Vol. 5, May, 2003

acheter viagra avec carte mastercard 1/5 PROTEASE PRODUCTION FROM FUNGI ISOLATED FROM FISHES COLLECTED FROM ASWAN HIGH DAM LAKE, EGYPT.

*M.S.M. Nassar; F.T. El-Hissy and *M.S. Massoud.

*Botany Department, Faculty of Science at Aswan, South Valley University,

Aswan, Egypt.

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Egypt.

Among 60 fungal species isolated from 15 fish species which collected from Aswan High Dam Lake showed that the most of them had the ability to produce protease, but with various capacities, four species namely viagra et accoutumance : Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus stolonifer pharmacie en ligne vente viagra and Aspergillus ustus were the highest producers and these were selected for studying the effect of some environmental and nutritional factors for protease production.The optimum temperature for protease production by viagra contre indications Aspergillus versicolor was 25°C, whereas cialis et statines Penicillium chrysogennum, les risques avec le viagra Rhizopus stolonifer and levitra vente libre Aspergillus ustus yield the highest amount of protease at 30°C. The highest amount of protease was produced after 6 days of incubation by the tested fungi. The optimum pH for enzyme production was pH7 for the all tested organisms. Glucose was the best carbon source yield protease by: peut on acheter le cialis sans ordonnance Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus stolonifer and cialis perte cheveux Aspergillus ustus.Ammonium phosphate, ammonium nitrate, peptone and ammonium sulphate were the best nitrogen sources for protease production by: combien coute le viagra au maroc Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus ustus, respectively.

 

2/5 MODIFICATION OF MOLASSES FOR KOJIC ACID PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS PARASITICUS

A.S. Gad

Chemistry of Natural and Miocrobial Products

Department, NRC. Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

Beet molasses was used as a fermentation medium by A. parasiticus for the production of kojic acid 20% (w/v) molasses concentration was the best for maximal kojic acid production after 16 days. pH 6 seemed to be favorable for kojic acid production under static conditions. Treating beet molasses with methanol, and K4 Fe (CN)6, Ammonium oxalate, EDTA centrifugation and carbon activated, seemed to be unfavorable for kojic acid production. In the conterary enrichment with 1g/L yeast extract and treatment with 1% (v/v) ethanol were promising factors as kojic acid reached. 6.74 g/100 ml.

3/5 MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON WADI EL-FARIGH

GROUND WATER

Z.K. Mohamed, Y.A. El-Zawahry* and E.M. Mustafa

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairoand *Zagazig Universities,Egypt.

This study was conducted to investigate the microbial content of ground water at Wadi El-Farigh area from August 2000 up to July2001. Six hundred water samples collected from 25 wells and 25 storage tanks were investigated to represent all area. The investigated microbial parameters were, total viable bacterial count, total coliform group, fecal coliform group, fecal streptococci group, Staphylococcus aureus, yeast, Salmonellae sp. and Vibrio cholerae. In addition, the effect of several antimicrobials and different chlorine doses on local strains of E. coli isolated from Wadi El-Farigh water has been examined. The pathogenic bacteria, Salmonellae sp. and V. cholerae, were absent from all samples, but in most well samples, total viable bacterial count exceeded the recommended value. Also it was noticed that total coliform group was detected in 20 wells, fecal coliform in 8 wells, fecal streptococci in 7 wells and yeast in 12 wells. The most significant observation in this study were revealed that most of E. coli isolated from Wadi El-Farigh water samples show high resistance levels for most of the examined antimicrobials particularly the old generations. E. coli isolated from storage tanks were more resistant to antimicrobials than those isolated from wells. On other hand, these isolates were sensitive to 0.5 m/L chlorine dose with reduction percentage reached 90% in contact time 1 minute yet the E. coli isolates of storage tanks were slightly more resistant to chlorine doses than those of wells. The microbial examination of Wadi El-Farigh ground water revealed that most wells need to be subjected to the complete processes of treatment and the quality of storage tanks water samples was multi-dependent upon the feeding source and the periodic maintenance.

