOURCES ON EXOPOLYSACCHARIDES PRODUCTION BY RHIZOBIUM LEGUMINOSARUM BV. VICEAE STRAIN 441TO RESTRICT SODIUM UPTAKE AND STIMULATES PLANT GROWTH UNDER SALT STRESS

Amal A. Ali

Soils, Water and Environment Res. Inst., Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

Salinity is one of the most common environmental stress factors that adversely affect plant growth and crop production in cultivated areas worldwide. Microorganisms of soil play important role in the maintenance of quality and health of soil. Some plant growth-promoting strains can produce bacterial exopolysaccharides (EPS). Bacterial exopolysaccharides (EPS) can help to mitigate salinity stress by reducing the content of Na+ available for plant uptake.In this study,the effect of various carbon sources on Exopolysaccharides production by Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae strain 441 was evaluated. Among the tested carbon sources, sucrose and maltose were less efficient carbon sources, and glucose was the most efficient ones where strain produced 2.76 g EPS / L in glucose containing medium. When a complex carbon sources such as sugarcane molasses was utilized, EPS production was increased up to 5.56 g /l. A field experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of inoculating exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing bacterial strain on the plant growth and the uptake of K+ and Na+ by faba bean plants grown in saline soil. The data suggested that inoculation with EPS producing bacteria based on molasses and glucose increased plant height (16.6 &10 %), the shoots dry weight (36.3 & 9.09 %) as compared to the control. Indicating that molasses based inoculants come to the first rank after nitrogen fertilizer control followed by glucose and mannitol respectivelyInoculants based on molasses and glucose containing media succeeded to improve Na+ exclusion and K+ uptake in faba bean, thereby increasing K+/Na+ ratio. The concentration of proline in leaves was decreased when inoculants based molasses or glucose was used. Hence, results suggested that molasses was superior for EPS production followed by glucose and inoculating selected EPS producing bacteria could be serve as a useful tool for alleviating salinity stress on salt-sensitive plants.

8/40 BIOFILM FORMATION IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM AND THE STORAGE TANKS

Rawheya A. Salah El Din, Mohammed M. Kamel*, Gamila H. Ali*

and Mona M. Eltabakh**

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls Branch), Cairo, Egypt.

*Water Pollution Research Department, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt.

** Preventive Medicine Administration, Egypt Air for Medical Services, Cairo, Egypt.

A total of 372 samples were investigated to indicate the importance of maintenance of the biofilm bacterial contents formation in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS), storage tanks and driven pumps. They have been implemented on twenty old age buildings, twenty new buildings, twenty driven pumps and twenty swabs samples from Cairo Airport (Cairo Airport DS, Air craft’s and Egypt Air hospital DS) which was used for comparison. The sampling was collected from May to August 2012. Biofilm and distribution system (DS) swab samples combined with drinking water (DW) samples were collected from the same place and at the same time to evaluate the relation between them by investigations of total bacterial count (TBC), total coliform (TC), fecal coliform (FC), spores forming bacteria and algae. TBC was detected at 37OC for 24 hrs and 22OC for 48 hrs. The reduction of biofilm bacteriacontent observed in Cairo airport, Egypt Air hospital and in the new buildings, but it elevated in country sides and old buildings but extremely elevated in case of driven pump. The composition of the bulk fluid communities were similar to biofilm community but water bacterial and algae contents were less than their biofilm swab samples.

9/40 ENHANCING THE EFFICACY OF SOME BACTERIAL STRAINS IN BIOLOGICAL CONTROL USING CHEMICAL INDUCER IN SANDY SOIL

Amal A. Ali and Hend M. El–Egami

Soils, Water and Environment Res. Inst., Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

Peanut is an economically important oil seed crop, which is subjected to infection by Fusarium oxysporoum that caused root rot and wilt symptoms for these plants. Biocontrol agents Bacillus polymyxa and chemical inducers L-ascorbic acid and salicylic acid individually or in combination were examined for biological control and growth promoting of peanut plants in vitro and in vivo. Results of the present study revealed that biocontrol agent Bacillus polymyxa combined with Ascorbic or salicylic acid effectively reduced disease incidence to 44.4 and 33.4 % respectively. Also, these treatments increased height, fresh and dry weights of the survival plants compared with control. In addition glutathione peroxidase enzyme and chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyllwere also assayed. The obtained results clearly showed that the combination between biocontrol agent and chemical inducers were more effective than using of them individually and biocontrol agent combined with salicylic acid was the best treatment in this respect.

10/40 MOLECULAR STUDIES ON ESCHERICHIA COLI-ASSOCIATED SEVERE DIARRHEA IN CHILDREN

Ahmed Essam AboelNasr, Moselhy Salah Mansy*, Mohammed Karim Kamal, Rania Abdelkhalek Nada** and Fetouh Saad Hassanein***

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University

*Microbiology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University

**US Naval Medical Research Unit-No. 3 (NAMRU-3), Cairo

***Clinical Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University

Samples were collected from 162 diarrheic children younger than five years. Overall, the number of female children enrolled in the study 52% was slightly higher than that of males 48%. The largest number of diarrheic children 32.7% was in the age group younger than 6 months of age and the incidence of diarrhea was found to decrease as the age increased. Exclusive breastfeeding was adopted by 20% of children. Bottle and mixed feeding were adopted by (27%) and 53%, respectively. Vomiting was reported by 56.2% of children. Abdominal cramps and fever were reported by 73.5% and 66.7%, respectively. Watery diarrhea was identified in 60.5% of diarrheic children while mucoid stool was detected in 30.3% of children. Bloody stool was present in 8.6% of children. Children were found to be more susceptible to diarrhea during the warm months 83% when compared to the cold ones 17%.Bacterial pathogens were detected in 59.3% of diarrheic children. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) was the most frequently detected microorganism 44.1%. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) was identified in 31.6% of isolates. Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) and Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) were detected in 11.8% and 11.2% isolates, respectively. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) was identified in 1.3% of isolates. Diarrheagenic categories of Escherichia coli has been shown to be one of the important bacterial causes of diarrhea in children.

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