4/5 INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS ON GROWTH, NITROGEN FIXATION AND PIGMENT CONTENTS OF SOME CYANOBACTERIA SPECIES

S.A. Tantawy

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Growth, nitrogen fixation and pigment contents were followed in four batch cultures of local cyanobacteria strains namely Anabaena sp., Nostoc muscorum, Tolypothrix tenuis and Calothrix brevissima supplemented with different doses of Nitrate-N, urea-N and Ammonium-N. All the nitrogen sources decreased significantly the growth of the tested cyanobacteria strains in terms of dry weight criteria. Cyanobacteria strains exhibited variable nitrogen fixed amounts, chlorophyll a and C-phycocyanin amounts under the influence of Nitrate-N, urea-N and Ammonium-N. However, the ability of these cyanobacteria strains to assimilate the nitrogen source differs from each other. This could be explained by giving the assimilation order of the tested nitrogen sources as nitrate-N > urea-N > ammonium-N for all cyanobacteria strains.

5/5 EXTRACELLULAR POLYSACCHARIDE PRODUCTION BY METHANOL ASSIMILATING STRAIN OF BACILLUS CEREUS.

M. El Werdany and M.A. Fuad

Biology Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

A local strain of Bacillus cereus could grow on 1% (v/v) methanol as the sole source of carbon and energy was found to have good ability to produce extracellular polysaccharide (EPS). Maximum production amounting to 4.8 g/L broth was obtained after 10 days of surface incubation at 30°C when the fermentation medium was initially adjusted to pH 5. Proline was confirmed as the best source of nitrogen. The produced EPS is found to be a homopolymer of fructose (Fructan).


6/5 CHITINOLYTIC ACTIVITIES OF THE THERMOPHILIC FUNGI CHAETOMIUM THERMOPHILUM AND THERMOMYCES LANUGINOSUS

U.F. Ali and Z.M. Ibrahim

Department of Biological Sciences, faculty of Education,

Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo, Egypt.

The ability of the two thermophilic fungi Chaetomium thermophilum and Thermomyces lanuginosus to produce chitinase enzyme was studied. The best enzyme   activity   was   attained   after 4   d. for C. thermophilum and 8 d. for T. lanuginosus of incubation at 45°C. The crude enzyme was able to inhibit the germination of some phytopathogenic fungi. The enzyme was then precipitated using ammonium sulphate (80%) and purified by gel filtration on Sephadex G100. the purified enzymes gave the highest activities at 55°C for both of the two fungi at pH value of 4.8 using citrate phosphate buffer (0.2M) for C. thermophilum & pH value of 4.6 for T. lanuginosus. The purified enzymes were thermostable at 65°C for one hour. The best chitin concentration was 0.75% for C. thermophilum and 1.25% for T. lanuginosus. Km for C. thermophilum was 1.2 mM while Km for T. lanuginosus was 0.7 mM. The enzyme was purified at about 10.89 folds for C. thermophilum and about 10.4 folds for T. lanuginosus.

7/5 COMPATIBILITY OF LIPASE PRODUCED BY PENICILLIUM EXPANSUM LINK WITHSOME COMMERCIAL DETERGENTS

Z.M. Ibrahim and U.F. Ali

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

The lipolytic activity of Penicillium expansum Link isolated from microbial growth on an old shoe varnish was studied with special reference to its compatibility with some of the commercial detergents. The optimal culture conditions for the enzyme production were 35ºC, at pH 7.1 for seven days of growth. On the other hand, the optimal temperature of its activity was 60ºC, at pH 10. The crude enzyme concentrate showed a high level of pH stability but was not thermostable. The enzyme retained more than 84% of its activity in the presence of some commercial detergents, suggesting its use with these detergents to increase their efficiency.

8/5 IMPROVING CHITOSANASE PRODUCTION BY EMPLOYING DIFFERENT LIGNOCELLULOSIC WASTES IN SUBMERGED CULTURES OF BACILLUS MEGATERIUM

A.S. Gad

Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Products Dept. National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

Utilization of lignocellulosic waste materials as a carbon source for chitosanase production from Bacillus megaterium in submerged culture was investigated. The organism, constitutively, grew well with sugarcane bagasse, or wheat straw as a sole source of carbon. Addition of both 0.5% glucose and 0.5% ammonium sulfate and 18 mM anion as K2HPO4 support the growth of the bacterium and chitosanase production. The enzyme was optimally active at 35°C at a pH ranged from 5.0-7.0. The enzyme exhibited higher activity on a variety of substrates, i.e., colloidal chitin, soluble chitosan, cellulose, and CM-cellulose.

9/5 PRODUCTION OF CHITINASE FROM
BACILLUS SUBTILIS
IN SOLID-STATE CULTURE

A.S. Gad.

Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Products Dept., National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

The utilization of shrimp shellfish waste and lignocellulosic waste materials as a substrate for solid-state culture of B. subtilis was investigated. The organism, constitutively, grew well with shrimp shellfish waste, sugar-cane bagasse, or wood chips as a sole source of carbon and chitinase activity was determined by measuring the reducing sugars released. Chitinase production was 1.0, 0.6, and 0.4 U/g, with shrimp shellfish waste, sugar-cane bagasse, and wood chips, respectively. The amount of chitinase increased in an optimum solid-state medium: 2 g solid support, 3 ml of basal medium containing 0.1% ammonium sulfate and inoculated with 2 ml of 24 h old culture static and inoculated with 2 m of 24h old culture, static cultivation at room temperature. The addition of 71% water (w/w) to the basal medium was effective for enhancing chitinase production. The effect of pH of production was also tested. The optimum pH for productivity ranged from 7.0 to 9.0. The amount of enzyme in basal medium contained 71% water was approximately similar to that obtained in submerged culture. The crude chitinase produced was active against some pathogenic fungi, indicating a potential role in biocontrol, and inactivation of food-spoiling moulds such as Fusarium solani, Penicillium canescens.

10/5 UTILIZATION OF WATER HYACINTH LEAVES EXTRACT FOR PRODUCTION OF TRICHODERMA REESEI PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES

M.M. Rashad; A.E. Mahmoud and H.M. Abdou

Biochemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

Although water hyacinth is seen in many countries as a weed and is responsible for variety of problems, many investigators have been able to turn the problem around and find useful applications for the plant. Extracellular neutral protease and milk-clotting protease were produced by growing Trichoderma reesei on water hyacinth leaves extract juice (medium I) and protein free extract juice of its leaves (medium II) without any additives to both media. Optimization of both culture media were carried out. Highest neutral protease activity was obtained with medium I supplemented with 1.5% sugar cane bagasse and 1% yeast extract with initial pH 7.0 at 30 °C for 4 days at shaken culture and air/medium ratio (9 : 1) given 97 U/g fresh substrate. While milk-clotting protease exhibited higher activity with medium II supplemented with 1 % wheat bran with initial pH 6.0 at 30 °C for 30 hr. at shaken culture and air/medium ratio (4 : 1) with a yield 60 U/g fresh substrate. The neutral protease showed a maximal activity at pH 7.0 and 50 °C. Optimum conditions for milk-clotting protease were obtained at pH 5.0 and 50 °C. pH and thermal stabilities behaviour of the two enzymes indicated a relative stability of neutral protease as compared with milk-clotting one. The two enzymes were inhibited with all salts used with variable levels, except MnSO4 and ZnSO4 caused slight stimulation for milk-clotting protease.


11/5 THE EFFECT OF PRAZIQUANTEL ON THE WORM LOAD OF SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI AND THE INVOKING INJURIOUS EFFECT ON ADULT WORMS IN EXPERIMENTAL MICE

N.M. El-Alfi, B.M. Abou El-Nour and A.M. Aboul-Atta*

Zoology Department, Faculty of Science for Girls, Al-Azhar University, Cairo.

*Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

The effect of Praziquantel drug has been assessed by the worm load as well as the invoking injurious effect of the drug on the morphology of adult worms recovered from Swiss Albino mice infected with S. mansoni. Two doses of the drug were used, one day dose as 70 mg/kg . body weight and 3 days dose 210 mg/kg. b.wt. The worm load was highly affected by using high dose. The injurious morphological effects was also more marked by using high dose. This effect became more pronounced with increase of the period of exposure to the drug. Suckers and tegument were the more affected and the damage was more clear in males . The results are discussed with those of others.

12/5 INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN BIOADHESIVE SWELLING POLYMER MATRICES ON THE RELEASE AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF AMOXYCILLIN

*S. Shalaby and **S. El-Behiry

*Phys. Prop. Dept. and **Nutraceut. Dept., (National Organization for Drug Control and Research, Egypt) (NOCAR).

Purpose: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the influence of admixing certain bioadhesive swelling anionic polymers with non-ionic polymer on the release and antibacterial activity of amoxycillin (AMX) in the form of small granules to be prepared as anti-ulcer capsule and intramammary single injection for mastitis infection. Methods: The prepared AMX granular formulae were subjected to different experiments e.g. slide test, residency time, detachment force, in vitro release (evaluated by UV and microbiologicaly by agar diffusion technique), and determination of the sensitivity of the first amount AMX released to pathogenic Staph. aureus. Four AMX formulations were prepared with xanthan gum (XG) or carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC sod) with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and core pore formers e.g. anhydrous lactose or D-mannitol. Results: The obtained results revealed that AMX granular formulae admixed with D-mannitol showed shorter time for absorption of water, higher residency time and higher detachment force. The in vitro release of the prepared AMX granular formulae followed Korsmayer equation between 0.5 to 0.85 (diffusion/relaxation, in pH 1.2 and 7.5) except formula composed of CMC sod., HPMC and D-mannitol followed relaxation/erosion controlled process (> 0.85in pH 1.2 and 7.5). Determination of AMX microbiologically by agar diffusion method showed comparable results with UV measuring technique, which indicate that AMX kept its antibacterial activity all over the period of in vitro release (from 300 to 400 minutes) in different pH vehicles used 1.2 and 7.5. The first amount sampling of AMX revealed that, it is sensitive to the range within the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using Staph. aureus. Conclusions: Therefore, it can be concluded that, AMX formula with XG/HPMC/D-mannitol can be prepared in form of capsule for treatment of stomach ulcer causative organism, Helicobacter pylori. While AMX formula with CMC sod./HPMC/D-mannitol can be prepared in one dose intramammary injection.

13/5 EFFECT OF ESSENTIAL OILS ON SUSCEPTIBILITY, ADHESION, AND CELL SURFACE HYDROPHOBICITY OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI AND ESCHERICHIA COLI

A. Abo Kamar and A.A. Abdelaziz

Dept. of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University.

The cell surface hydrophobicity and adherence of microorganisms characteristics that have been associated with the colonization of mammalian epithelia and their capacity to induce diseases. The effects of plant essential oils on ten Helicobacter pylori and E. coli strains were studied by the spectrophotometric method to determine the anti-adherent activity, by salt aggregation test to determine the possibility to modulate their cell surface hydrophobicity and by an agar diffusion assay for detection of antimicrobial activity. The tested oils were lemon, garlic, peppermint, thyme, eugenol, camphor, cinnamon and clove, they were used in folk medicine for treatment of gastric and intestinal aliments. The results showed that all the tested oils have antibacterial activities against the antibiotic resistant H. pylori and E. coli isolates as they were susceptible to many tested oils at a fairly moderate concentration (1.5 to 16 ul/ml). The highest anti-adherent activity was observed with garlic, and eugenol as they reduced the optical density of adhering and pre-adhered biofilm of E. coli and H. pylori to about 10 - 20% of that of control. Also good activity was observed by thyme, peppermint   followed by cinnamon, lemon and clove while camphor showed low activity. It was established that garlic oil enhance cell aggregation of all E. coli and H. pylori tested strains by the salt aggregation test. Also thyme, eugenol, peppermint, cinnamon and clove showed a remarkable effect, thus these oils reduced the cell surface hydrophobicity. However clinical trials are necessary to explore the possibility of using these oils as a low cost remedy for eradicating H. pylori and E. coli infection.

14/5 EVALUATION OF A PCR FOR DETECTION OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI IN DIFFERENT CLINICAL SPECIMENS.

H.M. Abu shady

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University

Evaluation of a PCR assay for the detection of Helicobacter pylori in stool, saliva, blood and urine samples comparing with that of gastric biopsy specimens from five consecutive untreated patients at El-Demerdash hospital, Cairo, Egypt, were carried out. Specimens collected from patients were cultured and PCR was subsequently performed. Identification of Helicobacter pylori in cultures and all samples was carried out with PCR using a primer pair specific for urease C gene and PCR assay. The results showed that PCR assay was specific for detection of Helicobacter pylori yielding positive reaction with gastric biopsy, saliva and stool specimens but to different extents. No positive reactions were recorded with either blood or urine samples. The present results demonstrate that PCR assay for saliva and stool specimens represent an easy and accurate diagnostic method for Helicobacter pylori with respect to conventional invasive biopsy method.

15/5 Use of wastewater for growing microalgae of high content of combined amino acids

H.M. Eladel*, A.M. Dawah** and N.A. Ibrahim**

Botany Department, Benha Faculty of Science, Benha *

* Author for correspondence: e-mail (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

Agriculture Research Center, Abbassa, Sharkia **. Egypt

Crude protein, fat, carbohydrate, ash, fiber and combined amino acids contents were determined in two green algae; Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus bijuga cultivated on Bold's Basal medium. Wastewater (domestic sewage and agriculture drainage) sources were collected from domestic and agricultural drains in Sharkia, Egypt. The detected seventeen amino acids of C. vulgaris or S. bijuga grown on BBM, sewage and agriculture drainage water indicated that algal cells possessed a rather complete combined amino acid profile. When C. vulgaris was grown on each of the three media the total content of the detected amino acids were 55.5, 58.9 & 67.6 mg.g-1DW, respectively, while the amino acids contents of S. bijuga cultivated on the same media amounted to be 40, 42.4 & 47.7 mg.g-1DW, respectively. Generally, combined amino acids contents of the two algae cultivated on agriculture drainage water were higher than those of algae grown on domestic sewage. Aspartic acid was the most common amino acid of C. vulgaris and S. bijuga dry matter, followed by serine. Among the essential amino acids, leucine was most abundant. the contents of isoleucine and the sulfur-containing amino acids e.g. methionine and cystine of the two algae, were very low.

16/5 MUSHROOM CULTIVATION ON WATER HYACINTH

M.M. Rashad; H.M. Abdou and A.E. Mahmoud

Biochemistry Department, National Research Centre, Tahrir st., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

The technical feasibility of utilizing water hyacinth leaves Eichornia crassipes or its residue with rice straw at different ratios were used as a substrate for oyster mushroom cultivation and a good yield was achieved. The biological efficiency of mushroom production of the harvested eight fruit bodies harvested ranged from 6.45%-15.91% and immediately were analyzed the eight fruit bodies after harvest to avoid any interfering parameters. The moisture content of the edible mushrooms studies is high (ranging from 89.0-90.5%) and the ash contents ranged from 5.14-9.30% on the dry basis. Potassium and sodium are the main constituents of the ash in the eight fruit bodies harvested. Fruiting bodies contained 24.86-33.32% digestible protein, 21.88-35.48% total soluble carbohydrates, 14.71-36.92% fiber and 4.68-9.28% fat (on dry basis). Mushrooms are healthy foods, poor in calories. Calorific values for the eight fruit bodies ranged from 212.5-321.0 Kcal per 100 g of dry mushrooms. The amino acid profile of the eight fruit were studied and revealed that the total essential amino acids ranged from 34.3-40.9%. This technology could be considered very cheap and it is also a method of helping to eradicate a troublesome aquatic weed and rice straw.

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